[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) represent important regulatory states that when combined have been hypothesized to act as molecular codes and to generate a functional diversity beyond genome and transcriptome. We systematically investigate the interplay of protein phosphorylation with other post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in the genome-reduced bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Systematic perturbations by deletion of its only two protein kinases and its unique protein phosphatase identified not only the protein-specific effect on the phosphorylation network, but also a modulation of proteome abundance and lysine acetylation patterns, mostly in the absence of transcriptional changes. Reciprocally, deletion of the two putative N-acetyltransferases affects protein phosphorylation, confirming cross-talk between the two PTMs. The measured M. pneumoniae phosphoproteome and lysine acetylome revealed that both PTMs are very common, that (as in Eukaryotes) they often co-occur within the same protein and that they are frequently observed at interaction interfaces and in multifunctional proteins. The results imply previously unreported hidden layers of post-transcriptional regulation intertwining phosphorylation with lysine acetylation and other mechanisms that define the functional state of a cell.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Molecular Systems Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of cardiolipin acyl chain composition in assembly/stabilization of mitochondrial complexes was investigated using three yeast deletion mutants (acb1Delta strain; taz1Delta strain; and acb1Deltataz1Delta strain). Deletion of the TAZ1 gene, involved in cardiolipin acyl chain remodeling, is known to increase the content of monolyso-cardiolipin (MLCL) at the expense of CL, and to decrease the unsaturation of the remaining CL. Deletion of the ACB1 gene encoding the acyl-CoA-binding protein, involved in fatty acid elongation, decreases the average length of the CL acyl chains. Furthermore, a TAZ1ACB1 double deletion mutant strain was used in this study which has both a decrease in the length of the CL acyl chains and an increase in MLCL. BN/SDS PAGE analysis revealed that cardiolipin is important for the prohibitin-m-AAA protease complex, the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and respiratory chain supercomplexes. The results indicate that the decreased level of complexes in taz1Delta and acb1Deltataz1Delta mitochondria is due to a decreased content of CL or the presence of MLCL.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of proteomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The starting point for the discovery and development of new drugs is the design of molecules that bind to their target proteins with high specificity. Here we describe a systematic chemical proteomics based approach, whereby we use a novel PDE5 inhibitor as bait in mice lung tissue. The compound N-(6-aminohexyl)-3-(1-ethyl-3-methyl-7-oxo-6,7-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl)-4-propoxybenzenesulfonamide (or PF-4540124), which binds to phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) with high affinity, was therefore immobilized on an affinity support. Initial affinity enrichment revealed the binding of hundreds of proteins to this immobilized PDE5 inhibitor. Therefore, selective pre-clearing and elution protocols were designed and used in combination with differential stable-isotope labeling to discriminate between the specific binding of low abundant proteins and less specific binding of high abundant proteins. The optimized method allowed us to selectively analyze the "interactome" of the PDE5 inhibitor PF-4540124 and enabled us to identify different isoforms of PDE5 present in mouse lung. Additionally, we enriched for the prenyl binding protein PrBP, which is also known as PDE6delta. Further analysis, applying in vitro binding assays allowed us to verify PrBP as a novel interactor of PF-4540124. The presented method provides a generic highly-specific chemical proteomics based enrichment technique for analyzing drug-protein interactions in mammalian tissue lysates.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Molecular BioSystems
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 5-year-survival rate of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has been only moderately improved over the last few decades. HNSCC develops in precursor fields of genetically altered mucosal cells, typically characterized by p53 pathway disruption, that mostly do not give any clinical symptoms. Patients present therefore often with invasive carcinomas in an advanced stage. After tumor resection, part of these fields frequently stays behind unnoticed, causing secondary tumors. Identification of these precursor fields would allow screening and early detection of both primary and secondary tumors. Our aim was to identify differential proteins related to p53 dysfunction. These proteins may serve as valuable biomarkers that can predict the presence of a precursor field. We used a squamous cell model for p53 inactivation, which was analyzed by 2D-DIGE and LC-MS/MS. This approach enabled us to identify a set of 74 proteins that were differentially expressed in cells with normal versus disrupted p53 function. For six proteins the major changes in expression were verified with immunohistochemical staining. The most promising result was the identification of peroxiredoxin-1 which allowed immunohistochemical discrimination between normal epithelium and precursor field tissue with a TP53 mutation.