[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims Neonatal infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The ongoing Swiss Paediatric Sepsis Study prospectively evaluates the epidemiology of blood culture-proven sepsis in newborns and children in Switzerland.
Methods Newborn infants admitted to nine Swiss neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and presenting with culture-proven sepsis between 9.2011–2.2014 were prospectively enrolled. Early-onset sepsis (EOS) was defined as infection occurring.
Results We identified 189 episodes of blood culture-proven sepsis in 186 patients. Thirty seven episodes were classified as EOS and 152 episodes were classified as LOS. Median gestational age at birth was 34 weeks for EOS, and 28 weeks for LOS. Mortality was 14% in EOS and 9% in LOS. Forty six percent of patients required mechanical ventilation during the sepsis episode, and 4% required catecholamine treatment for arterial hypotension.
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and Escherichia coli were the most frequently isolated pathogens in EOS, accounting for 35% and 16% of episodes. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the leading pathogens in LOS (36%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (18%), Escherichia coli (16%), and GBS (11%). The proportion of hospital-acquired LOS due to Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli varied between 10–68%, 0–45% and 0–30% in different NICUs.
Conclusions This national study confirms that neonatal sepsis continues to cause high morbidity and significant mortality. GBS is the most common cause of EOS. There are important differences in the aetiology of LOS in different institutions.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Archives of Disease in Childhood
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutic hypothermia has become a standard neuroprotective treatment in term newborn infants following perinatal asphyxia. Active cooling with whole body surface or head cooling is complex, expensive and often associated with initial hypothermic overshoot. We speculated that passive cooling might suffice to induce and maintain hypothermia.
We analysed 18 asphyxiated term newborns treated with hypothermia in three tertiary neonatal and paediatric intensive care units. Target temperatures of 33.5 °C or 33.0 °C were induced and maintained by turning off the heating system of the open neonatal care unit and by using analgesics and sedatives. We compared our results with matching published data from the hypothermia trial of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) neonatal research network.
Four infants required no active cooling at all during the whole cooling period. The other 14 infants had passive cooling during 85% of the total cooling time, and active cooling with ice packs in 15% of the total cooling time. Overshoot was smaller in the present study than in the NICHD study.
Passive cooling for asphyxiated newborns appears to be feasible for induction and maintenance of hypothermia with a lower risk of overshoot.
Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) following perinatal asphyxial encephalopathy in term infants improves mortality and neurodevelopmental outcome. In Europe, most neonatal units perform active cooling whereas in Switzerland passive cooling is predominantly used. AIMS: (i) To determine how many infants were cooled within the last 5years in Switzerland, (ii) to assess the cooling methods, (iii) to evaluate the variation of temperature of different cooling methods, and (iv) to evaluate the use of neuromonitoring. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS: Notes of all cooled term infants between March 2005 and December 2010 in 9 perinatal and two paediatric intensive care centres were retrospectively reviewed. Active cooling was compared to passive cooling alone and to passive cooling in combination with gel packs. RESULTS: 150 infants were cooled. Twenty-seven (18.2%) were cooled actively, 34 (23%) passively and 87 (58.8%) passively in combination with gel packs. Variation of temperature was significantly different between the three methods. Passive cooling had a significant higher variation of temperature (SD of 0.89) than both passive cooling in combination with gel packs (SD of 0.79) and active cooling (SD of 0.76). aEEG before TH was obtained in 35.8% of the infants and 86.5% had full EEG. One cUS was performed in 95.3% and MRI in 62.2% of the infants. CONCLUSION: Target temperature can be achieved with all three cooling methods. Passive cooling has the highest variation of temperature. Neuromonitoring should be improved in Swiss neonatal and paediatric intensive care units. Our results stress the importance of national registries.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Early human development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pattern-recognition molecule M-ficolin is synthesized by monocytes and neutrophils. M-ficolin activates the complement system in a manner similar to mannan-binding lectin (MBL), but little is known about its role in host defense. Neonates are highly vulnerable to bacterial sepsis, in particular, due to their decreased phagocytic function.
M-ficolin cord blood concentration was positively correlated with the absolute phagocyte count (ρ 0.51, P < 0.001) and with immature/total neutrophil ratio (ρ 0.34, P < 0.001). When comparing infants with sepsis and controls, a high M-ficolin cord blood concentration (>1,000 ng/ml) was associated with early-onset sepsis (EOS) (multivariate odds ratio 10.92, 95% confidence interval 2.21-54.02, P = 0.003). Experimental exposure of phagocytes isolated from adult donors to Escherichia coli resulted in a significant time- and dose-dependent release of M-ficolin.
In conclusion, M-ficolin concentrations were related to circulating phagocytes and EOS. Our results indicate that bacterial sepsis can trigger M-ficolin release by phagocytes. Future studies should investigate whether M-ficolin may be used as a marker of neutrophil activation during invasive infections.
We investigated M-ficolin in 47 infants with culture-positive sepsis during the first 30 days of life (13 with EOS and in 94 matched controls. M-ficolin was measured in cord blood using time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TRIFMA). Multivariate logistic regression was performed.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Pediatric Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid bedside determination of cerebral blood pressure autoregulation (AR) may improve clinical utility. We tested the hypothesis that cerebral Hb oxygenation (HbDiff) and cerebral Hb volume (HbTotal) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) would correlate with cerebral blood flow (CBF) after single dose phenylephrine (PE). Critically ill patients requiring artificial ventilation and arterial lines were eligible. During rapid blood pressure rise induced by i.v. PE bolus, ΔHbDiff and ΔHbTotal were calculated by subtracting values at baseline (normotension) from values at peak blood pressure elevation (hypertension). With the aid of NIRS and bolus injection of indocyanine green, relative measures of CBF, called blood flow index (BFI), were determined during normotension and during hypertension. BFI during hypertension was expressed as percentage from BFI during normotension (BFI%). Autoregulation indices (ARIs) were calculated by dividing BFI%, ΔHbDiff, and ΔHbTotal by the concomitant change in blood pressure. In 24 patients (11 newborns and 13 children), significant correlations between BFI% and ΔHbDiff (or ΔHbTotal) were found. In addition, the associations between Hb-based ARI and BFI%-based ARI were significant with correlation coefficients of 0.73 (or 0.72). Rapid determination of dynamic AR with the aid of cerebral Hb signals and PE bolus seems to be reliable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND. The incidence of bacterial sepsis during the neonatal period is high. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), L-ficolin, and H-ficolin recognize microorganisms and activate the complement system via MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs). This study investigated whether cord blood concentrations of the lectin pathway proteins are associated with neonatal sepsis. METHODS. This was a case-control study including 47 infants with culture-proven sepsis during the first month of life and 94 matched controls. MBL, L-ficolin, H-ficolin, MASP-2, and MASP-3 levels were measured in cord blood with use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and time-resolved immunofluorometric assay. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. RESULTS. Infants with gram-positive sepsis had significantly lower H-ficolin cord blood concentrations than controls (multivariate odds ratio [OR], 4.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51-10.56; P = .005), whereas infants with gram-negative sepsis had lower MBL cord blood concentrations (OR, 2.99; 95% CI, 0.86-10.33; P = .084). When excluding patients with postoperative sepsis, multivariate analysis confirmed that low H-ficolin was associated with a significantly higher risk of gram-positive sepsis (OR, 3.71; 95% CI, 1.26-10.92; P = .017) and late-onset sepsis (OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.07-9.21; P = .037). In contrast, low MBL was associated with a significantly higher risk of gram-negative sepsis (OR, 4.39; 95% CI, 1.10-17.45; P = .036) and early-onset sepsis (OR, 3.87; 95% CI, 1.05-14.29; P = .042). The concentrations of all the lectin pathway proteins increased with gestational age (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS. These preliminary results indicate that low MBL concentrations are a susceptibility factor for gram-negative sepsis, and low H-ficolin concentrations indicate susceptibility to gram-positive sepsis. The decreased expression of lectin pathway proteins in neonates must be considered to be an additional form of neonatal immunodeficiency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A patent arterial duct in pre-term neonates is frequent. Systemic complications consecutive to left-to-right shunting are well known but fatal myocardial ischaemia has not been described till now. The presented premature baby died from catecholamine refractory cardiogenic shock. Autoptic examination revealed acute ischaemic changes predominantly in the inner third of myocardium, speaking of coronary hypoperfusion due to a steal phenomenon secondary to the patent arterial duct.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Cardiology in the Young
