Barri Burrus

RTI International, Durham, North Carolina, United States

Are you Barri Burrus?

Claim your profile

Publications (17)36.74 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adolescents' extensive use of social media highlights this technology's potential as a promising new approach for delivering substance abuse prevention messages to adolescent audiences. Peer-to-peer social media campaigns, for example, can draw upon strategies such as youth empowerment and social norming to deliver prevention messages that are designed to influence adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to tobacco use as well as other substance abuse areas. School-based groups are particularly promising for social media campaigns since social network groups can be readily formed from existing classes and other school-focused organizations. Despite its potential, use of social media campaigns implemented through a peer- to-peer intervention approachi is a relatively new strategy and the availability of published literature describing how to effectively conduct such a campaign is very limited. The purpose of our presentation is to describe the implementation and evaluation for a youth tobacco prevention social media campaign conducted by youth groups within school-based settings. We will provide a comprehensive conceptual framework that can be used by practitioners to guide the development and evaluation of a peer-to-peer social media campaign. Our evaluation methods include the analysis of training and technical assistance needs encountered as well as abstraction from actual youth social media posts and interactions. We will provide findings in terms of youth receptivity, reach, and engagement in the campaign activities. Conclusions from these results will include lessons learned and overall recommendations for practitioners interested in implementing a youth driven peer-to-peer social media campaigns in school-based settings.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adolescent parents and their children are at increased risk for adverse short- and long-term health and social outcomes. Effective interventions are needed to support these young families. We studied the evidence base and found a dearth of rigorously evaluated programs. Strategies from successful interventions are needed to inform both intervention design and policies affecting these adolescents. The lack of rigorous evaluations may be attributable to inadequate emphasis on and sufficient funding for evaluation, as well as to challenges encountered by program evaluators working with this population. More rigorous program evaluations are urgently needed to provide scientifically sound guidance for programming and policy decisions. Evaluation lessons learned have implications for other vulnerable populations.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · American Journal of Public Health
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adolescence marks a time when many young people engage in risky behaviors with potential implications for long-term health. Interventions focused on adolescents' parents and other caregivers have the potential to affect adolescents across a variety of risk and health-outcome areas. Community Guide methods were used to evaluate the effectiveness of caregiver-targeted interventions in addressing adolescent risk and protective behaviors and health outcomes. Sixteen studies published during the search period (1966-2007) met review requirements and were included in this review. Effectiveness was assessed based on changes in whether or not adolescents engaged in specified risk and protective behaviors; frequency of risk and protective behaviors, and health outcomes, also informed the results. Results from qualifying studies provided sufficient evidence that interventions delivered person-to-person (i.e., through some form of direct contact rather than through other forms of contact such as Internet or paper) and designed to modify parenting skills by targeting parents and other caregivers are effective in improving adolescent health. Interventions delivered to parents and other caregivers affect a cross-cutting array of adolescent risk and protective behaviors to yield improvements in adolescent health. Analysis from this review forms the basis of the recommendation by the Community Preventive Services Task Force presented elsewhere in this issue.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · American journal of preventive medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased target marketing by the tobacco companies focusing on specific racial, ethnic, and cultural groups underscores the need to step up youth tobacco prevention efforts in these at-risk populations. Although reaching diverse populations is often encouraged as part of a comprehensive community-based youth empowerment campaign, the populations actually engaged in these groups tend to be limited. Uptake trend analysis of national data suggests several population groups are disproportionately at risk for tobacco use. These data further point to upward trends in tobacco uptake in specific populations that occur after high school. The North Carolina Health and Wellness Trust Fund (NCHWTF) and RTI International conducted a needs assessment among the NCHWTF's grantees conducting community-based youth tobacco prevention programming to explore activities designed to engage diverse populations. As a result of this analysis, a Diversity Workgroup was formed to develop strategies and provide resources to facilitate grantees' capacity for reaching multiple diverse youth groups in their communities. The Diversity Toolkit, which includes resources and tools for engaging diverse populations, emerged to provide ready-to-use materials for grantees to use in their local communities. Results of the needs assessment, together with the results from the national data analysis depicting tobacco uptake for diverse population groups in high school and college age populations will be shared. The Web-based toolkit also will be discussed and participants will be provided with instructions on how to access the toolkit for use in reducing tobacco-related health disparities among diverse populations in their communities.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2011
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Alaska Native people in rural Alaska face serious challenges in obtaining dental care. Itinerant care models have failed to meet their needs for more than 50 years. The dental health aide therapist (DHAT) model, which entails training midlevel care providers to perform limited restorative, surgical, and preventive procedures, was adopted to address some of the limitations of the itinerant model. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to assess residents' satisfaction with the model and the role of DHATs in the cultural context in which they operate. Our findings suggest that the DHAT model can provide much-needed access to urgent care and is beneficial from a comprehensive cultural perspective.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · American Journal of Public Health
  • No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of the American Dental Association (1939)
  • No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of the American Dental Association (1939)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Alaska Dental Health Aide Therapist program has matured to the point that therapists have been in practice for up to four years. A case-study evaluation of the program included assessments of the clinical technical performance of five of these therapists practicing in clinics in small Alaskan villages and towns. The results indicate that therapists are performing at an acceptable level, with short-term restorative outcomes comparable with those of dentists treating the same populations. Therapists' performance when operating within their scope of practice suggested no reason for continued close scrutiny. Further evaluations of therapists should shift their principal focus from clinical technical performance of therapists to effectiveness of the therapist program in improving the targeted population's oral health. Therapists are capable of providing acceptable restorative treatment under indirect supervision.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of the American Dental Association (1939)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mathematical models of influenza pandemics are sensitive to changes in contact rates between individuals. We conducted population-based telephone surveys in four North Carolina counties to determine the number of social interactions between individuals during the 2007-2008 influenza season. Influenza activity was monitored through sentinel medical practices. Among 3845 adults, the number of social contacts varied with age, was lower on weekends than on weekdays, and further decreased during school holiday periods. Adults with influenza-like illnesses had fewer social contacts. Adults' contacts in the community setting increased during periods of peak influenza activity. Among 290 children, potential contacts (i.e. other people in the same location) were lowest among preschool-age children and decreased on weekends and during school holidays. In adjusted analyses, children's potential social contacts did not change during periods of peak influenza activity. These results should be useful for modelling influenza epidemics and pandemics and in planning mitigation and response strategies.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Epidemiology and Infection
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In June 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released a request for applications to identify, improve, and evaluate the effectiveness of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza within communities and across international borders (RFA-CI06-010) (1). Eleven studies (Table 1) were funded to identify optimal, discrete, or combined NPIs for implementation during an influenza pandemic. During March 4-6, 2009, the principal investigators met to share results, identify research gaps, and define future research needs in 9 areas as described here. A total of 16 research gaps were identified (Table 2).
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Emerging Infectious Diseases
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In June 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a request for applications to identify, improve, and evaluate the effectiveness of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs)-strategies other than vaccines and antiviral medications-to mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza within communities and across international borders (RFA-CI06-010). These studies have provided major contributions to seasonal and pandemic influenza knowledge. Nonetheless, key concerns were identified related to the acceptability and protective efficacy of NPIs. Large-scale intervention studies conducted over multiple influenza epidemics, as well as smaller studies in controlled laboratory settings, are needed to address the gaps in the research on transmission and mitigation of influenza in the community setting. The current novel influenza A (H1N1) pandemic underscores the importance of influenza research.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · American journal of infection control
  • Source
    Preview · Article · Jan 2010
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adults who live in rural areas of the United States have among the highest smoking rates in the country. Rural populations, including Appalachian adults, have been historically underserved by tobacco control programs and policies and little is known about their effectiveness. To examine the end-of-class quit success of participants in A Tobacco Cessation Project for Disadvantaged West Virginia Communities by place of residence (rural West Virginia and the urban area of Greater Charleston). This collaborative program was implemented in 5 underserved rural counties in West Virginia and consisted of 4 intervention approaches: (1) a medical examination; (2) an 8-session educational and behavioral modification program; (3) an 8-week supply of pharmacotherapy; and (4) follow-up support group meetings. Of the 725 program participants, 385 (53.1%) had successfully quit using tobacco at the last group cessation class they attended. Participants who lived in rural West Virginia counties had a lower end-of-class quit success rate than those who lived in the urban area of Greater Charleston (unadjusted odds ratio [OR]= 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 0.48, 0.99), even after taking into account other characteristics known to influence quit success (adjusted OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.35, 0.94). Tobacco control programs in rural West Virginia would do well to build upon the positive aspects of rural life while addressing the infrastructure and economic needs of the region. End-of-class quit success may usefully be viewed as a stage on the continuum of change toward long-term quit success.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · The Journal of Rural Health
