Tatiana Kilch

Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany

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Publications (12)57.76 Total impact

  • Tatiana Kilch · Sven Kappel · Christine Peinelt
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    ABSTRACT: Precise intracellular Ca(2+) signaling is crucial to ensure proper cellular functions. Subsequently, imbalances in Ca(2+) signaling, particularly in store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), contribute to several pathophysiological malfunctions in immune diseases and cancer. We lately reported on heteromeric Orai1/Orai3 SOCE channels and transient receptor potential melastatin-4 (TRPM4) channels in prostate cancer cells. We here sum up our findings and provide a model for the regulation of Ca(2+) signaling in prostate cancer cells.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Channels
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired Ca2+ signaling in prostate cancer contributes to several cancer hallmarks, such as enhanced proliferation and migration and a decreased ability to induce apoptosis. Na+ influx via transient receptor potential melastatin 4 channel (TRPM4) can reduce store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) by decreasing the driving force for Ca2+. In patients with prostate cancer, gene expression of TRPM4 is elevated. Recently, TRPM4 was identified as a cancer driver gene in androgen-insensitive prostate cancer.We investigated TRPM4 protein expression in cancer tissue samples from 20 patients with prostate cancer. We found elevated TRPM4 protein levels in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostate cancer tissue compared to healthy tissue. In primary human prostate epithelial cells (hPEC) from healthy tissue and in the androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC3, TRPM4 mediated large Na+ currents. We demonstrated significantly increased SOCE after siRNA targeting of TRPM4 in hPEC and DU145 cells. In addition, knockdown of TRPM4 reduced migration but not proliferation of DU145 and PC3 cells. Taken together, our data identify TRPM4 as a regulator of SOCE in hPEC and DU145 cells, demonstrate a role for TRPM4 in cancer cell migration and suggest that TRPM4 is a promising potential therapeutic target.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: In prostate cancer, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are elevated and Ca(2+) signaling is impaired. Thus, several novel therapeutic strategies have been developed to target altered ROS and Ca(2+) signaling pathways in prostate cancer. Here, we investigate alterations of intracellular Ca(2+) and inhibition of cell viability caused by ROS in primary human prostate epithelial cells (hPECs) from healthy tissue and prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, DU145, and PC3). In hPECs, LNCaP and DU145 H2O2 induces an initial Ca(2+) increase, which in prostate cancer cells is blocked at high concentrations of H2O2. Upon depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores, store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is activated. SOCE channels can be formed by hexameric Orai1 channels; however, Orai1 can form heteromultimers with its homolog, Orai3. Since the redox sensor of Orai1 (Cys-195) is absent in Orai3, the Orai1/Orai3 ratio in T cells determines the redox sensitivity of SOCE and cell viability. In prostate cancer cells, SOCE is blocked at lower concentrations of H2O2 compared with hPECs. An analysis of data from hPECs, LNCaP, DU145, and PC3, as well as previously published data from naive and effector TH cells, demonstrates a strong correlation between the Orai1/Orai3 ratio and the SOCE redox sensitivity and cell viability. Therefore, our data support the concept that store-operated Ca(2+) channels in hPECs and prostate cancer cells are heteromeric Orai1/Orai3 channels with an increased Orai1/Orai3 ratio in cells derived from prostate cancer tumors. In addition, ROS-induced alterations in Ca(2+) signaling in prostate cancer cells may contribute to the higher sensitivity of these cells to ROS.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Biophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Although ICRAC and other store-operated currents are often analyzed by Ca(2+) imaging, whole-cell patch clamp, described here, is the preferred technique to analyze ICRAC whenever possible. The whole-cell patch-clamp protocol can even be used to record endogenous ICRAC in primary cells. The small endogenous current size of ICRAC requires some precautions: First, it is important to inhibit potential interferences from other channels in the cell by carefully choosing the combination of pipette and bath solutions. Second, the noise should be <150 fA root mean square (RMS) when the pipette holder (with its wire) with or without a patch pipette is adjusted over (but not in!) the solution using a high amplification gain (50 mV/pA or higher) of the patch-clamp amplifier. In addition, this protocol draws attention to measures that should be considered when recording ICRAC currents from an overexpression system. This protocol also suggests sets of solutions that can be used for distinguishing ICRAC from potentially interfering currents. In addition to the solutions, the identity of ICRAC can be confirmed by the characteristic inward rectification, its high Ca(2+) selectivity, and the reversal potential of more than +50 mV. A few (mostly nonspecific) CRAC channel blockers are known, which can also be applied for characterization purposes.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
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    ABSTRACT: Depletion of internal Ca(2+) stores activates store-operated Ca(2+) channels. The most prominent members of this class of channels are Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels, which are present in a variety of cell types including immune cells. CRAC channels are composed of ORAI proteins, which are activated by endoplasmic reticulum-bound STIM proteins on Ca(2+) store depletion. The underlying Ca(2+) current is called ICRAC, which is required for many cellular functions including T-cell activation, mast cell activation, Ca(2+)-dependent gene expression, and refilling of internal Ca(2+) stores. To analyze ICRAC or the Ca(2+) current through heterologously expressed ORAI channels, whole-cell patch clamp is the technique of choice. It allows the direct analysis of ion currents through CRAC/ORAI channels. The patch-clamp technique has been used to determine selectivity, permeability, rectification, inactivation, and several other biophysical and pharmacological properties of the channels, and is the most direct and reliable technique to analyze ICRAC.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