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a 9-year-old boy, bridging to transplantation was successful with an external biventricular device, the Berlin Heart Excor (Berlin Heart, Berlin, Germany), during a 7-month period. Main long-term complications consisted of infection and hypercoagulability with clotting inside the chambers necessitating six pump exchanges, but without thromboembolic events. This report reviews hemostasis monitoring and management of long-term mechanical circulatory support.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disseminated adenoviral infection with hepatitis is rare in children undergoing standard chemotherapy. We report on a 3(1/2)-year-old male with fatal adenovirus hepatitis receiving maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Adenoviral hepatitis was proven by histology, viral culture, and PCR in a liver biopsy. Quantitative real-time PCR in the peripheral blood showed adenoviral DNA copy number >10(9)/ml. Despite aggressive supportive care and antiviral treatment with cidofovir, the patient died rapidly due to fulminant liver failure. Diagnostic and treatment options for adenovirus infection remain unsatisfactory for these patients. We propose suggestions for diagnosis and therapy.
No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) caused by surfactant deficiency is described not only in preterm infants but also in (near-) term babies after caesarean section (CS), especially when carried out before the onset of labour. The aim of the present study was to document the severity of this theoretically avoidable entity in order to improve obstetric and perinatal care.
All neonates admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit of the University Hospital of Bern between 1988 and 2000 with RDS on the basis of hyaline membrane disease (HMD) needing mechanical ventilation (MV) after CS and with a birthweight > or = 2500 g were analysed. HMD was diagnosed when respiratory distress and the typical radiological signs were present. Patients were grouped into elective CS before onset of labour and before rupture of membranes (group 1, n = 34) and patients delivered by emergency CS or CS after onset of labour or rupture of membranes (group 2, n = 22). Analysed indices for severity of illness were duration of stay in intensive care unit and MV, ventilation mode, worst oxygenation index (OI), presence of pulmonary air leak, and systemic hypotension.
Mean gestational age (GA) was 37 2/7 weeks in group 1 and 36 2/7 weeks in group 2; no patient had a GA of > or = 39 0/7 weeks. Duration of MV was 4.4 days in group 1 and 3.9 days in group 2. Thirteen patients (38%) of group 1 and 7 (32%) of group 2 had to be managed by rescue high-frequency ventilation. A total of 7 patients had an OI>40. Eight patients (24%) in group 1 and 4 (18%) in group 2 developed a pulmonary air leak. Fourteen neonates (41%) in group 1 had to be supported by catecholamines versus 5 (22%) in group 2. There was one death in group 1.
Severe RDS on the basis of HMD can also occur in near-term babies after CS; even a fatal outcome can not be excluded. The severity of illness in elective CS without labour may be quite high and is comparable to newborns delivered by CS (after onset of labour and/or rupture of the membranes) who were 1 week younger. No case of HMD was found in our population when CS was carried out after completion of 39 post-menstrual weeks of gestation.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2003 · Swiss medical weekly: official journal of the Swiss Society of Infectious Diseases, the Swiss Society of Internal Medicine, the Swiss Society of Pneumology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the feasibility and reproducibility of the blood flow index (BFI) method for measuring cerebral blood flow.
Prospective functional study in pediatric intensive care.
14 consecutive patients with median age of 2 months (range 1 days-11 years) requiring artificial ventilation, invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring, and central venous access.
