Hyo Keun Lim

Sungkyunkwan University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (123)269.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background & aims: To investigate the differences in mechanical effects and ablation zone between radiofrequency (RF) ablation with and without Sonazoid uptake in an in vivo rabbit liver model. Methods: Our study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Twenty-five rabbits were randomly allotted to one of five ablation durations (i.e., 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 min). For each rabbit, RF ablation was performed twice, before and 10 min after Sonazoid administration (i.e. control group vs. Sonazoid group) using a 1-cm internally-cooled electrode (40W) equipped with a parallelly-fixed pressure-monitoring device. During ablation, a "popping" sound was perceived and recorded along with tissue pressure changes and RF ablation parameters. Then, the ablation volume and microscopic changes were compared. Results: Popping sounds were more frequently perceived in the control group (21/25 vs. 1/25, P<0.001). The time to first pressure peak was shorter in the Sonazoid group (22.3±1.1s vs. 46.3±4.4s, P<0.001) with similar pressures (39.8±4.2 mmHg vs. 35.6±4.1 mmHg, P=0.350). Time to first roll-off and mean power output were significantly less in the Sonazoid group (17.6±1.2s vs. 71.2±8.2s, P<0.001; 9.4±0.3 W vs. 12.8±0.5 W, P<0.001). Consequently, the Sonazoid group had lower total energy and ablation volumes for all durations. Microscopically, the control group showed larger confluent disruptions, whereas the Sonazoid group showed many smaller disruptions scattered throughout the ablation zones. Conclusions: RF ablation after Sonazoid uptake induces a smaller ablation zone than conventional RF ablation. However, it appears to ablate the liver tissue with less mechanical effects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To compare the long-term therapeutic outcomes of radiofrequency (RF) ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in subcapsular versus nonsubcapsular locations by using propensity score matching. Materials and Methods RF ablation for subcapsular HCC is controversial because of a high risk of incomplete ablation or major complications. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Between April 2006 and December 2011, 508 consecutive patients (396 men, 112 women; age range, 30-80 years) with a single HCC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0 or A) underwent ultrasonography-guided percutaneous RF ablation as a first-line treatment. The patients were divided into two groups according to tumor location: subcapsular (n = 227) and nonsubcapsular (n = 281). Subcapsular HCC was defined as an index tumor located within 0.1 cm of the liver capsule. The association of subcapsular location and therapeutic outcomes of RF ablation was evaluated, including (a) local tumor progression (LTP) by using a competing risk regression model and (b) overall survival (OS) by using a Cox proportional hazards model according to propensity score matched data. The major complication rates from both overall data and matched data were assessed. Results Matching yielded 163 matched pairs of patients. In the two matched groups, cumulative LTP rates were 18.8% and 20.9% at 3 and 5 years, respectively, in the subcapsular group and 13.2% and 16.0% in the nonsubcapsular group. Corresponding OS rates were 90.7% for 3 years and 83.2% for 5 years in the subcapsular group and 91.4% and 79.1%, respectively, in the nonsubcapsular group. Hazard ratios (HRs) for LTP (HR = 1.37, P = .244) and OS (HR = 0.86, P = .604) were not significantly different between the two matched groups. Additionally, differences in major complication rates were not significant between groups for the two sets of data (P > .05). Conclusion The differences in LTP, OS, and major complication rates of RF ablation for HCC were not significant between subcapsular and nonsubcapsular groups. (©) RSNA, 2016.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To develop and validate a prediction model using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for local tumour progression (LTP) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Methods: Two hundred and eleven patients who had received RFA as first-line treatment for HCC were retrospectively analyzed. They had undergone gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI before treatment, and parameters including tumour size; margins; signal intensities on T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighted images, and hepatobiliary phase images (HBPI); intratumoral fat or tumoral capsules; and peritumoural hypointensity in the HBPI were used to develop a prediction model for LTP after treatment. This model to discriminate low-risk from high-risk LTP groups was constructed based on Cox regression analysis. Results: Our analyses produced the following model: 'risk score = 0.617 × tumour size + 0.965 × tumour margin + 0.867 × peritumoural hypointensity on HBPI'. This was able to predict which patients were at high risk for LTP after RFA (p < 0.001). Patients in the low-risk group had a significantly better 5-year LTP-free survival rate compared to the high-risk group (89.6 % vs. 65.1 %; hazard ratio, 3.60; p < 0.001). Conclusion: A predictive model based on MRI before RFA could robustly identify HCC patients at high risk for LTP after treatment. Key points: • Tumour size, margin, and peritumoural hypointensity on HBPI were risk factors for LTP. • The risk score model can predict which patients are at high risk for LTP. • This prediction model could be helpful for risk stratification of HCC patients.