[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This study aimed to measure the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) agonist GW501516 (GW) and zinc sulfate (ZS) on ovariectomized rats' vaginal histomorphology and collagen expression.
Two weeks after ovariectomy, rats received daily treatment with vaginal suppositories containing placebo, ZS, GW, ZS with GW, or estradiol for 2 weeks. Macroscopic measurements were taken and the midsection of the vagina was used for histology. Immunofluorescence was performed with antibodies against collagen I, III, and anti-actin or collagen I and V and anti-actin. Gene expression analysis of 3 collagen genes was performed by qRT-PCR.
Macroscopic measurements revealed that the genital hiatus was narrower in the ZS and ZS with GW groups, and the vagina was significantly longer in the animals treated with GW, ZS with GW, and estradiol compared to the placebo group. Microscopic measurements of the vaginal layers showed that the lamina propria and the vaginal muscularis were significantly thicker in the ZS and ZS with GW group compared to the placebo.The ratio of vaginal Col1a1/Col3a1 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated by ZS with GW compared to placebo, whereas the ratio of vaginal Col1a1/Col5a1 expression was significantly up-regulated by ZS, GW, and ZS with GW. The ratio of vaginal collagen I/III protein expression was significantly up-regulated by ZS and ZS with GW, whereas the ratio of vaginal collagen I/V expression was significantly up-regulated by estradiol, ZS, and ZS with GW compared to control.
Vaginal suppositories containing zinc and PPARδ agonist significantly altered the vagina of ovariectomized rats.
Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Pelvic Medicine and Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To measure and compare placental mRNA expression in the maternal circulation among women with intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies.
Plasma was collected from patients in early pregnancy at risk of ectopic pregnancy. Clinical information was prospectively collected and entered into a dedicated database. mRNA was isolated from maternal plasma and quantitative RT-PCR was performed to measure mRNA for human gonadotropin (hCG) and human placental lactogen (hPL). GAPDH mRNA expression was used as an internal control.
Twelve women with ectopic pregnancy and 13 women with intrauterine pregnancy were enrolled. Patients with ectopic pregnancy were 6 times more likely to have undetectable levels of hPL mRNA (relative risk [RR] 6.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70-23.20; P<0.01). They were also 8 times more likely to have undetectable levels of hCG mRNA (RR 8.64, 95% CI, 1.30-57.10; P<0.01). mRNA copy numbers for hPL and hCG (normalized by GAPDH) were significantly lower in the ectopic group than in the intrauterine group.
Placental mRNA is present in the maternal circulation in significantly lower copies in cases of ectopic pregnancy compared with cases of intrauterine pregnancy. Measurement of placental mRNA in the maternal circulation may help to distinguish between intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies.
Article · Feb 2012 · International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics