[Show description][Hide description] DESCRIPTION: Attualmente il consumatore richiede al mercato agroalimentare standard di qualità e di sicurezza sempre più elevati e inoltre ricerca praticità e convenienza nell’acquisto delle confezioni mostrando anche grande attenzione alla salvaguardia dell’ambiente. Di conseguenza l’intera filiera di produzione rivolge molto impegno a tutto il ciclo di preparazione e commercializzazione
conferendo un ruolo centrale alle modalità di condizionamento dei prodotti. Da una parte l’industria alimentare è interessata a disporre di imballaggi economici e idonei, nelle proprietà fisico-chimiche e nelle prestazioni dei materiali, in modo da garantire la qualità dei prodotti; allo stesso tempo l’impresa di distribuzione chiede al packaging di prolungare la vita del prodotto, ma
anche di facilitarne la movimentazione e di favorirne il successo commerciale, riconoscendo quindi alla confezione un importante ruolo informativo e pubblicitario.
L’Agenzia Laore Sardegna, in collaborazione con l’Agenzia Agris Sardegna ed il Dipartimento di Biologia Animale dell’Università degli Studi di Sassari, nel presente lavoro ha inteso contribuire alla crescita del comparto lattiero caseario isolano affrontando in un caso studio le tematiche di packaging e shelf life di un formaggio.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to conduct an extensive survey on Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. environmental contamination in 13 cheese-making plants. A total of 409 environmental and food samples were collected during years 2011–2013. Listeria spp. contamination was observed in all the facilities, while L. monocytogenes was recovered from 12 facilities with a prevalence ranging between 3.0% and 22.6%. Floor drains were the most contaminated sampling sites (48.8% of positive samples), serving as harbourage site for subsequent contamination. Out of 616 isolates, 277 (45.0%) were Listeria innocua, 274 (44.5%) L. monocytogenes, 41 (6.6%) Listeria ivanovii, 14 (2.3%) Listeria welshimeri and 10 (1.6%) Listeria gravyi. Serotyping carried out by PCR and agglutination method for L. monocytogenes revealed that 169 strains (61.7%) were serotype 1/2a, 65 (23.7%) 4b, 20 (7.3%) 1/2b, 10 (3.6%) 3a, 7 (2.5%) 1/2c and 3 (1.1%) 3b. PFGE conducted on L. monocytogenes isolates using AscI and ApaI restriction enzymes, yielded 6 clusters. Two predominant PFGE clusters were observed including respectively 36 and 32 strains. Within cheese-making plants, L. monocytogenes showed wide variability with strains distributed up to 4 different clusters. Pulsotypes isolated from raw milk filter were never detected in the processing environment, indicating that the contamination originated from sources other than raw milk. The isolation of strains with similar profile from different sampling sites, within and among cheese-making plants, indicated the possible transfer of L. monocytogenes contamination along production lines and from one facility to another. Strains recovered from food were confirmed as originating from the processing environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Food business operators (FBOs) are the primary responsible for the safety of food they place on the market. The definition and validation of the product’s shelf-life is an essential part for ensuring microbiological safety of food and health of consumers. In the frame of the Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, FBOs shall conduct shelf-life studies in order to assure that their food does not exceed the food safety criteria throughout the defined shelf-life. In particular this is required for ready-to-eat (RTE) food that supports the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Among other studies, FBOs can rely on the conclusion drawn by microbiological challenge tests. A microbiological challenge test consists in the artificial contamination of a food with a pathogen microorganism and aims at simulating its behaviour during processing and distribution under the foreseen storage and handling conditions. A number of documents published by international health authorities and research institutions describes how to conduct challenge studies. The authors reviewed the existing literature and described the methodology for implementing such laboratory studies. All the main aspects for the conduction of L. monocytogenes microbiological challenge tests were considered, from the selection of the strains, preparation and choice of the inoculum level and method of contamination, to the experimental design and data interpretation. The objective of the present document is to provide an exhaustive and practical guideline for laboratories that want to implement L. monocytogenes challenge testing on RTE food.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Italian Journal of Food Safety