The first passage of an intravenous indocyanine green (ICG) bolus through the cerebral vasculature was monitored by noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy. BFI was calculated by dividing maximal ICG absorption change by rise time. Reproducibility was evaluated by six ICG injections at 5-min intervals.
Of all ICG injections 6% were canceled, and 4% were eliminated due to injection failures. Median BFI of 17 reproducibility determinations was 71 (range 12-213) and median coefficient of variation (CV) of BFI was 10% (4.9-18.5). The quantity of ICG bolus did not affect the CV (0.1 vs. 0.3 mg ICG/kg). Eight reproducibility tests in patients after cardiac surgery had smaller CV than the others, and the eight in newborns had higher CV than in older children. Patient parameters such as arterial blood pressure, endtidal CO(2), and percutaneous oxygen saturation were stable and showed CV below 2% during reproducibility determination.
The BFI method allows rapid and repeated measurements of CBF with good feasibility and reproducibility. As a relative but not absolute measure of CBF, BFI seems to be suited for clinical evaluation of intraindividual CBF changes during determination of cerebrovascular reactivities or during therapeutic interventions.
No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · Intensive Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) continuously monitors changes in cerebral hemoglobin saturation (Hb(Diff) ) and content (Hb(Total)). It may allow visualization of the dynamic cerebral autoregulatory response to rapid blood pressure increases without relevant contamination of the NIRS signal from extracerebral hemoglobin.
Prospective cohort study.
Multidisciplinary pediatric intensive care unit.
Six consecutive children in coma due to severe encephalopathy (head trauma, five patients; mumps encephalitis, one patient) requiring artificial ventilation, invasive arterial blood, and intracranial pressure monitoring.
Frontotemporal recording of Hb(Diff) and Hb(Total) while rapidly elevating blood pressure by bolus injection of phenylephrine.
During an increase of blood pressure of 13 +/- 1 mm Hg with a "rise time" of 16 +/- 1 secs (mean of a total of 31 injections +/- sem), a significant linear correlation was found between Hb(Diff) and intracranial pressure signals (mean coefficient, 0.46 +/- 0.04) but not between Hb(Total) and intracranial pressure. Three response patterns were observed. First, Hb(Diff) and intracranial pressure reduction, corresponding with vasoconstriction and normal dynamic autoregulation (n = 3); second, Hb(Diff) and intracranial pressure increase, corresponding with persistent vasodilation and abolished autoregulation (n = 11); and third, transient Hb(Diff) and intracranial pressure increase followed by a decrease at peak blood pressure elevation, called impaired autoregulation (n = 15). In one patient with fatal brain swelling, phenylephrine testing showed no effect on NIRS signals (n = 2). Furthermore, there were significant correlations between 31 pooled interindividual pairs of Hb(Diff) changes with intracranial pressure changes (values at baseline averaged over 60 secs subtracted from values at peak blood pressure elevation averaged over 5 secs), with a correlation coefficient of .82 (p <.001).
NIRS represents a new and promising technique for bedside determination of dynamic cerebral autoregulation during acutely induced blood pressure rise. The significant correlations found between NIRS signals and intracranial pressure excluded relevant extracerebral contamination of the NIRS signals. In our patients with severe encephalopathy, dynamic autoregulation was in most instances not fully preserved.
