[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sirtuin3 (SIRT3) is an important member of the sirtuin family of protein deacetylases that is localized to mitochondria and linked to lifespan extension in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. As aged cells have less regenerative capacity and are more susceptible to oxidative stress, we investigated the effect of ageing on SIRT3 levels and its correlation with antioxidant enzyme activities. Here, we show that severe oxidative stress reduces SIRT3 levels in young human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs). Overexpression of SIRT3 improved hMSCs resistance to the detrimental effects of oxidative stress. By activating manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase (CAT), SIRT3 protects hMSCs from apoptosis under stress. SIRT3 expression, levels of MnSOD and CAT, as well as cell survival showed little difference in old versus young hMSCs under normal growth conditions, whereas older cells had a significantly reduced capacity to withstand oxidative stress compared to their younger counterparts. Expression of the short 28 kD SIRT3 isoform was higher, while the long 44 kD isoform expression was lower in young myocardial tissues compared with older ones. These results suggest that the active short isoform of SIRT3 protects hMSCs from oxidative injury by increasing the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. The expression of this short isoform decreases in cardiac tissue during ageing, leading to a reduced capacity for the heart to withstand oxidative stress.
Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenic gene therapy in patients with cerebral infarcts may have clinical benefit, but its potential is diminished by the difficulty of introducing genes into the brain. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) for delivery of genes to the brains of normal mice and after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. In normal mice, disruption of the blood-brain barrier detected with trypan blue staining was reversible within 24 hours of a single UTMD administration. Expression of reporter genes in the brain after UTMD demonstrated successful targeted gene delivery and transfection. Decreased neurologic function after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion was attenuated versus controls at 7 days after UTMD delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction delivery of the VEGF gene resulted in decreased infarct areas, increased vessel density, and reduced apoptosis versus controls. There was no evidence of permanent brain injury throughout the study. Thus, UTMD was a safe, minimally invasive, effective technique for gene delivery to the brain. Vascular endothelial growth factor transfection of brain cells conferred beneficial effects on histopathologic parameters and neurologic function, and stimulated angiogenesis in a mouse stroke model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling is a critical aspect of cardiac remodelling following myocardial infarction. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are physiological inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the ECM proteins. TIMP-3 is highly expressed in the heart and is markedly downregulated in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Cell-based gene therapy can enhance the effects of cell transplantation by temporally and spatially regulating the release of the gene product. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of TIMP-3 gene-transfected vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in modifying heart structure and function in rats when transplanted 3 days after myocardial infarction (MI).
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Transplant Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling is a critical aspect of cardiac remodelling following myocardial infarction. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are physiological inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the ECM proteins. TIMP-3 is highly expressed in the heart and is markedly downregulated in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Cell-based gene therapy can enhance the effects of cell transplantation by temporally and spatially regulating the release of the gene product. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of TIMP-3 gene-transfected vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in modifying heart structure and function in rats when transplanted 3 days after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Anesthetised rats were subjected to coronary artery ligation followed 3 days later by thoracotomy and transplantation of TIMP-3 gene-transfected VSMCs, untransfected VSMCs or medium injected directly into the ischemic myocardium. We assessed left ventricular structure and function by echocardiography and morphometry, and measured the levels of myocardial matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2, MMP-9), TIMP-3 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at 4 weeks post-myocardial infarction. Results: Transplantation of TIMP-3 gene-transfected VSMCs and untransfected VSMCs significantly decreased scar expansion and ventricular dilatation 25 days post-transplantation (4 weeks after MI). MMPs and TNF-α levels were reduced in the transplantation groups when compared to the group that was given an injection of medium only. Transplantation of TIMP-3 gene-transfected VSMCs was more effective in preventing progressive cardiac dysfunction, ventricular dilatation and in reducing MMP-2, MMP-9 and TNF-α levels when compared to the transplantation of untransfected VSMCs.
TIMP-3 gene transfection was associated with attenuated left ventricular dilation and recovery of systolic function after MI compared with control. TIMP-3 transfection enhanced the effects of transplanted VSMCs in rats by inhibiting matrix degradation and inflammatory cytokine expression, leading to improved myocardial remodelling.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Transplant Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach for ischemic heart disease, but the regenerative capacity of these cells decreases with age. In this study, we genetically engineered old human MSCs (O-hMSCs) with tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and evaluated the effects on the efficacy of cell-based gene therapy in a rat myocardial infarction (MI) model. Cultured O-hMSCs were transfected with TIMP3 (O-TIMP3) or VEGF (O-VEGF) and compared with young hMSCs (Y-hMSCs) and non-transfected O-hMSCs for growth, clonogenic capacity, and differentiation potential. In vivo, rats were subjected to left coronary artery ligation with subsequent injection of Y-hMSCs, O-hMSCs, O-TIMP3, O-VEGF, or medium. Echocardiography was performed prior to and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after MI. Myocardial levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), MMP9, TIMP3, and VEGF were assessed at 1 week. Hemodynamics, morphology, and histology were measured at 4 weeks. In vitro, genetically modified O-hMSCs showed no changes in growth, colony formation, or multi-differentiation capacity. In vivo, transplantation with O-TIMP3, O-VEGF, or Y-hMSCs increased capillary density, preserved cardiac function, and reduced infarct size compared to O-hMSCs and medium control. O-TIMP3 and O-VEGF transplantation enhanced TIMP3 and VEGF expression, respectively, in the treated animals. O-hMSCs genetically modified with TIMP3 or VEGF can increase angiogenesis, prevent adverse matrix remodeling, and restore cardiac function to a degree similar to Y-hMSCs. This gene-modified cell therapy strategy may be a promising clinical treatment to rejuvenate stem cells in elderly patients.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Rejuvenation Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic hypoxia is the most common cause of secondary pulmonary hypertension, for which the mechanisms are still unclear. Recent studies implicated an important role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in hypoxia-mediated responses in various cellular processes, including cell apoptosis and proliferation. Therefore, we hypothesized that these regulatory molecules might be implicated in the etiology of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Here we show that miRNA-328, a posttranscriptional regulator, was drastically downregulated in the pulmonary artery (PA) after a hypoxic assault. PA rings, Western blot, quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and luciferase assay were used to investigate the role of miRNA-328 in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. We found that hypoxia produced a significant inhibition of miRNA-328 expression, which was involved in PA vasoconstriction and remodeling. Overexpressing miRNA-328 in the transgenic mice remarkably decreased the right ventricular systolic pressure and PA wall thickness under both normoxia and hypoxia. MiRNA-328 inhibited L-type calcium channel-α1C expression through a miRNA-328 binding site within the 3' untranslational region of L-type calcium channel-α1C. The L-type calcium channel-α1C inhibition attenuated the PA response to KCl. Furthermore, miRNA-328 suppressed the insulin growth factor 1 receptor, ultimately leading to apoptosis of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. The posttranscriptional repression of L-type calcium channel-α1C and insulin growth factor 1 receptor was further confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. These results showed that miRNA-328, an important protecting factor, plays a significant role in PA constriction and remodeling by regulating multiple gene targets in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After a myocardial infarction (MI), an increase in the cardiac ratio of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) relative to their inhibitors (TIMPs) causes extracellular matrix modulation that leads to ventricular dilatation and congestive heart failure. Cell therapy can mitigate these effects. In this study, we tested whether increasing MMP inhibition via cell-based gene transfer of Timp-3 further preserved ventricular morphometry and cardiac function in a rat model of MI. We also measured the effect of treatment timing. We generated MI (coronary artery ligation) in adult rats. Three or 14 days later, we implanted medium (control) or vascular smooth muscle cells transfected with empty vector (VSMCs) or Timp-3 (C-TIMP-3) into the peri-infarct region (n = 15-24/group). We assessed MMP-2 and -9 expression and activity, TIMP-3, and TNF-α expression, cell apoptosis, infarct size and thickness, ventricular morphometry, and cardiac function (by echocardiography). Relative to medium, VSMCs delivered at either time point significantly reduced cardiac expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9, reduced expression of TNF-α, and increased expression of TIMP-3. Cell therapy also reduced apoptosis and scar area, increased infarct thickness, preserved ventricular structure, and reduced functional loss. All these effects were augmented by C-TIMP-3 treatment. Survival and cardiac function were significantly greater when VSMCs or C-TIMP-3 were delivered at 3 (vs. 14) days after MI. Upregulating post-MI cardiac TIMP-3 expression via cell-based gene therapy contributed additional regulation of MMP, TIMP, and TNF-α levels, thereby boosting the structural and functional effects of VSMCs transplanted at 3 or 14 days after an MI in rats. Early treatment may be superior to late, though both are effective.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical trials of cardiac cell therapy have indicated limited benefits in aging patients, even though preclinical studies using young animals consistently reported significant improvements. Animal studies have demonstrated reduced efficacy of donor cells isolated from older individuals. Here, we evaluated the effects of donor age on the function of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the context of cell therapy for ischemic cardiomyopathy.
In vitro, we compared the growth and clonogenic potential of hMSCs isolated from young or old patients (1-5 vs. 50-70 years old). In vivo, we injected young or old hMSCs (2.0 x 10(6)) (or medium) into the infarcted myocardia of immunosuppressed rats immediately after coronary artery ligation (myocardial infarction [MI]). We assessed cardiac function (echocardiography) at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after MI, and myocardial matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) levels at 1 week.
In vitro, growth and colony-forming unit fibroblast (CFU-F) formation were markedly diminished in old hMSCs (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively, vs. young). In vivo, compared with old hMSCs or medium, young hMSCs best preserved ejection fraction, fractional shortening (p < 0.05), and left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (p < 0.01). Recipients of young hMSCs also exhibited increases in vascular density and TIMP-3 protein levels and activity (p < 0.05), and decreases in MMP protein levels and activity (p < 0.05).
The regenerative capacity of hMSCs was significantly influenced by age. Transplanting young hMSCs improved functional outcomes after an MI by preventing matrix degradation and promoting angiogenesis. The clinical implication is that aged patients require an optimized source of stem cells for treatment.
No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Rejuvenation Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activity of TIMP-3, a natural tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), is decreased in the failing heart. This study evaluated the response to coronary ligation of cardiac structure, function, and matrix remodeling in wild-type (WT) mice, and those deficient in TIMP-3 (timp-3(-/-)). The coronary artery was ligated in timp-3(-/-) and age-matched WT mice. At various time points over the following 28-day period, left ventricular structure and function (by echocardiography, pressure-volume measurements and morphometry), MMP levels and activity, blood vessel density, cell proliferation, apoptosis, matrix structure, and inflammatory cytokine levels were assessed in both groups. After ligation, mortality was significantly greater in timp-3(-/-) than in WT mice. Morphometry and echocardiography demonstrated no difference in heart size or function prior to ligation; however, the progression of left ventricular systolic dysfunction was accelerated in timp-3(-/-) mice at 7, 14 and 28 days after infarction compared to WT controls. Left ventricular dilatation, gelatinase MMP activity, and TNF-alpha levels were significantly greater in timp-3(-/-) than in WT mice at different times after ligation. By histological evaluation, timp-3(-/-) mice exhibited significantly increased blood vessel density, cell proliferation, and apoptosis in the infarct area, and reduced collagen content in the viable remote myocardium compared to WT mice at 7 and 14 days after ligation. TIMP-3 deficiency accelerated maladaptive cardiac remodeling after a myocardial infarction by promoting matrix degradation and inflammatory cytokine expression. This study supports further investigations to determine whether such remodeling could be reduced by augmenting TIMP-3 expression in the infarcted myocardium.
No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of tissue inhibitor-3 of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP-3) gene-transfected vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) transplantation on heart structure after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats and to explore the potential mechanisms.
Sixty-one female Wistar rats were produced AMI models by ligating the descending left coronary artery. Fifty-four rats were survived and divided into 3 groups randomly (n= 18): 0.5 ml PBS containing 1 x 10(6) TIMP-3 gene-transfected VSMCs (group A), 1 x 10(6) VSMCs (group B) or 0.5 ml PBS without cell(group C) were injected into the ischemic myocardium immediately. Ischemic myocardium samples were harvested at 1 week after operation. The heart structure was observed through the tissue morphologic examination. The activity of TIMP-3 gene-transfected VSMCs were measured by immunohistochemical method. Proteins of TIMP-3 and matrix metalloproteinase 9(MMP-9) were determined by Western blot.
VSMCs were cultivated and had a high purity (98%). TIMP-3 gene was transfected into VSMCs successfully. One week after operation in groups A, B and C, the average percentage of infarction myocardium size and left ventricle free wall area were 28.73%+/-1.56%, 39.63%+/-1.84% and 46.32%+/-2.16% separately. Group A was significantly lower than groups B and C (P<0.01), group B was significantly lower than group C (P<0.01). In groups A, B and C the average left ventricle volume indexes were 5.27+/-0.21 mm3/g, 6.69+/-0.34 mm3/g and 9.67+/-0.88 mm3/g respectively. Group A was significantly smaller than groups B and C (P<0.01), group B was significantly smaller than group C (P<0.01). The immunohistochemical observation confirmed that the implanted VSMCs and TIMP-3 gene were survival in ischemic area. The protein content of TIMP-3 in ischemic myocardium was significantly higher in group A (300 704.8+/-3 692.8) than in groups B and C (195548.8+/-3014.2, 177991.1+/-2502.1) (P<0.01), the protein content of MMP-9 in ischemic myocardium was significantly lower in group A (594827.4+/-5708.5) than in groups B and C (921461.4+/-8887.4, 1044445.0+/-8788.6) (P<0.01).
Implanted TIMP-3 gene transfected VSMCs in ischemic myocardium can conspicuously reduce the myocardium remodeling after AMI.
No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Characteristically, uterine myometrial cells (MCs) are proliferative, inducing angiogenesis within the female reproductive organ. We evaluated whether MCs implanted into myocardium could also induce angiogenesis and restore heart function after injury. MCs were isolated from the adult rat uterus and cultured for three studies: 1) Intracellular VEGF levels were measured in MCs cultured with progesterone (10(-11), 10(-9), and 10(-7) M) (n = 6 tests per group). 2) Blood vessel density was evaluated 8 days after MCs (3 x 10(6) or 6 x 10(6)), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), or endothelial cells (n = 6 rats per group) were injected with matrigel into the subcutaneous tissue of adult rats. 3) MCs, SMCs (5 x 10(6)/rat), or media were injected into a transmural scar 3 wk after cryoinjury in rat hearts (n = 12 rats per group), and heart function, blood vessel density, and myocardial scar size and thickness were evaluated 5 wk later. In study 1, cultured MCs expressed VEGF, with levels significantly (P < 0.05) upregulated by progesterone at an optimal dose of 10(-11) M. In study 2, MCs injected into the subcutaneous tissue with matrigel induced significantly more blood vessels, especially large-diameter vessels, than did SMCs or endothelial cells (P < 0.01 for all groups). This angiogenic effect was greatest (P < 0.01) at higher doses of MCs and was enhanced by progesterone (10(-11) M). In study 3, MCs implanted into the injured myocardium increased blood vessel density at the implant area, reduced scar size, and improved cardiac function relative to SMCs and media. Overall, MCs induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, prevented cardiac remodeling, and improved heart functional recovery after cardiac injury.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the impact of donor age on the efficacy of myocardial cellular therapy for ischemic cardiomyopathy. Characteristics of smooth muscle cells (SMC), bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs), and skeletal muscle cells (SKMCs) from young, adult, and old rats were compared in vitro. Three weeks after coronary ligation, 3.5 million SMCs (n = 11) or MSCs (n = 9) from old syngenic rats or culture medium (n = 6) were injected into the ischemic region. Five weeks after implantation, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and the Langendorff apparatus. In the in vitro study, the numbers and proliferation of MSCs from fresh bone marrow and SKMCs from fresh tissue but not SMCs were markedly diminished in old animals (P < 0.05 both groups). SKMCs from old animals did not reach confluence. After treatment with 5-azacytidine (azacitidine), the myogenic potential of old MSCs was decreased compared with young MSCs. In the in vivo study, both SMC and MSC transplantation induced significant angiogenesis compared with media injections (P < 0.05 both groups). Transplantation of SMCs but not MSCs prevented scar thinning (P = 0.03) and improved ejection fraction and fractional shortening (P < 0.05). Load-independent indices of cardiac function in a Langendorff preparation confirmed improved function in the aged SMC group (P = 0.01) but not in the MSC group compared with the control group. In conclusion, donor age adversely impacts the efficacy of cellular therapy for myocardial regeneration and is cell-type dependent. SMCs from old donors retain their ability to improve cardiac function after implantation into ischemic myocardium.
No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell transplantation offers the promise in the restoration of ventricular function after an extensive myocardial infarction, but the optimal cell type remains controversial. Human unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) isolated from umbilical cord blood have great potential to differentiate into myogenic cells and induce angiogenesis. The present study evaluated the effect of USSCs on myocardial regeneration and improvement of heart function after myocardial infarction in a porcine model.
The distal left anterior descending artery of Yorkshire pigs (30 to 35 kg) was occluded by endovascular implantation of a coil. Four weeks after infarction, single-photon emission computed tomography technetium 99m sestamibi scans (MIBI) and echocardiography were performed. USSCs (100 x 10(6)) or culture media were then directly injected into the infarcted region (n=8 per group). Pigs were immunosuppressed by daily administration of cyclosporin A. At 4 weeks after transplantation, MIBI and echocardiography were repeated and heart function was also assessed with a pressure-volume catheter. The infarcted myocardium and implanted cells were studied histologically. MIBI showed improved regional perfusion (P<0.05) and wall motion (P<0.05) of the infarct region in the transplant group compared with the control. Ejection fraction evaluated by both MIBI and echocardiography decreased in the control group but increased in the transplant group (P<0.01). Scar thickness of the transplant group was higher than the control. The grafted cells were detected 4 weeks after transplantation by both immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.
Engrafted USSCs were detected in the infarct region 4 weeks after cell transplantation, and the implanted cells improved regional and global function of the porcine heart after a myocardial infarction. This study suggests that the USSC implantation will be efficacious for cellular cardiomyoplasty.