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the
Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005-2012 showed AFM1 contamination. In sheep milk samples collected in 2013, 8 out of 172 (4.6%) were contaminated by AFM1 with a concentration (mean±SD) of 12.59±14.05 ng/L. In one bulk tank milk sample 58.82 ng/L AFM1 was detected, exceeding the EU limit. In none of goat milk samples analysed from 2010 to 2012 AFM1 was detected. In 2013, 9 out of 66 goat milk samples (13.6%) showed an AFM1 concentration of 47.21±19.58 ng/L. Two of these samples exceeded the EU limit, with concentrations of 62.09 and 138.6 ng/L. Higher contamination frequency and concentration rates were detected in bulk tank milk samples collected at farm than in bulk milk truck or silo samples, showing a dilution effect on AFM1 milk content along small ruminants supply chain. The rate and levels of AFM1 contamination in sheep and goat milk samples were lower than other countries. However, the small number of milk samples analysed for AFM1 in Sardinia Region in 2005-2013 give evidence that food business operators check programmes should be improved to ensure an adequate monitoring of AFM1 contamination in small ruminant dairy chain.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Italian Journal of Food Safety
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate Arcobacter species contamination of industrial sheep ricotta cheese purchased at retail and to establish if the dairy plant environment
may represent a source of contamination. A total of 32 sheep ricotta cheeses (1.5 kg/pack) packed in a modified atmosphere
were purchased at retail, and 30 samples were collected in two sampling sessions performed in the cheese factory from surfaces
in contact with food and from surfaces not in contact with food. Seven out of 32 samples (21.9%) of ricotta cheese collected
at retail tested positive for Arcobacter butzleri at cultural examination; all positive samples were collected during the same sampling and belonged to the same batch. Ten
surface samples (33.3%) collected in the dairy plant were positive for A. butzleri. Cluster analysis identified 32 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. The same PFGE pattern was isolated from
more than one ricotta cheese sample, indicating a common source of contamination, while more PFGE patterns could be isolated
in single samples, indicating different sources of contamination. The results of the environmental sampling showed that A. butzleri may be commonly isolated from the dairy processing plant investigated and may survive over time, as confirmed by the isolation
of the same PFGE pattern in different industrial plant surface samples. Floor contamination may represent a source of A. butzleri spread to different areas of the dairy plant, as demonstrated by isolation of the same PFGE pattern in different production
areas. Isolation of the same PFGE pattern from surface samples in the dairy plant and from ricotta cheese purchased at retail
showed that plant surfaces may represent a source of A. butzleri postprocessing contamination in cheeses produced in industrial dairy plants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
The main objective of the present research was to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw sheep milk cheese. A total of 150 strains were isolated from curd cheese samples and identified as S. aureus. The survey on antibiotic resistance was carried out on 47 strains, selected among isolates showing differences in the banding pattern after Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) screening or, belonging at the same pulsotype but isolated from different cheese samples. On selected strains antimicrobial resistance against ampicillin, penicillin, cloxacillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and vancomycin was assessed by broth microdilution method. The presence of the genes coding for antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (agr alleles, sea-see, and tst) was also investigated by PCR. Thirty-one isolates belonging to agrI and agrIII groups carried at least one gene coding for enterotoxins or toxic shock syndrome toxin. Approximately 60% of the selected strains were susceptible to the tested antibiotics. Twelve of 47 isolates showed multiple resistance against ampicillin and penicillin. Only 1 strain, represented by a unique PFGE profile showed simultaneous resistance to ampicillin, penicillin and cloxacillin. Single resistance against tetracycline was found in 5 isolates belonging to 2 different pulsotypes. The results of this study suggest that the recovery of S. aureus resistant strains in raw milk cheese samples is quite common but it is limited to few antibiotic classes, mainly β-lactams and tetracyclines. None of the strains showed resistance to erythromycin and vancomycin.