No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · Critical Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypothermia may be an ideal neuroprotective intervention in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy after perinatal asphyxia. The present study describes the long-term effects of prolonged resuscitative whole-body hypothermia initiated 2 h after hypoxic-ischemic injury on brain morphology and neuropsychological behavior in 7-d-old rats. After right common carotid artery ligation and exposure to hypoxia of 8% O(2) for 105 min, 10 animals were kept normothermic at 37 degrees C and 10 animals were cooled to 30 degrees C rectal temperature for 26 h, starting 2 h after the hypoxic-ischemic insult. All hypoxic-ischemic animals were gavage fed to guarantee long-term survival. Neuroprotection was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral testing. Hypothermia significantly reduced the final size of cerebral infarction by 23% at 6 wk after the insult. The most extended tissue rescue was found in the hippocampus (21%, p = 0.031), followed by the striatum (13%, p = 0.143) and the cortex (11%, p = 0.160). Cooling salvaged spatial memory deficits verified at 5 wk of recovery with Morris Water Maze test; whereas circling abnormalities after apomorphine injection and sensory motor dysfunctions on rotating treadmill improved, yet did not reach statistical significance. When compared with controls, hypoxic-ischemic animals performed worse in all behavioral tests. Hypothermia did not influence functional outcome in controls. Significant correlations between behavioral performance and corresponding regional brain volumes were found. We conclude that 26 h of mild to moderate resuscitative hypothermia leads not only to brain tissue rescue, but most important to long-lasting behavioral improvement throughout brain maturation despite severity of injury and delayed onset of cooling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that creatine (Cr) supplementation would preserve energy metabolism and thus ameliorate the energy failure and the extent of brain edema seen after severe but transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in the neonatal rat model. Six-day-old (P6) rats received subcutaneous Cr monohydrate injections for 3 consecutive days (3 g/kg body weight/day), followed by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at P9. In a second group, P4 rats received the same Cr dose as above for 3 days prior to unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed 1 h later by 100 min of hypoxia (8% O2) at P7. Rats were maintained at 37 degrees C rectal temperature until magnetic resonance imaging was performed 24 h after HI. Cr supplementation for 3 days significantly increased the energy potential, i.e. the ratio of phosphocreatine to beta-nucleotide triphosphate (PCr/betaNTP) and PCr/inorganic phosphate (PCr/Pi) as measured by 31P-MRS. Rats with hemispheric cerebral hypoxic-ischemic insult that had received Cr showed a significant reduction (25%) of the volume of edemic brain tissue compared with controls as calculated from diffusion-weighted images (DWI). Thus, prophylactic Cr supplementation demonstrated a significant neuroprotective effect 24 h after transient cerebral HI. We hypothesize that neuroprotection is probably due to the availability of a larger metabolic substrate pool leading to a reduction of the secondary energy failure because DWI has been reported to correlate with the PCr/Pi ratio in the acute phase of injury. Additional protection by Cr may be related to prevention of calcium overload, prevention of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and direct antioxidant effects.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2002 · Developmental Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early postoperative arrhythmias frequently are a relevant problem in the early postoperative management after surgical intervention for congenital heart disease. Few data are available indicating risk factors for their occurrence. The hypothesis was tested that factors closely related to the surgical procedure itself were associated with a higher incidence of arrhythmias early in the postoperative course after repair of congenital heart disease.
All consecutive patients undergoing 1 of 3 well-defined surgical procedures were prospectively evaluated for the occurrence of arrhythmias during the entire postoperative hospital stay by means of continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in the intensive care unit and use of 24-hour Holter monitors. Patients examined were those undergoing transatrial closure of a ventricular septal defect, repair of complete atrioventricular canal, and tetralogy of Fallot. The relation between procedural variables and the occurrence of arrhythmias was independently evaluated for each of these 3 heart defects.
Early postoperative arrhythmias occurred in 30% of patients with ventricular septal defect (n = 75), 35% of patients with tetralogy of Fallot (n = 52), and 47% of patients with atrioventricular canal (n = 45). Patients with arrhythmias tended to be younger (significant only in the ventricular septal defect group). In all 3 patient groups, there was a significant correlation between incidence of arrhythmias and longer extracorporeal bypass time (P <.05) and longer aortic crossclamp time (P <.01), as well as with higher maximum postoperative troponin serum levels (P <.01). In patients with atrioventricular canal, there was a significant relation between hemodynamically incomplete surgical results and the occurrence of arrhythmias (P <.01).
The occurrence of early postoperative arrhythmias after repair of congenital heart disease was significantly associated with procedure-related risk factors in each of 3 independent patient groups undergoing well-defined surgical procedures.
Preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery