Bijan J Borah

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (59)198.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe case mix-adjusted hospital level utilization of minimally invasive surgery for hysterectomy in the treatment of early-stage endometrial cancer. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the proportion of patients who had a minimally invasive compared with open hysterectomy for nonmetastatic endometrial cancer using the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, 2007-2011. Hospitals were stratified by endometrial cancer case volumes (low=less than 10; medium=11-30; high=greater than 30 cases). Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to evaluate hospital and patient variables associated with minimally invasive utilization, complications, and costs. Results: Overall, 32,560 patients were identified; 33.6% underwent a minimally invasive hysterectomy with an increase of 22.0-50.8% from 2007 to 2011. Low-volume cancer centers demonstrated the lowest minimally invasive utilization rate (23.6%; P<.001). After multivariable adjustment, minimally invasive surgery was less likely to be performed in patients with Medicaid compared with private insurance (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-0.72), black and Hispanic compared with white patients (adjusted OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.41-0.46 for black and 0.77, 95% CI 0.72-0.82 for white patients), and more likely to be performed in high- compared with low-volume hospitals (adjusted OR 4.22, 95% CI 2.15-8.27). Open hysterectomy was associated with a higher risk of surgical site infection (adjusted OR 6.21, 95% CI 5.11-7.54) and venous thromboembolism (adjusted OR 3.65, 95% CI 3.12-4.27). Surgical cases with complications had higher mean hospitalization costs for all hysterectomy procedure types (P<.001). Conclusion: Hospital utilization of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of endometrial cancer varies considerably in the United States, representing a disparity in the quality and cost of surgical care delivered nationwide.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze the association between patient characteristics and the probability of undergoing any uterine-sparing procedure (endometrial ablation, myomectomy, and uterine artery embolization) compared with hysterectomy as the first uterine leiomyoma (index) procedure and the probability of undergoing a specific uterine-sparing procedure. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis using a commercial insurance claims database containing more than 13 million enrollees annually. Based on the index procedure performed 2004-2009, women were classified into one of the four procedure cohorts. Eligible women were aged 25-54 years on the index date, continuously insured through 1-year baseline and 1-year follow-up, and had a baseline uterine leiomyoma diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between patient characteristics and leiomyoma procedure. Results: The study sample comprised 96,852 patients (endometrial ablation=12,169; myomectomy=7,039; uterine artery embolization=3,835; and hysterectomy=73,809). Patient characteristics associated with undergoing any uterine-sparing procedure compared with hysterectomy included health maintenance organization health plan enrollment, Northeast region residence, the highest income and education quintiles based on zip code, an age-race interaction, and baseline diagnoses including menstrual disorders, pelvic pain, anemia, endometriosis, genital prolapse, and infertility. Among those who had a uterine-sparing procedure, characteristics associated with undergoing uterine artery embolization or endometrial ablation compared with myomectomy included increasing age, being from the Midwest relative to the Northeast, and certain baseline conditions including menstrual disorder, pelvic pain, endometriosis, and infertility. Conclusion: Both clinical and nonclinical factors were associated with the receipt of alternatives to hysterectomy for uterine leiomyomas in commercially insured women.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Missing data, particularly missing variables, can create serious analytic challenges in observational comparative effectiveness research studies. Statistical linkage of datasets is a potential method for incorporating missing variables. Prior studies have focused upon the bias introduced by imperfect linkage. Methods: This analysis uses a case study of hepatitis C patients to estimate the net effect of statistical linkage on bias, also accounting for the potential reduction in missing variable bias. Results: The results show that statistical linkage can reduce bias while also enabling parameter estimates to be obtained for the formerly missing variables. Conclusion: The usefulness of statistical linkage will vary depending upon the strength of the correlations of the missing variables with the treatment variable, as well as the outcome variable of interest.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background The authors sought to estimate incremental economic impact of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the timing of its onset in myocardial infarction (MI) patients.HypothesisConcurrent AF and its timing are associated with higher costs in MI patients.Methods This retrospective cohort study included incident MI patients from Olmsted County, Minnesota, treated between November 1, 2002, and December 31, 2010. We compared inflation-adjusted standardized costs accumulated between incident MI and end of follow-up among 3 groups by AF status and timing: no AF, new-onset AF (within 30 days after index MI), and prior AF. Multivariate adjustment of median costs accounted for right-censoring in costs.ResultsThe final study cohort had 1389 patients, with 989 in no AF, 163 in new-onset AF, and 237 in prior AF categories. Median follow-up times were 3.98, 3.23, and 2.55 years, respectively. Mean age at index was 67 years, with significantly younger patients in the no AF group (64 years vs 76 and 77 years, respectively; P < 0.001). New-onset and prior AF patients had more comorbid conditions (hypertension, heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). After accounting for differences in baseline characteristics, we found adjusted median (95% confidence interval) costs of $73 000 ($69 000-$76 000) for no AF; $85 000 ($81 000-$89 000) for new-onset AF; and $97 000 ($94 000-$100 000) for prior AF. Inpatient costs composed the largest share of total median costs (no AF, 82%; new-onset AF, 84%; prior AF, 83%).Conclusions Atrial fibrillation frequently coexists with MI and imposes incremental costs, mainly attributable to inpatient care. Timing of AF matters, as prior AF was found to be associated with higher costs than new-onset AF.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Clinical Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Proton beam therapy is a commonly accepted treatment for intraocular melanomas, but the literature is lacking in descriptions of patient preferences of clinical outcomes and economic impact. In addition, no economic evaluations have been published regarding the incremental cost-effectiveness of proton beam therapy compared with enucleation or plaque brachytherapy, typical alternative treatments. We, therefore, conducted a cost-utility analysis of these three approaches for the treatment of intraocular melanomas. A Markov model was constructed. Model parameters were identified from the published literature and publicly available data sources. Cost-effectiveness of each treatment was calculated in 2011 US Dollars per quality-adjusted life-year. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated assuming enucleation as reference. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted on all model parameters. A decision threshold of $50,000/quality-adjusted life-year was used to determine cost-effectiveness. Enucleation had the lowest costs and quality-adjusted life-years, and plaque brachytherapy had the highest costs and quality-adjusted life-years. Compared with enucleation, the base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for plaque brachytherapy and proton beam therapy were $77,500/quality-adjusted life-year and $106,100/quality-adjusted life-year, respectively. Results were highly sensitive to multiple parameters. All three treatments were considered optimal, and even dominant, depending on the values used for sensitive parameters. Base-case analysis results suggest enucleation to be optimal. However, the optimal choice was not robust to sensitivity analyses and, depending on the assumption, both plaque brachytherapy and proton beam therapy could be considered cost-effective. Future clinical studies should focus on generating further evidence with the greatest parameter uncertainty to inform future cost-effectiveness analyses.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if assessment of sexual dysfunction by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) is related to whether the FSFI is administered during or between menses, in women with symptomatic uterine fibroids. Prospective cohort. Academic medical centers. Premenopausal women who had symptomatic uterine fibroids and were enrolled in fibroid treatment trials. Administration of FSFI during and between menses. Mean FSFI scores in each of 6 domains, and a discordance score to report individual differences in assessment. Thirty-three women completed the FSFI, during menstruation, and at a time in their cycle when they were not menstruating. The mean FSFI scores for each domain did not differ based on when in the menstrual cycle the instrument was administered. However, on an individual level, nearly half of the women reported sexual dysfunction differently during menses than between menses. Of those that reported differences, the pain and desire domains improved; the lubrication and satisfaction domains worsened during menses. Although the mean values of the domain scores were not different, women did report differences in sexual functioning during vs. between menses. Timing of the questionnaire in relation to menses should be considered in sexual-dysfunction assessment for women with uterine fibroids. NCT00995878. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Fertility and sterility

  • No preview · Article · May 2015 · Value in Health
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of approval of ibrutinib and idelalisib on pharmaceutical costs in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) at the societal level and assess individual out-of-pocket costs under Medicare Part D. Average wholesale price of commonly used CLL treatment regimens was ascertained from national registries. Using the population of Olmsted County, Minnesota, we identified the proportion of patients with newly diagnosed CLL who experience progression to the point of requiring treatment. Using these data, total pharmaceutical cost over a 10-year period after diagnosis was estimated for a hypothetic cohort of 100 newly diagnosed patients under three scenarios: before approval of ibrutinib and idelalisib (historical scenario), after approval of ibrutinib and idelalisib as salvage therapy (current scenarios A and B), and assuming use of ibrutinib as first-line treatment (potential future scenario). Estimated 10-year pharmaceutical costs for 100 newly diagnosed patients were as follows: $4,565,929 (approximately $45,659 per newly diagnosed patient and $157,446 per treated patient) for the historical scenario, $7,794,843 (approximately $77,948 per newly diagnosed patient and $268,788 per treated patient) for current scenario A, $6,309,162 (approximately $63,092 per newly diagnosed patient and $217,557 per treated patient) for current scenario B, and $16,414,055 (approximately $164,141 per newly diagnosed patient and $566,002 per treated patient) for the potential future scenario. Total out-of-pocket cost for 100 patients with newly diagnosed CLL under Medicare Part D increased from $9,426 under the historical scenario (approximately $325 per treated patient) to $363,830 and $255,051 under current scenarios A and B (approximately $8,800 to $12,500 per treated patient) and to $1,031,367 (approximately $35,564 per treated patient) under the future scenario. Although ibrutinib and idelalisib are profound treatment advances, they will dramatically increase individual out-of-pocket and societal costs of caring for patients with CLL. These cost considerations may undermine the potential promise of these agents by limiting access and reducing adherence. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Oncology Practice

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of wellness center attendance on weight loss and costs. A retrospective analysis was conducted using employee data, administrative claims, and electronic health records. A total of 3199 employees enrolled for 4 years (2007 to 2010) were included. Attendance was categorized as follows: 1 to 60, 61 to 180, 181 to 360, and more than 360 visits. Weight loss was defined as moving to a lower body mass index category. Total costs included paid amounts for both medical and pharmacy services. Subjects with 181 to 360 and more than 360 visits were 46% (P = 0.05) and 72% (P = 0.01) more likely to have body mass index improvement compared with those with 1 to 60 visits. Compared with the mean annual cost of $13,267 for 1 to 60 visits, the mean for subjects with 61 to 180, 181 to 360, and more than 360 visits had significantly lower costs at $9538, $9332 and $8293, respectively (all P < 0.01). Higher attendance was associated with weight loss and significantly lower annual costs.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the utility of intraoperative cystoscopy in detecting and managing ureteral injury among women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy. We performed a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study of 593 patients who underwent vaginal hysterectomy for benign indications, with or without additional pelvic floor reconstructive surgery, from January 2, 2004, through December 30, 2005. A logistic regression model determining the propensity to undergo intraoperative cystoscopy was constructed. Comparisons of ureteral injury and cost between patients with and without cystoscopy were adjusted for the cystoscopy propensity score. We further explored the feasibility of using perioperative change in creatinine level to detect ureteral injury. In total, 230 (38.8%) of 593 patients underwent cystoscopy. Six patients (2.6%) in the cystoscopy group and 5 (1.4%) in the no-cystoscopy group had ureteral injuries (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-6.36). This association was further attenuated after adjusting for the propensity to undergo cystoscopy (odds ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.19-9.09). Four injuries detected cystoscopically were managed intraoperatively. Adjusted mean-predicted costs for patients undergoing cystoscopy were $10,686 (95% CI, $7500-$13,872) versus $10,217 (95% CI, $6894-$13,540). In the no-cystoscopy group, patients with ureteral injury had a median increase in creatinine level of 0.2 mg/dL, whereas patients without injury had a median decrease of 0.1 mg/dL (P < 0.001). The level of selection for cystoscopy did not significantly increase the mean predicted costs for patients. Reliance on postoperative creatinine level to detect ureteral injury, while highly sensitive, is limited by a low positive predictive value and variable range.