The present research contributes to increase the knowledge on the diffusion of antibiotic resistant S. aureus strains isolated from raw sheep milk cheeses. These can be regarded as a vehicle for the introduction of strains of animal origin to humans through food.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extensive use of antimicrobial agents in finfish farming and the consequent selective pressure lead to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture environment bacteria. Vibrio genus represents one of the main pathogens affecting gilthead sea bream. The development of antibiotic resistance by Vibrio represents a potential threat to human health by exchange of resistant genes to human pathogens through food chain. The objective of the present study was to conduct a multisite survey on the antibiotic resistance of Vibrio spp. isolated from gilthead sea bream reared in Italian mariculture. Vibrio spp. strains were isolated from skin, gills, muscles and intestinal content of 240 gilthead sea bream. A random selection of 150 strains was sequenced for species identification. Resistance against 15 antimicrobial agents was tested by the broth microdilution method. Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio alginolyticus accounted for 36.7% and 33.3% of the isolates respectively. 96% of the strains showed multiple resistance to the tested drugs, with two strains, Vibrio aestuarianus and Vibrio harveyi resistant to 10 and 9 antibiotics, respectively. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin and sulfadiazine showed low efficacy against Vibrio spp. Rational use of antimicrobial agents and surveillance on antibiotic administration may reduce the acquisition of resistance by microorganisms of aquatic ecosystems.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT) whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs) profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL) of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), trans fatty acids (t-FAs), and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI) and thrombogenic index (TI) were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs), PUFAs (5.3%), MUFAs (21.3%), t-FAs (3.6%) and CLA (0.8%). The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%), 9cis-18:1 (18.2%), 18:0 (9.6%), 14:0 (9.5%), 10:0 (9.3%) and 12:0 (4.5%). Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Italian Journal of Food Safety
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to evaluate the durability of the traditional fresh soft cheese Fruhe manufactured in Sardinia either from goats' or sheep's milk. Four farmstead cheese-making plants were visited three times during the Fruhe cheese-making season. During each visit environmental samples were collected from food contact and non-food contact surfaces in order to evaluate the presence of Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Listeria spp. In a total of 60 environmental samples, Escherichia coli and Listeria spp. were never detected, while contamination with Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. was observed respectively in 48% and 43% of samples. The microbiological profile of 48 Fruhe cheese samples was assessed at different time points during the product shelf-life. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were investigated at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days after production. E. coli, L. monocytogenes and B. cereus were never detected in the product. Enterobacteriaceae contamination was observed, showing decreasing levels over time. Pseudomonas spp. was recovered in only two Fruhe samples (3.3%) at day 0. Sensory analysis was also conducted using a triangle test to determine whether a difference between Fruhe samples at 14 and 21 days of shelf-life exists. Based on the evolution of the microbiological profile and the sensory attributes observed in the present study, it is reasonable to assume that the product shelf-life can be feasibly extended up to 21 days.
Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Italian Journal of Food Safety
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Listeria monocytogenes harbouring niches
established in the processing plant support
post-process contamination of dairy products
made from pasteurised or thermised milk. The
present study investigated L. monocytogenes
environmental contamination in two sheep’s
milk cheese-making plants. Persistence of
contamination in the area at higher risk was
also investigated. During a one-year survey 7
samplings were carried out in each dairy plant,
along the production lines of Pecorino Romano
and ricotta salata cheese. A total of 613 environmental
samples collected from food contact
and non-food contact surfaces were analysed
according to ISO 11290-1:2005 standard
method. Identification of the isolated strains
was carried out by polymerase chain reaction.
L. monocytogenes prevalence was 23.2% in
dairy A and 13.1% in dairy B, respectively. The
higher prevalence rate was found in the following
areas: salting, products washing, packaging,
ricotta salata storage and Pecorino
Romano ripening rooms. L. monocytogenes
was never found in the cheese-making area.
The probability of observing samples positive
for the presence of L. monocytogenes was associated
with dairy plant, sampling area and the
period of cheese-making (P<0.001). The
greater persistence of contamination over
time was observed in the washing, salting, and
Pecorino Romano ripening areas. The control
of persistent environmental contamination
relies on the identification of L. monocytogenes
niches within the processing environment and
the prevention of harborage sites formation.