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    ABSTRACT: Endogenous calcium release-activated channel (CRAC) currents are usually quite small and not always easy to measure using the patch-clamp technique. While we have, for instance, successfully recorded very small CRAC currents in primary human effector T cells, we have not yet managed to record CRAC in naïve primary human T cells. Many groups, including ours, therefore use Ca(2+) imaging technologies to analyze CRAC-dependent Ca(2+) influx. However, Ca(2+) signals are quite complex and depend on many different transporter activities; thus, it is not trivial to make quantitative statements about one single transporter, in this case CRAC channels. Therefore, a detailed patch-clamp analysis of ICRAC is always preferred. Since many laboratories use Ca(2+) imaging for ICRAC analysis, we detail here the minimal requirements for reliable measurements. Ca(2+) signals not only depend on the net Ca(2+) influx through CRAC channels but also depend on other Ca(2+) influx mechanisms, K(+) channels or Cl(-) channels (which determine the membrane potential), Ca(2+) export mechanisms like plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA), sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) or Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchangers, and (local) Ca(2+) buffering often by mitochondria. In this protocol, we summarize a set of experiments that allow (quantitative) statements about CRAC channel activity using Ca(2+) imaging experiments, including the ability to rule out Ca(2+) signals from other sources.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Biophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Labelled 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) binding experiments have shown that expression levels of (yet unidentified) membrane androgen receptors (mAR) are elevated in prostate cancer and correlate with a negative prognosis. However, activation of these receptors which mediate a rapid androgen response can counteract several cancer hallmark functions such as unlimited proliferation, enhanced migration, adhesion and invasion and the inability to induce apoptosis. Here, we investigate the downstream signaling pathways of mAR and identify rapid DHT induced activation of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in primary cultures of human prostate epithelial cells (hPEC) from non-tumorous tissue. Consequently, down-regulation of Orai1, the main molecular component of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels results in an almost complete loss of DHT induced SOCE. We demonstrate that this DHT induced Ca2+ influx via Orai1 is important for rapid androgen triggered prostate specific antigen (PSA) release. We furthermore identified alterations of the molecular components of CRAC channels in prostate cancer. Three lines of evidence indicate that prostate cancer cells down-regulate expression of the Orai1 homolog Orai3: First, Orai3 mRNA expression levels are significantly reduced in tumorous tissue when compared to non-tumorous tissue from prostate cancer patients. Second, mRNA expression levels of Orai3 are decreased in prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and DU145 when compared to hPEC from healthy tissue. Third, the pharmacological profile of CRAC channels in prostate cancer cell lines and hPEC differ and siRNA based knock-down experiments indicate changed Orai3 levels are underlying the altered pharmacological profile. The cancer-specific composition and pharmacology of CRAC channels identifies CRAC channels as putative targets in prostate cancer therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: A drop of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ concentration triggers its Ca2+ ssensor protein stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) to oligomerize and accumulate within endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions where it activates Orai1 channels, providing store-operated Ca2+ entry. To elucidate the functional significance of N-glycosylation sites of STIM1, we created different mutations of asparagine-131 and asparagine-171. STIM1 NN/DQ resulted in a strong gain of function. Patch clamp, Total Internal Reflection Fluorescent (TIRF) microscopy, and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analyses revealed that expression of STIM1 DQ mutants increases the number of active Orai1 channels and the rate of STIM1 translocation to endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions with a decrease in current latency. Surprisingly, co-expression of STIM1 DQ decreased Orai1 protein, altering the STIM1:Orai1 stoichiometry. We describe a novel mathematical tool to delineate the effects of altered STIM1 or Orai1 diffusion parameters from stoichiometrical changes. The mutant uncovers a novel mechanism whereby “superactive” STIM1 DQ leads to altered oligomerization rate constants and to degradation of Orai1 with a change in stoichiometry of activator (STIM1) to effector (Orai1) ratio leading to altered Ca2+ homeostasis.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    Ivan Bogeski · Tatiana Kilch · Barbara A Niemeyer
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract  Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is a widespread mechanism in cells to raise cytosolic Ca(2+) and to refill Ca(2+) stores. T cells critically rely on SOCE mediated by stromal interaction molecules (STIM) and Orai molecules for their activation and regulation of gene transcription; cells such as muscle cells, neurons or melanocytes probably utilize SOCE for the transmission of inducible receptor-mediated function as well as for generalized Ca(2+) homeostasis mechanisms. Exposure to environmental or cell-intrinisic reactive oxygen species (ROS) can affect several components involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis and thus alter multiple pathways. While all cells have a capacity to produce intracellular ROS, exposure of immune and skin cells to extracellular oxidative stress is particularly high during inflammation and/or with UV exposure. This review briefly summarizes cell-intrinsic sources of ROS and focuses on current findings and controversies regarding the regulation of STIM and Orai by oxidative modifications. We also introduce melanocytes as a new model system to study the function of STIM and Orai isoforms under physiological conditions that include exposure to UV light as an activating stimulus.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · The Journal of Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: UV radiation of the skin triggers keratinocytes to secrete endothelin-1 (ET-1) that binds to endothelin receptors on neighboring melanocytes. Melanocytes respond with a prolonged increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), which is necessary for proliferation and melanogenesis. A major fraction of the Ca(2+) signal is caused by entry through Ca(2+)-permeable channels of unknown identity in the plasma membrane. ORAI Ca(2+) channels are molecular determinants of Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels and are expressed in many tissues. Here, we show that ORAI1-3 and their activating partners stromal interaction molecules 1 and 2 (STIM1 and STIM2) are expressed in human melanocytes. Although ORAI1 is the predominant ORAI isoform, STIM2 mRNA expression exceeds STIM1. Inhibition of ORAI1 by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) or downregulation of ORAI1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced Ca(2+) entry and CRAC current amplitudes in activated melanocytes. In addition, suppression of ORAI1 caused reduction in the ET-1-induced cellular viability, melanin synthesis, and tyrosinase activity. Our results imply a role for ORAI1 channels in skin pigmentation and their potential involvement in UV-induced stress responses of the human skin.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Biophysical Journal