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Pelvic Medicine and Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Background The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) survey is a widely used instrument to assess the patient experience with healthcare delivery. Purpose This study aims to evaluate the factorial structure of PACIC from the patient perspective. Methods A postal survey was mailed to 4,796 randomly selected adults with diabetes from 34 primary care clinics. Internal consistencies of PACIC subscales were assessed by Cronhach’s α. Factorial structure was evaluated by confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. Results Based on responses of 2,055 patients (43 % response rate), exploratory factor analysis discerned a 4-factor, not 5-factor, model dominated by patient evaluation of healthcare services (explaining 74 % of the variance). The other 3 factors addressed patient involvement (goal setting, participating in the healthcare team) and social support for self-management. Conclusions The underlying factorial structure of PACIC, which reflects the patient perspective, is dynamic, patient-centered, and differs from the original 5-factor model that was more aligned with views of healthcare delivery stakeholders.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Annals of Behavioral Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To assess long-term outcomes of magnetic resonance (MR)-guided focused ultrasound (US) treatments of uterine fibroids. Materials and methods: A retrospective follow-up of 138 patients treated at a single institution between March 2005 and November 2011 was conducted. The patients were not part of a clinical study and were followed through retrospective review of their medical records and telephone interviews to assess additional treatments for fibroid-related symptoms. Survival methods, including Cox proportional hazards models, were used to assess the association between incidence of additional treatments and patient data obtained during screening before treatment. Results: The average length of follow-up was 2.8 years (range, 1-7.2 y). The cumulative incidence of additional treatments at 36 months and 48 months after MR-guided focused US was 19% and 23%, respectively. Women who did not need additional treatment were older than women who did (46.3 y ± 5.6 vs 43.0 y ± 5.8; P = .006; hazard ratio, 0.855; 95% confidence interval, 0.789-0.925). Additionally, women with heterogeneous or bright fibroids on T2-weighted MR imaging were more likely to require additional treatment compared with women with homogeneously dark fibroids (hazard ratio, 5.185 or 5.937, respectively; 95% confidence interval, 1.845-14.569 or 1.401-25.166, respectively). Physician predictions of treatment success, recorded during the screening process, had significant predictive value (P = .018). Conclusions: The long-term rates of additional interventions after MR-guided focused US of symptomatic uterine fibroids were found to be comparable with other uterine-sparing procedures, such as uterine artery embolization or myomectomy. Older patient age and homogeneously dark fibroids were associated with fewer additional treatments. Physician assessment of treatment success was found to be a valuable tool in patient screening.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the following three treatments of uterine fibroids in a population of premenopausal women who wish to preserve their uteri: myomectomy, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) and uterine artery embolization (UAE). Materials & methods: A decision analytic Markov model was constructed. Cost-effectiveness was calculated in terms of US$ per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) over 5 years. Two types of costs were calculated: direct costs only, and the sum of direct and indirect (productivity) costs. Women in the hypothetical cohort were assessed for treatment type eligibility, were treated based on eligibility, and experienced adequate or inadequate symptom relief. Additional treatment (myomectomy) occurred for inadequate symptom relief or recurrence. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate uncertainty in the model parameters. Results: In the base case, myomectomy, MRgFUS and UAE had the following combinations of mean cost and mean QALYs, respectively: US$15,459, 3.957; US$15,274, 3.953; and US$18,653, 3.943. When incorporating productivity costs, MRgFUS incurred a mean cost of US$21,232; myomectomy US$22,599; and UAE US$22,819. Using probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) and excluding productivity costs, myomectomy was cost effective at almost every decision threshold. Using PSA and incorporating productivity costs, myomectomy was cost effective at decision thresholds above US$105,000/QALY; MRgFUS was cost effective between US$30,000 and US$105,000/QALY; and UAE was cost effective below US$30,000/QALY. Conclusion: Myomectomy, MRgFUS, and UAE were similarly effective in terms of QALYs gained. Depending on assumptions about costs and willingness to pay for additional QALYs, all three treatments can be deemed cost effective in a 5-year time frame.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Hospital surgical care is complex and subject to unwarranted variation. Objective: As part of a multiyear effort, we sought to reduce variability in intraoperative care and management of mechanical ventilation in cardiac surgery. We identified a patient population whose care could be standardized and implemented a protocol-based practice model reinforced by electronic mechanisms. Methods: In a large cardiac surgery practice, we built a standardized practice model between 2009 and 2011. We compared mechanical ventilation time before (2008) and after (2012) implementation. To ensure groups were comparable, propensity analysis matched patients from the 2 operative years. Results: In 2012, more than 50% of all cardiac surgical patients were managed with our standardized care model; of those, 769 were one-to-one matched with patients undergoing surgery in 2008. Patients had a mix of coronary artery bypass grafting, valve surgery, and combined procedures. Our practice model reduced median mechanical ventilation duration from 9.3 to 6.3 hours (2008 and 2012) (P < 0.001) and intensive care unit length of stay from 26.3 to 22.5 hours (P < 0.001). Reintubation and intensive care unit readmission were unchanged. Variability in ventilation time was also reduced. Conclusions: We demonstrate that in more than 50% of all cardiac surgical patients, a standardized practice model can be used to achieve better results. Clinical outcomes are improved and unwarranted variability is reduced. Success is driven by clear patient identification and well-defined protocols that are clearly communicated both by electronic tools and by empowerment of bedside providers to advance care when clinical criteria are met.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Annals of Surgery
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    Y. Qiu · B.J. Borah · P. Gleason

    Preview · Article · May 2014 · Value in Health
  • Prasad G. Iyer · Bijan J. Borah · Herbert Heien · Amitabh Chak
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Rates of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma in subjects with Barrett's esophagus (BE) are lower than previously estimated. Identification of predictors of progression will enable risk stratification of BE subjects, potentially making current surveillance programs more efficient. We aimed to assess the potential of demographic and lifestyle factors, obesity and medications in predicting progression in BE. Methods: BE subjects were identified from the General Practice Research Database using validated diagnostic codes. BE subjects developing esophageal cancer (EC) 12 months after their index BE diagnosis were defined as progressors. Time to event analysis was used to assess the overall risk of progression to EC. Cox proportional hazards models and time varying marginal structural models were used to assess predictors of progression. Results: 9,660 BE patients were included in the analysis. The mean age (SD) of the study subjects was 63 (13.5) years. 62.6 % were males. 103 subjects (1.1%) progressed to EC. The mean (SD) follow-up since initial diagnosis was 4.8 (3.3) years. The incidence of EC was 2.23 per 1000 person-years of follow-up. Increasing age, male gender, and being overweight (BMI 25- 29.9) were found to be independent predictors of progression. When time varying models were used, PPI and statin use were protective against progression. Conclusions: In this large population-based cohort of BE subjects, increasing age, male gender, and being overweight predicted progression to EC whereas PPI and statin use were protective against EC development. These factors may aid in developing a risk score to predict the risk of progression and develop chemopreventive strategies in BE subjects.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: The full-service US hospital has been described organizationally as a "solution shop," in which medical problems are assumed to be unstructured and to require expert physicians to determine each course of care. If universally applied, this model contributes to unwarranted variation in care, which leads to lower quality and higher costs. We purposely disrupted the adult cardiac surgical practice that we led at Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minnesota, by creating a "focused factory" model (characterized by a uniform approach to delivering a limited set of high-quality products) within the practice's solution shop. Key elements of implementing the new model were mapping the care process, segmenting the patient population, using information technology to communicate clearly defined expectations, and empowering nonphysician providers at the bedside. Using a set of criteria, we determined that the focused-factory model was appropriate for 67 percent of cardiac surgical patients. We found that implementation of the model reduced resource use, length-of-stay, and cost. Variation was markedly reduced, and outcomes were improved. Assigning patients to different care models increases care value and the predictability of care process, outcomes, and costs while preserving (in a lesser clinical footprint) the strengths of the solution shop. We conclude that creating a focused-factory model within a solution shop, by applying industrial engineering principles and health information technology tools and changing the model of work, is very effective in both improving quality and reducing costs.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Health Affairs