The importance of strict cleaning and sanitising
procedure in controlling L. monocytogenes
environmental contamination is confirmed by
the lower level of contamination observed after
these procedures were correctly implemented.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Italian Journal of Food Safety
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The presence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk can represent a potential threat to human health, due to the introduction of pathogenic strains into dairy food supply chain. The present study was performed to investigate the genetic variation among S. aureus strains isolated from bulk tank goat's milk. The virulence profiles were also assessed to link the isolates with the potential source of milk contamination. A population study was performed on 60 strains using distance-based methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the output was analyzed using Structure statistical software (University of Chicago; http://pritch.bsd.uchicago.edu/structure.html ). This Bayesian clustering model tool allows one to assign individuals into a population with no predefined structure. In order to assess partition of genetic variability among isolates, groups obtained by Structure were also investigated using analysis of molecular variance. S. aureus was recovered in 60 out of 78 samples (76.9%) collected from 26 farms. According to PFGE analysis, the strains were divided into 25 different pulsotypes and grouped into two main clusters. Restriction profiles, analyzed by Structure, allowed us to identify two distinct S. aureus genetic groups. Within each group, the strains showed a high coefficient of membership. A great part of genetic variability was attributable to within-groups variation. On the basis of the virulence profile, 45% of the isolates were linked to "animal" biovar, while 6.7% could be assigned to "human" biovar. Out of 60 strains, 27 were characterized by in vitro production of either enterotoxins A (5.0%), C (38.3%), or D (1.7%). The present study showed a high prevalence of bulk tank goat's milk contamination with S. aureus of animal origin. The presence in goat's milk of S. aureus strains able to produce enterotoxins and their potential introduction into dairy chain may represent a serious threat to human health.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in raw sheep milk cheese and to assess the enterotoxigenic profile of the isolated strains. N.16 raw milk sheep cheese, collected from 8 artisan dairies, were analyzed to detect the presence of Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (CPS). In the frame of Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 cheese samples were tested for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) when a CPS count >105 cfu/g was detected. CPS isolates identified as S. aureus were analyzed using multiplex PCR for the detection of classical (sea-see) and enterotoxins-like (seh, sek, sel, sem, seo, sep) genes. S. aureus was recovered in all cheese samples and in 50% with levels >105 cfu/g. 14 strains carried at least one of the genes coding for enterotoxins. In none of the cheese samples SEs were detected. Although a correct acidification (pH 5.1-5.4 at 6 hours) was observed in dairies using natural starter culture, in cheese samples obtained from these dairies, CPS counts were greater (P<0.05) as compared with those where starter culture were not used. This result might be related to the main role of microbial competition on the control of S. aureus in early stage of cheesemaking. Further research is needed to better understand the effect of lactic acid bacteria competition on the growth of S. aureus.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Italian Journal of Food Safety
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was assessed in Ricotta salata, a traditional sheep's whey cheese. 36 Ricotta salata wheels were inoculated with a mixture of three L. monocytogenes strains obtaining an inoculum level of approximately 10(2) cfu g(-1). Samples were analyzed for the detection and enumeration of L. monocytogenes after 6 h, and after 2, 4 and 6 months. Growth potential (log(10) cfu g(-1)) was 4.87, 6.90 and 6.20 at 2, 4 and 6 months, respectively. The greater relative rate of increase in L. monocytogenes levels was obtained in the first 2 months after inoculation. Ricotta salata supports the growth of L. monocytogenes to levels that may represent a serious risk to public health even during storage at refrigeration temperatures. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of post-lethality treatments to reduce the initial level of contamination or of competitive microflora to limit the extent of pathogen growth.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · International Dairy Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concentrations of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including 12 dioxin like-PCBs (non- and mono-ortho PCBs) were measured in 80 sheep milk samples from farms located in an industrialized area of Sardinia, Italy. PCDDs and PCDFs mean concentrations were 2.45 and 3.69 pgg(-1) fat basis, respectively. The mean dl-PCB concentration was 2.01 ngg(-1) fat basis, while cumulative ndl-PCB levels ranged from 1.02 to 20.42, with a mean of 4.92 ngg(-1) fat. The results expressed in pg WHO-TEQ/g fat showed that contamination level of milk was below the limit values for human consumption established by EC legislation. In the same way, all the investigated milk exhibited PCDD/Fs concentrations below EU action levels, while dl-PCBs concentrations exceeded the action level of 2.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat. These findings point to the need to continue to conduct general monitoring programmes, including also milk samples from areas not close to the contaminant-emitting industries, in order to better evaluate the impact of industrial activities on surrounding environment.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are widespread contaminants with important implications for the environment protection and for the human health. Milk and dairy products consumption has been classified as one of the primary pathways of human exposure to these toxic chemicals. In this study we evaluated the levels of 17 laterally substituted PCDD/Fs and 12 DL-PCBs in 45 sheep milk samples collected from small dairy sheep farms in Sardinia (Italy). Mean concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs were 2.31 and 3.11 pg g-1 fat basis, respectively. With regard to the DL-PCBs only PCB 118 was detected in 51.1% of samples (0.73 ng g-1 fat basis), while the rest of the studied congeners was never detected. The contamination of milk by PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (0.92 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat) being within the permissible limit set by the European Commission (6 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat) gives no indication of particular health risk. However, continuous surveillance on PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs levels in milk is needed in order to correctly evaluate either the environmental impact and human health risk.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Italian Journal of Food Safety
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contamination of dairy products with Staphylococcus aureus can be of animal or human origin. The host pathogen relationship is an important factor determining genetic polymorphism of the strains and their potential virulence. The aim of the present study was to carry out an extensive characterization of virulence factors and to study the genetic variability of S. aureus strains isolated from raw ewe's milk cheese. A total of 100 S. aureus strains isolated from cheese samples produced in 10 artisan cheese factories were analyzed for the presence of enterotoxins (sea-see) and enterotoxins-like genes (seh, sek, sel, sem, seo, sep), leukocidins, exfoliatins, haemolysins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) and the accessory gene regulator alleles (agr). Strains were also typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). AMOVA analysis carried out on PFGE and PCR data showed that the major component explaining genetic distance between strains was the dairy of origin. Of the total isolates 81% had a pathogenicity profile ascribable to "animal" biovar while 16% could be related to "human" biovar. The biovar allowed to estimate the most likely origin of the contamination. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of nine antimicrobial agents and the presence of the corresponding genes coding for antibiotic resistance was also investigated. 18 strains carrying blaZ gene showed resistance to ampicillin and penicillin and 6 strains carrying tetM gene were resistant to tetracycline. The presence of mecA gene and methicillin resistance, typical of strains of human origin, was never detected. The results obtained in the present study confirm that S. aureus contamination in artisan cheese production is mainly of animal origin.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · International journal of food microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) content in 118 bulk-tank sheep milk samples was evaluated using an ELISA commercial kit. During a lactation, three bulk-tank milk samples were collected from each of 40 semi-extensive farms, selected on the basis of high level of concentrate supplementation as risk factor for exposure to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The AFM1 content was also determined in 38 sheep cheese samples collected from a dairy plant where the farms enrolled in the survey shipped the milk. In the three sampling the concentrate supplementation recorded in the farms ranged between (mean±sd) 492.2±257.7 and 397.7±214.3. AFM1 was detected in 1 bulk-tank sheep milk sample (0.8%) at concentrations as little as 5.2 ng/L while in 117 it was not detectable (<5 ng/L). AFM1 was also detected in 5 (13.2%) out of 38 samples of ripened sheep cheese at levels (mean±sd) of 58.1±7.8 ng/Kg. A very low AFM1 content in bulk mik and cheese was observed, as the result of the implementation of good agricultural and good farming practices.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Italian Journal of Food Safety
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp isolated from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) farmed on sea cages and to identify and characterize the pathogen by molecular techniques. Eighty fish were collected from two hatcheries located on the North-Est Sardinian Mediterranean coast, and microbiological analysis were performed on different body parts such as skin, gills, muscle and intestinal tract. Subsequently 100 pure colonies with typical morphology and phenotypic characteristics were selected and submitted to the molecular identification. The analysis on the prevalence of Vibrio spp showed the effect of the hatchery rearing system (P<0.001), of the date of sampling (P<0.001), and of the body part (P<0.001). All the strains selected were confirmed to be members of the genus Vibrio spp by the molecular method/techinique/identification, whereas the rpoA gene sequence analyses allowed to identify 89 strains belonging to the species Vibrio harveyi, 6 to V. diabolicus, 2 to V. parahaemolyticus and 1 to V. mediterranei.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Italian Journal of Food Safety
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are widespread contaminants with important implications for environmental and human health. Milk and dairy products consumption has been classified as one of the primary pathways of human exposure to these toxic chemicals. In this study we evaluated the levels of 17 laterally substituted PCDD/Fs and 12 DL-PCBs in 45 sheep milk samples collected from 15 farms in Sardinia (Italy). Mean concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs were 2.31 and 3.11 pg.g-1 fat basis, respectively. Among DL-PCBs, only PCB 118 was detected in 51.1% of samples. Contamination of milk by PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (0.92 pg WHO-TEQ g-1 fat) being within the permissible limit set by the European Commission (6 pg WHO-TEQ g-1 fat) gives no indication of particular health risk. However, continuous surveillance in milk is needed to correctly evaluate both the environmental impact and the human health risk.