- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To assess and compare the uterine volume and endometrium length between women with and without endometriosis, using pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scans. Methods: In this case-control study, a total of 75 nulligravid women (aged 20-45 years) with regular menstrual cycles whose uterus were free of any surgically confirmed lesions were enrolled. The endometriosis group underwent surgery for endometrioma (n = 39), and the control group underwent surgery for non-endometrioma ovarian cysts (n = 36). The primary outcome was uterine corpus volume, which was assessed using three-dimensional reconstructions of preoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scans. Results: The mean uterine volume was significantly larger in the endometriosis group than in the control group (mean ± standard deviation, 50.9 ± 14.4 cm(3) vs 41.7 ± 14.3 cm(3) ; P < 0.01). The longitudinal length and transverse diameter of the corpus and the longitudinal length of the endometrium were also significantly greater in the endometriosis group (all, P < 0.01). Conclusions: An increase in uterine volume and endometrium length was observed in women with endometriosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary vulvar adenocarcinomas are very rare. We describe the rare case of primary vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma, a histologically rare subtype of vulvar adenocarcinoma. A 57-year-old Japanese woman presented with an enlarging vulvar mass. A dark-red, hemorrhagic, ulcerated tumor was on the right side of the anterior labial commissure measuring approximately 3.5 × 3.5 cm. Preoperative biopsy showed poorly differentiated carcinoma with partial differentiation to adenocarcinoma. Systemic examination revealed lymph node metastases in both inguinal regions and no other primary source. We performed radical vulvectomy and bilateral inguinal and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Histopathologic diagnosis was apocrine adenocarcinoma of the vulva with inguinal lymph node metastases, pT1bN2bM0. Surgical margins were negative. The patient received no adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation. Inguinal lymph node recurrence occurred after six months. Reresection and adjuvant tomotherapy were performed. After a further 12 months of observation, no rerecurrence was observed. The patient is now on follow-up.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a 24/4-day regimen of a low-dose combination drospirenone-ethinylestradiol oral contraceptive in alleviating perimenstrual symptoms among Japanese women with endometriosis. Methods: The present prospective, non-randomized study enrolled women diagnosed with endometriosis radiographically or surgically at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine hospital, Japan, between December 1, 2010 and August 31, 2013. Patients received treatment with oral drospirenone-ethinylestradiol for six treatment cycles. Dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain, and dyspareunia severity were assessed using visual analog scale scores after three and six treatment cycles, and changes in perimenstrual symptoms were assessed using the menstrual distress questionnaire (MDQ) scores. Results: In total, 46 patients were recruited for the study. Dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain, and dyspareunia were all significantly reduced after both three and six treatment cycles in comparison with baseline (P<0.001 for all comparisons). After six treatment cycles, significant reductions were observed for all menstrual MDQ measures and for the premenstrual water retention and negative-effect MDQ measures (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Combination drospirenone-ethinylestradiol was effective in the treatment of dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain, dyspareunia, and somatic/psychological symptoms in Japanese women with endometriosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among diseases causing acute lower abdominal pain in women, isolated fallopian tube torsion is very rare, with an annual prevalence of 1 in 1.5 million. Because it has fewer findings on imaging compared to adnexal torsion, the correct diagnosis can rarely be made before an operation. We present a case of isolated fallopian tube torsion that was suspected preoperatively by its clinical course and findings on computed tomography. A 24-year-old woman repeatedly experienced acute colicky pain in the right lower back. Transvaginal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a right pelvic cystic lesion with intact ovaries; these findings led us to schedule a laparoscopic examination. However, the patient presented to the emergency room with acute severe right back pain. The preoperative diagnosis considering the computed tomography findings and clinical course was consistent with fallopian tube torsion. An earlier diagnosis may have helped to preserve the fallopian tube and future fertility.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pure osteosarcoma arising from the uterus is extremely rare. Only 15 cases of this type of cancer have been reported to date. Most patients showed local or lung metastasis early after surgery and died within a year of treatment initiation, regardless of multimodality therapy, indicating that this tumor is aggressive with a poor prognosis. Herein, we report the first clinical experience treated with a combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine for local and lung metastasis from primary osteosarcoma of the uterus. Although the disease was considered stable after three cycles of treatment, new metastatic lesions appeared in the lungs after six cycles. The patient was asymptomatic for 13 months; however, she died two months after symptom recurrence. Our case demonstrates that a combined regimen of docetaxel and gemcitabine may be a sound therapeutic option to control primary osteosarcoma of the uterus.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen-related receptor (ERR)α presents structural similarities with estrogen receptor (ER)α. However, it is an orphan receptor not binding to naturally occurring estrogens. This study was designed to investigate the role of ERRα in endometrial cancer progression. Immunohistochemistry analysis on 50 specimens from patients with endometrial cancer showed that ERRα was expressed in all examined tissues and the elevated expression levels of ERRα were associated with advanced clinical stages and serous histological type (p < 0.01 for each). ERRα knockdown with siRNA suppressed angiogenesis via VEGF and cell proliferation in vitro (p < 0.01). Cell cycle and apoptosis assays using flow cytometry and western blot revealed that ERRα knockdown induced cell cycle arrest during the mitotic phase followed by apoptosis initiated by caspase-3. Additionally, ERRα knockdown sensitized cells to paclitaxel. A significant reduction of tumor growth and angiogenesis was also observed in ERRα knockdown xenografts (p < 0.01). These findings indicate that ERRα may serve as a novel molecular target for the treatment of endometrial cancer.
Data: Supplementary Material
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Endometriosis is commonly believed to originate from functionalis endometrium and adenomyosis from basalis endometrium. Due to the lack of enough information, we investigated the biological differences between these two layers of endometrium in women with and without adenomyosis. Study design: This was a case-controlled study with 12 control women and 17 women with adenomyosis undergoing hysterectomy. Full thickness (extending from the endometrium to the myometrium) biopsy specimens were obtained after the hysterectomy. Based on the phases of the menstrual cycle, the expression patterns of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Ki-67, and activated Caspase-3 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the functionalis and basalis endometria. Apoptotic cells were evaluated by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Results: A similar pattern of ER and PR expression was found in the functionalis and basalis endometria during the proliferative phase. In contrast, a significantly lower ER and PR expression was found in the basalis endometria than in the functionalis endometria during the secretory phase and the menstrual phase. This was equally observed in control women and in women with adenomyosis. Except Ki-67 indices, TUNEL-positive cells, and expression of activated Caspase-3 were significantly lower in the basalis endometria than in the functionalis endometria during the secretory phase. Conclusion: A significant biological difference was found between the functionalis and the basalis endometria derived from women with adenomyosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the efficacy of the treatment methods of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in the gynecological field, as recommended in the JAID/JSC Guide to the Clinical Management of Infectious Diseases 2014 and the 2011 Guidelines of Japanese Society for Sexually Transmitted Infection. Among 2,299 pregnant women who had a positive result in the CT screening test, 388 received acetylspiramycin (ASPM) 1,200 mg/day for 14 days, 209 received erythromycin (EM) 1,200 mg/day for 14 days, 129 received clarithromycin (CAM) 400 mg/day for 14 days and 1,519 received a single-dose administration of azithromycin (AZM) 1,000 mg. Cure of infection was assessed in all the patients in 2 to 3 weeks. Sixty-eight patients with CT-associated cervicitis and 24 patients with CT-associated pharyngitis received levofloxacin (LVFX) 500 mg/day for 7 days and underwent a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination 21 days later. In addition, among patients with CT-associated proctitis, 30 received a single-dose administration of AZM 2,000 mg and 9 received sitafloxacin (STFX) 100 mg/day for 7 days, in all of whom the rate of infection eradication was assessed 21 days later. The bacterial eradication rate was high in all the groups of the pregnant women; 96.5% (375/388) in the ASPM group, 99% (207/209) in the EM group, 96.1% (124/129) in the CAM group and 99.6% (1,513/1,519) in the AZM group. No maternal infection was observed in any of the positive patients, who received treatment. The bacterial eradication rate was also high in the patients with CT-associated cervicitis who received LVFX (93.2%, 55/59) and CT-associated pharyngitis who received LVFX (95.8%, 23/24). The bacterial eradication rate in patients with CT-associated proctitis who received AZM was 86.7% (26/30), which was lower than that in the cervicitis group although AZM can migrate well into the rectum. On the other hand, the STFX bacterial eradication rate in the proctitis patients was 100% (7/7). From the results given above, we obtained extremely satisfactory results with almost all of the treatment methods of CT infections recommended in the gynecology guidelines except in those cases with CT-associated proctitis treated with AZM.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: A major concern in hormone replacement therapy is the associated increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. A progestogen without the unfavorable effects on cardiovascular disease should be explored. Monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells is an important initial event in atherosclerosis. In this study, the effects of the alternative progestogen drospirenone (DRSP) on monocyte adhesion in human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) were examined. Study design: In HUVECs treated with estrogens and progestogens, including DRSP and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), the expression of the adhesion molecules E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were examined by real-time PCR and using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A flow chamber system was used to investigate the effects of DRSP on U937 monocytoid cell adherence to HUVEC monolayers. All experimental data were compared using one-way Analysis of Variance. Results: Upregulation of adhesion molecule mRNA or protein was not seen in HUVECs treated with DRSP alone or with 17β-estradiol+DRSP. DRSP alone, 17β-estradiol+DRSP or ethinylestradiol+DRSP did not increase the number of adherent monocytoid cells to HUVECs in the flow chamber system. However, MPA significantly enhanced the monocytoid cell adherence (P<0.05). Conclusions: DRSP did not increase the expression of adhesion molecules or monocytoid cell adherence to endothelial cells, indicating that DRSP could reduce the risk of atherogenesis caused by MPA. These results suggest that DRSP may be an alternative to MPA in hormone replacement therapy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of pregnancy-associated breast cancer with metastasis to the brain, likely resulting from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). A 35-year-old woman (gravida 2, para 0-1-0-1) underwent a right mastectomy and right axillary dissection after a cesarean section at 30 years of age; her mother died at 47 years of age due to breast cancer. Histopathological examination indicated an invasive ductal carcinoma with triple-negative cancer (cancer stage 2B [pT3N0M0]). The patient refused adjuvant therapy because of the risk of infertility. After 4 years, she became pregnant naturally. At 18 weeks’ gestation, she experienced aphasia and dyslexia due to brain metastasis. The pregnancy was terminated at 21 weeks’ gestation after thorough counseling. Her family history, young-onset disease, and histopathological findings suggested HBOC. She declined genetic testing for BRCA1/2, though genetic counseling was provided. In cases of pregnancy-related breast cancer, consideration must be given to whether the pregnancy should be continued and to posttreatment fertility. HBOC should also be considered. Genetic counseling should be provided and the patient should be checked for the BRCA mutation, as it is meaningful for the future of any potential children. Genetic counseling should be provided even if the cancer is advanced or recurrent.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Increased intrauterine microbial colonization by bacteria culture method and occurrence of endometritis have been reported in women with endometriosis. Here we investigated microbial colonization in intrauterine environment and cystic fluid of women with and without endometriosis by molecular approach. Study design: This is a case-controlled biological study with a total of 32 women each with and without endometriosis. Among them, 16 each in these two groups of women received treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa). Pattern of microbial colonization in endometrial swabs and endometrioma/non-endometrioma cystic fluid was examined using broad-range polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) amplification of bacteria targeting 16S rRNA gene (rDNA). After quantification of index PCR product, 16S rDNA metagenome sequence analysis was done by Illumina Miseq system. Results: A wide proportion (0.01-97.8%) of multiple bacteria was detected in both endometrial swabs and cystic fluid collected from women with and without endometriosis. 16S metagenome assay indicated that proportion of Lactobacillacae was significantly decreased (p<0.01) and of Streptococcaceae, Staphylococaceae, Enterobacteriaceae was significantly increased (p<0.05 for each) in GnRHa-treated women with endometriosis than in GnRHa-untreated women. While bacteria culture method failed to detect a single colony, 16S metagenome assay could detect significantly higher percentage of Streptococcaceae (p<0.01) and Staphylococaceae (p<0.05) in the cystic fluid derived from women with ovarian endometrioma comparing to that in cystic fluid collected from non-endometrioma cysts. Conclusion: These findings indicate the occurrence of sub-clinical infection in intrauterine environment and in the cystic fluid of ovarian endometrioma. Additional side effect of GnRHa treatment in promoting silent intrauterine and/or ovarian infection should be considered.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human lower genital tract is constantly exposed to various microorganisms, which can infect the upper genital tract through ascending migration. We report on tests of the hypothesis that as normal microbial flora in the vagina, some gram-negative bacteria infect the uterine wall after ascending migration from the vagina, to contaminate menstrual blood, consequently resulting in accumulation of endotoxin in the menstrual/peritoneal fluid and initiation of pelvic inflammation. The aim of the present review is to assess possible intrauterine microbial colonization and to examine the stimulatory effect of E. coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the secretion of various macromolecules by macrophages (Mφ) known to be involved in endometriosis. We also assess the growth-promoting effect of LPS on endometrial cells and the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a receptor recognizing LPS, in the secretion of macromolecules by Mφ and growth of endometrial cells. We found higher intrauterine microbial colonization in women with endometriosis than in controls. The ligand from gram-negative bacteria is involved in TLR4-mediated proinflammation in the pelvis as well as growth of endometriosis. Treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) further promotes intrauterine microbial colonization compared with GnRHa-untreated women. Conclusions: We propose the bacterial contamination hypothesis as a new concept in endometriosis. Based on our current findings, an estrogen-suppressing agent and an antimicrobial agent may have new therapeutic potential in women with endometriosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highlights • Malignant transformation of deep infiltrating endometriosis involving the bladder is quite rare. • We review eight relevant cases which have been reported. • This is the second case fulfilling Sampson and Scott criteria.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Decreases in serum testosterone concentrations in aging men are associated with metabolic disorders. Testosterone has been reported to increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. However, studies on glucose uptake occurring in response to testosterone stimulation in adipocytes are currently not available. This study was designed to determine the effects of testosterone on glucose uptake in adipocytes. Glucose uptake was assessed with 2-[(3)H] deoxyglucose in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. GLUT4 translocation was evaluated in plasma membrane (PM) sheets and PM fractions by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, respectively. Activation of GLUT4 translocation-related protein kinases, including Akt, AMPK, LKB1, CaMKI, CaMKII, and Cbl was followed by immunoblotting. Expression levels of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA and AR translocation to the PM were assessed by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. The results showed that both high-dose (100 nM) testosterone and testosterone-BSA increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the PM, independently of the intracellular AR. Testosterone and testosterone-BSA stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK, LKB1, and CaMKII. The knockdown of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated testosterone- and testosterone-BSA-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake. These results indicate that high-dose testosterone and testosterone-BSA increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inducing the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of rectal cancer with microsatellite instability (MSI) that probably resulted from Lynch syndrome and that was diagnosed after Cesarean section. The patient was a 28-year-old woman (gravid 1, para 1) without a significant medical history. At 35 gestational weeks, vaginal ultrasonography revealed a 5 cm tumor behind the uterine cervix, which was diagnosed as a uterine myoma. The tumor gradually increased in size and blocked the birth canal, resulting in the patient undergoing an emergency Cesarean section. Postoperatively, the tumor was diagnosed as rectal cancer with MSI. After concurrent chemoradiation therapy, a lower anterior resection was performed. The patient's family history revealed she met the criteria of the revised Bethesda guidelines for testing the colorectal tumor for MSI. Testing revealed that the tumor did indeed show high MSI and, combined with the family history, suggested this could be a case of Lynch syndrome. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering the possibility of Lynch syndrome in pregnant women with colorectal cancer, particularly those with a family history of this condition. We suggest that the presence of Lynch syndrome should also be considered for any young woman with endometrial, ovarian, or colorectal cancer.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 4-Hydroxyderricin (4HD) and xanthoangelol (XAG) are major components of n-hexane/ethyl acetate (5:1) extract of the yellow-colored stem juice of Angelica keiskei. 4-Hydroxyderricin and XAG have been reported to increase glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, but the detailed mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism by which 4HD and XAG increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Both 4HD and XAG increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. 4-Hydroxyderricin and XAG also stimulated the phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. In addition, phosphorylation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), which acts upstream of AMPK, was also increased by 4HD and XAG treatment. Small interfering RNA knockdown of LKB1 attenuated 4HD- and XAG-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and suppressed glucose uptake. These findings demonstrate that 4HD and XAG can increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake through the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AF-6/afadin plays an important role in the formation of adherence junctions. In breast and colon cancer, loss of AF-6/afadin induces cell migration and cell invasion. We aimed to elucidate the role of AF-6/afadin in human endometrial cancer. Morphology and AF-6/afadin expression in endometrial cancer cell lines was investigated by 3-dimensional culture. We used Matrigel invasion assay to demonstrate AF-6/afadin knockdown induced invasive capability. Cell proliferation assay was performed to estimate chemoresistance to doxorubicin, paclitaxel and cisplatin induced by AF-6/afadin knockdown. The associations between AF-6/afadin expression and clinicopathological status were determined by immunohistochemical analysis in endometrial cancer tissues. Informed consent was obtained from all patients before the study. The majority of cell clumps in 3-dimensional cultures of Ishikawa cells that strongly expressed AF-6/afadin showed round gland-like structures. In contrast, the cell clumps in 3-dimensional cultures of HEC1A and AN3CA cells-both weakly expressing AF-6/afadin-showed irregular gland-like structures and disorganized colonies with no gland-like structures, respectively. AF-6/afadin knockdown resulted in reduced number of gland-like structures in 3-dimensional cultures and enhancement of cell invasion and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Src in the highly AF-6/afadin-expressing endometrial cancer cell line. Inhibitors of MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) (U0126) and Src (SU6656) suppressed the AF-6/afadin knockdown-induced invasive capability. AF-6/afadin knockdown induced chemoresistance to doxorubicin, paclitaxel and cisplatin in Ishikawa cells, not in HEC1A. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that AF-6/afadin expression was significantly associated with myometrial invasion and high histological grade. AF-6/afadin regulates cell morphology and invasiveness. Invasive capability is partly regulated through the ERK and Src pathway. The inhibitors to these pathways might be molecular-targeted drugs which suppress myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer. AF-6/afadin could be a useful selection marker for fertility-sparing therapy for patients with atypical hyperplasia or grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma with no myometrial invasion. AF-6/afadin knockdown induced chemoresistance especially to cisplatin. Therefore, loss of AF-6/afadin might be a predictive marker of chemoresistance to cisplatin.
Tohoku UniversitySendai-shi, Miyagi, Japan