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    ABSTRACT: To compare one-year all-cause and uterine fibroid (UF)-related direct costs in patients treated with one of the following three uterine-sparing procedures: magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS), uterine artery embolization (UAE) and myomectomy. This retrospective observational cohort study used healthcare claims for several million individuals with healthcare coverage from employers in the MarketScan Database for the period 2003-2010. UF patients aged 25-54 on their first UF procedure (index) date with 366-day baseline experience, 366-day follow-up period, continuous health plan enrollment during baseline and follow-up, and absence of any baseline UF procedures were included in the final sample. Cost outcomes were measured by allowed charges (sum of insurer-paid and patient-paid amounts). UF-related cost was defined as difference in mean cost between study cohorts and propensity-score-matched control cohorts without UF. Multivariate adjustment of cost outcomes was conducted using generalized linear models. The study sample comprised 14,426 patients (MRgFUS = 14; UAE = 4,092; myomectomy = 10,320) with a higher percent of older patients in MRgFUS cohort (71% vs. 50% vs. 12% in age-group 45-54, P < 0.001). Adjusted all-cause mean cost was lowest for MRgFUS ($19,763; 95% CI: $10,425-$38,694) followed by myomectomy ($20,407; 95% CI: $19,483-$21,381) and UAE ($25,019; 95% CI: $23,738-$26,376) but without statistical significance. Adjusted UF-related costs were also not significantly different between the three procedures. Adjusted all-cause and UF-related costs at one year were not significantly different between patients undergoing MRgFUS, myomectomy and UAE.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Importance Cigarette smoking adds an estimated $100 billion in annual incremental direct health care costs nationwide. Cigarette smoking increases complication risk in surgical patients, but the potential effects of smoking status on perioperative health care costs are unclear.Objective To test the hypothesis that current and former smoking at the time of admission for inpatient surgery, compared with never smoking, are independently associated with higher incremental health care costs for the surgical episode and the first year after hospital discharge.Design, Setting, and Participants This population-based, propensity-matched cohort study, with cohort membership based on smoking status (current smokers, former smokers, and never smokers) was performed at Mayo Clinic in Rochester (a tertiary care center) and included patients at least 18 years old who lived in Olmsted County, Minnesota, for at least 1 year before and after the index surgery.Exposure Undergoing an inpatient surgical procedure at Mayo Clinic hospitals between April 1, 2008, and December 31, 2009.Main Outcomes and Measures Total costs during the index surgical episode and 1 year after hospital discharge, with the latter standardized as costs per month. Costs were measured using the Olmsted County Healthcare Expenditure and Utilization Database, a claims-based database including information on medical resource use, associated charges, and estimated economic costs for patients receiving care at the 2 medical groups (Mayo Clinic and Olmsted Medical Center) that provide most medical services within Olmsted County, Minnesota.Results Propensity matching resulted in 678 matched pairs in the current vs never smoker grouping and 945 pairs in the former vs never smoker grouping. Compared with never smokers, adjusted costs for the index hospitalization did not differ significantly for current or former smokers. However, the adjusted costs in the year after hospitalization were significantly higher for current and former smokers based on regression analysis (predicted monthly difference of $400 [95% CI, $131-$669] and $273 [95% CI, $56-$490] for current and former smokers, respectively).Conclusions and Relevance Compared with never smokers, health care costs during the first year after hospital discharge for an inpatient surgical procedure are higher in both former and current smokers, although the cost of the index hospitalization is not affected by smoking status.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · JAMA SURGERY

Publication Stats

511 Citations
198.60 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • Mayo Clinic - Scottsdale
      Scottsdale, Arizona, United States
  • 2010-2015
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology
      Рочестер, Minnesota, United States
  • 2014
    • East Carolina University
      Гринвилл, North Carolina, United States
  • 2012
    • Janssen Research & Development, LLC
      Raritan, New Jersey, United States
  • 2006
    • Indiana University Bloomington
      Bloomington, Indiana, United States