Publications (2)2.11 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, exenatide and liraglutide, offer a unique mechanism in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as part of the incretin system. Their mechanism of action is to increase insulin secretion, decrease glucagon release, reduce food intake, and slow gastric emptying. They target postprandial blood glucose values and have some effect on fasting levels as well. In addition, they promote weight loss and may help to preserve β-cell function, both major problems in T2DM patients. Changes in hemoglobin A1c are similar to those produced by other T2DM agents, including thiazolidinediones, low-dose metformin, and sulfonylureas, and better than those caused by α-reductase inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. These agents have been safely studied in combination with metformin, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, thiazolidinediones, and insulin therapy. Overall, data are limited for head-to-head comparisons, but it appears that liraglutide may have better efficacy and tolerability compared with exenatide; however, more studies are needed. They are overall well tolerated, with the main adverse events being similar to those with metformin (gastrointestinal intolerances that are transient and dose dependent). However, patients must be monitored for pancreatitis as a rare but possible side effect. For T2DM patients willing to use an injectable agent, exenatide and liraglutide offer another therapeutic option to control hyperglycemia with the potential for weight loss and may be combined with other agents safely.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl peptidase -4 inhibitors represent a novel way to augment the incretin system and one of the newest class of medications in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Their mechanism of action is to decrease the inactivation of glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, both of which are involved in maintaining euglycemia subsequent to carbohydrate intake. Currently investigated agents include sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, and alogliptin. Each agent has been shown to provide significant improvements in glycemic control compared to placebo. They are effective when added to other oral diabetes agents and in the cases of sitagliptin, vildagliptin, and alogliptin in addition to insulin. These agents may not provide as significant improvement in glucose concentrations as some other medications including metformin, thiazolidinediones, or glucagon-like peptide 1 agonists. The lack of head to head clinical data comparing the various dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors does not allow for specific recommendations if one agent is more effective or safer than another within the class. Their side effect profile suggests they are very well tolerated and have few drug interactions. For patients with mildly elevated glucose concentrations, they are therapeutic options in both drug-naive patients as well as those not optimally controlled on other diabetes medications.
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
El Paso, Texas, United States
- School of Pharmacy