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This research is designed to share valuable experiences and transferable principles from program staff of the Legacy/Community Voices initiative who have been involved in planning, implementing, evaluating, and sustaining tobacco control activities in underserved communities. Interviews were conducted with 13 front line staff from 9 sites: Alameda County, California; Detroit, Michigan; El Paso, Texas; Ingham County, Michigan; Miami, Florida; New Mexico; North Carolina; Northern Manhattan; and West Virginia. A model emerged from these interviews that places the life cycle of a program in a central position, with many of the identified themes (working with local champions, obtaining support from multiple partners, increasing organizational capacity) repeated throughout, albeit in different forms at different stages. Reflecting upon wisdom gained and identifying best processes for such work may help ensure that tobacco control programs are developed that are culturally safe and effective in meeting the needs of diverse communities throughout the United States.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2006 · Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This research is designed to share valuable experiences and transferable principles from program staff of the Legacy/Community Voices initiative who have been involved in planning, implementing, evaluating, and sustaining tobacco control activities in underserved communities. Interviews were conducted with 13 front line staff from 9 sites: Alameda County, California; Detroit, Michigan; El Paso, Texas; Ingham County, Michigan; Miami, Florida; New Mexico; North Carolina; Northern Manhattan; and West Virginia. A model emerged from these interviews that places the life cycle of a program in a central position, with many of the identified themes (working with local champions, obtaining support from multiple partners, increasing organizational capacity) repeated throughout, albeit in different forms at different stages. Reflecting upon wisdom gained and identifying best processes for such work may help ensure that tobacco control programs are developed that are culturally safe and effective in meeting the needs of diverse communities throughout the United States.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the results of a community-based screening program associated with Project DIRECT, a multiyear diabetes mellitus prevention and control project targeting African-American residents of southeast Raleigh, NC. Between December 1996 and June 1999, 183 screening events took place in community settings. Screening was by capillary glucose concentration. Participants with a positive screen were referred for confirmatory testing and physician follow-up. Risk factors for diabetes were prevalent, including ethnic minority race (88.2%), obesity (45.6%), and family history of diabetes (41.7%). In all, 197 personshad an elevated screening result; the prevalence of diabetes in the screened population that underwent follow-up testiing was 1.7%. Despite persistent tracking efforts, 28% of the persons with a high screening test received no final diagnosis In this community-based screening program targeted to high-risk African Americans, risk factors for diabetes were common, but new cases of undiagnosed diabetes among participants were uncommon. Intensive follow-up for persons with high screening values is necessary but difficult to achieve. Our results support national recommendations against community-based screening; opportunistic screening for diabetes in clinical settings is likely a more effective use of resources.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2004 · Journal of the National Medical Association
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A continuous quality care improvement program (CQIP) was built into Project DIRECT (Diabetes Interventions Reaching and Educating Communities Together) to improve providers' patterns of diabetes care and patients' glycemic control. Project DIRECT consisted of a comprehensive program aimed at reducing the burden of diabetes in the vulnerable high-risk African-American population of southeast Raleigh, NC. Forty-seven providers caring for this target population of adult diabetes patients were included in this quasi-experimental study. At the initial session, providers learned about the CQIP components, completed a planning worksheet, and chose a CQIP coordinator. Educational events included continuing education in practices and through conferences by experts, and guideline distribution. Follow-up was accomplished through phone calls and visits. Effectiveness was measured by a change in prevalence of selected patterns of care abstracted from 1,006 medical charts. Appropriate statistical methods were used to account for the cluster design and repeated measures. At the fourth follow-up year, approximately 40% of providers still participated in the program. Among the providers who stayed in the program for the whole study period, most selected quality care patterns showed significant upward trends. Glycemic control indicators did not change, however, despite an increased number of hemoglobin A1c tests per year. A diabetes CQI program can be effectively implemented in a community setting. Improved performance measures were not associated with improved outcomes. These results suggest that a patient-centered component should reinforce the provider-centered component.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2004 · Journal of the National Medical Association