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Journal of proteomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress induced in tumor cells undergoing photodynamic treatment (PDT) leads to extensive modification of many proteins in these cells. Protein oxidation mainly gives rise to formation of carbonyls and oxidized thiols. The immediate targets of PDT-induced protein oxidation in A431 tumor cells have been identified using a proteomic approach involving selective biotinylation, affinity purification and mass spectrometric identification of modified proteins. In all, 314 proteins were shown to undergo PDT-mediated oxidative modifications. While abundant structural proteins and chaperones represented a significant fraction of the carbonylated proteins, labeling of proteins containing oxidized thiols allowed identification of many proteins at low abundance and those involved in signaling and redox homeostasis. On the basis of the identification of these proteins, several likely mechanisms of PDT-induced triggering of apoptosis were put forward. This may not only lead to a further understanding of the complex network of cellular responses to oxidative stress, but it may also help in detailed targeting of photodynamic treatment applied to cancer.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · Journal of Proteome Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erythrocyte proteome studies are currently hampered by the major abundance of hemoglobin and carbonic anhydrase, which obscures proper quantitative analysis of the remaining 1−2% of the proteome. By employing Ni(II)-Sepharose affinity chromatography, we depleted the erythrocyte soluble proteome fraction for hemoglobin. The subsequent step, ion exchange chromatography, allows depletion of carbonic anhydrase-1. This highly specific and efficient strategy improves the proteome coverage over 4-fold.
No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Journal of Proteome Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perception of general elicitors by plant cells initiates signal transduction cascades that are regulated by protein phosphorylation. The earliest signaling events occur within minutes and include ion fluxes across the plasma membrane, activation of MAPKs, and the formation of reactive oxygen species. The phosphorylation events that regulate these signaling cascades are largely unknown. Here we present a mass spectrometry-based quantitative phosphoproteomics approach that identified differentially phosphorylated sites in signaling and response proteins from Arabidopsis cells treated with either flg22 or xylanase. Our approach was sensitive enough to quantitate phosphorylation on low abundance signaling proteins such as calcium-dependent protein kinases and receptor-like kinase family members. With this approach we identified one or more differentially phosphorylated sites in 76 membrane-associated proteins including a number of defense-related proteins. Our data on phosphorylation indicate a high degree of complexity at the level of post-translational modification as exemplified by the complex modification patterns of respiratory burst oxidase protein D. Furthermore the data also suggest that protein translocation and vesicle traffic are important aspects of early signaling and defense in response to general elicitors. Our study presents the largest quantitative Arabidopsis phosphoproteomics data set to date and provides a new resource that can be used to gain novel insight into plant defense signal transduction and early defense response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze proteins interacting at the membrane interface, a phospholipid analogue was used with a photoactivatable headgroup (ASA-DLPE, N-(4-azidosalicylamidyl)-1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine) for selective cross-linking. The peripheral membrane protein cytochrome c from the inner mitochondrial membrane was rendered carbonate wash-resistant by cross-linking to ASA-DLPE in a model membrane system, validating our approach. Cross-link products of cytochrome c and its precursor apocytochrome c were demonstrated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and were specifically detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), taking advantage of the intrinsic UV absorbance of the cross-linker. Application of the method to inner mitochondrial membranes from Saccharomyces cerevisae revealed cross-link products of both exogenously added apocytochrome c and endogenous proteins with molecular weights around 34 and 72 kDa. Liquid chromatograpy (LC)-MS/MS was performed to identify these proteins, resulting in a list of candidate proteins potentially cross-linked at the membrane interface. The approach described here provides methodology for capturing phospholipid-protein interactions in their native environment of the biomembrane using modern proteomics techniques.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · Journal of Proteome Research