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · European Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To evaluate the relationships between T2 signal intensity and semiquantitative perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) parameters of uterine fibroids in patients who were screened for MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was granted, and informed consents were waived. One hundred seventy most symptom-relevant, nondegenerated uterine fibroids (mean diameter, 7.3 cm; range, 3.0-17.2 cm) in 170 women (mean age, 43.5 years; range, 24-56 years) undergoing screening MR examinations for MR-guided HIFU ablation from October 2009 to April 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Fibroid signal intensity was assessed as the ratio of the fibroid T2 signal intensity to that of skeletal muscle. Parameters of semiquantitative perfusion MR imaging obtained during screening MR examination (peak enhancement, percentage of relative peak enhancement, time to peak [in seconds], wash-in rate [per seconds], and washout rate [per seconds]) were investigated to assess their relationships with T2 signal ratio by using multiple linear regression analysis. Correlations between T2 signal intensity and independently significant perfusion parameters were then evaluated according to fibroid type by using Spearman correlation test. Results Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that relative peak enhancement showed an independently significant correlation with T2 signal ratio (Β = 0.004, P < .001). Submucosal intracavitary (n = 20, ρ = 0.275, P = .240) and type III (n = 18, ρ = 0.082, P = .748) fibroids failed to show significant correlations between perfusion and T2 signal intensity, while significant correlations were found for all other fibroid types (ρ = 0.411-0.629, P < .05). Conclusion In possible candidates for MR-guided HIFU ablation, the T2 signal intensity of nondegenerated uterine fibroids showed an independently significant positive correlation with relative peak enhancement in most cases, except those of submucosal intracavitary or type III fibroids. (©) RSNA, 2015.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to fit and validate screening magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based prediction models for assessing immediate therapeutic responses of uterine fibroids to MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation. Informed consent from all subjects was obtained for our institutional review board-approved study. A total of 240 symptomatic uterine fibroids (mean diameter, 6.9 cm) in 152 women (mean age, 43.3 years) treated with MR-HIFU ablation were retrospectively analyzed (160 fibroids for training, 80 fibroids for validation). Screening MRI parameters (subcutaneous fat thickness [mm], x1; relative peak enhancement [%] in semiquantitative perfusion MRI, x2; T2 signal intensity ratio of fibroid to skeletal muscle, x3) were used to fit prediction models with regard to ablation efficiency (nonperfused volume/treatment cell volume, y1) and ablation quality (grade 1-5, poor to excellent, y2), respectively, using the generalized estimating equation method. Cutoff values for achievement of treatment intent (efficiency >1.0; quality grade 4/5) were determined based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Prediction performances were validated by calculating positive and negative predictive values. Generalized estimating equation analyses yielded models of y 1 = 2.2637 - 0.0415x 1 - 0.0011x 2 - 0.0772x 3 and y 2 = 6.8148 - 0.1070x 1 - 0.0050x 2 - 0.2163x 3. Cutoff values were 1.312 for ablation efficiency (area under the curve, 0.7236; sensitivity, 0.6882; specificity, 0.6866) and 4.019 for ablation quality (0.8794; 0.7156; 0.9020). Positive and negative predictive values were 0.917 and 0.500 for ablation efficiency and 0.978 and 0.600 for ablation quality, respectively. Screening MRI-based prediction models for assessing immediate therapeutic responses of uterine fibroids to MR-HIFU ablation were fitted and validated, which may reduce the risk of unsuccessful treatment.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Investigative radiology
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    ABSTRACT: To report the results of combined therapy with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) considered infeasible for ultrasound (US)-guided RFA in comparison with those of TACE monotherapy. From January 2007 through December 2010, 91 patients with early or very early stage HCC infeasible for US-guided RFA received either TACE alone (TACE group; n = 54) or TACE immediately followed by RFA (TACE-RFA group; n = 37) as a first-line treatment. 1-month tumor response, time to progression (TTP), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors. TACE-RFA group showed a better 1-month tumor response than TACE group (P < .001). The mean TTP was 29.7 ± 3.4 months (95 % confidence intervals [CIs] 23.0-36.5) in TACE group and 34.9 ± 2.8 months (95 % CIs 29.4-40.4) in TACE-RFA group. TACE-RFA group had a significantly longer TTP (P = .014). Cumulative 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates in the TACE and TACE-RFA groups were 91, 79, and 71 % and 100, 97, and 93 %, respectively (P = .008). Initial treatment of TACE was found to be the only significant risk factor for tumor progression and OS in multivariate analysis. TACE-RFA combination therapy appears superior to TACE monotherapy in terms of 1-month tumor response, TTP, and OS when performed for early stage HCC infeasible for US-guided RFA.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology
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    Preview · Article · Jun 2015
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    Young-sun Kim · Hyo Keun Lim · Hyunchul Rhim

    Preview · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the natural course of subcentimeter hypervascular nodules at high risk for developing into hepatocellular carcinomas (SHNHR) using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An SHNHR was defined as a subcentimeter hypervascular nodule having typical imaging findings of HCC on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging. We included 39 patients with 46 SHNHRs (mean size ± standard deviation, 6.1 ± 1.6 mm; range, 3.2 - 9.0 mm). Overt HCC was defined as pathology proven HCC or a nodule larger than 1 cm with typical imaging findings of HCC. The cumulative rate and the independent predictive factors for progression to overt HCC were evaluated. The median follow-up period was 139 days (range, 64 - 392 days). The cumulative progression rate to overt HCC at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months was 13.9 %, 61.7 %, 83.2 %, and 89.9 %. The initial size of SHNHR was a significant predictor of progression to overt HCC, with an optimal cut-off value of 5.5 mm. The progression rate of SHNHR to overt HCC within 12 months was high (89.9 %) in patients with history of HCC. The initial size of SHNHR was an important predictor for progression to overt HCC. • Most SHNHRs (89.9 %) progressed to overt HCCs within 12 months. • Initial size was an important predictor for progression to overt HCCs. • The optimal cut-off value for initial nodule size was 5.5 mm.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · European Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the frequency, risk factors, and clinical significance of aggressive intrasegmental recurrence (AIR) found after radiofrequency (RF) ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Between March 2005 and December 2010, 539 patients (414 men, 125 women; mean age, 57.91 years; age range, 30-82 years) underwent ultrasonography-guided percutaneous RF ablation as a first-line treatment for a single HCC classified as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage 0 or A. AIR of HCC was defined as (a) initial tumor recurrence with disease-free status at least 6 months after initial RF ablation and (b) the simultaneous development of multiple nodular (at least three) or infiltrative tumor recurrence in the treated segment. Patients were stratified into two groups: those with AIR (n = 20) and those without AIR (n = 519) during follow-up. Risk factors for AIR were assessed with logistic regression analysis, and risk factors for long-term overall survival were assessed with time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models. Results: In a median follow-up period of 49 months (range, 6-95 months), AIR was observed in 3.7% of the patients (20 of 539 patients), with the frequency increasing to 15% in the subgroup with periportal HCC (11 of 72 patients). AIRs manifested as either multiple nodular type (n = 14, BCLC stage A or B) or diffusely infiltrative type with tumor thrombus formation (n = 6, BCLC stage C). At multivariate analysis, periportal tumor location and younger patient age were significant risk factors for AIR. The presence of AIR during the follow-up period has a significant effect on the overall survival rate (hazard ratio = 5.72, P = .002). Conclusion: The overall frequency of AIR after RF ablation for HCC was low, with periportal location and patient age showing a significant relationship to the development of AIR. The occurrence of AIR had an adverse effect on overall survival rate.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare radiofrequency (RF) ablation with nonanatomic resection (NAR) as first-line treatment in patients with a single Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage 0 or A hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to evaluate the long-term outcomes of both therapies. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. The requirement for informed consent was waived. Data were reviewed from 580 patients with HCCs measuring 3 cm or smaller (BCLC stage 0 or A) who underwent ultrasonographically (US) guided percutaneous RF ablation (n = 438) or NAR (n = 142) as a first-line treatment. Local tumor progression, intrahepatic distant recurrence, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were analyzed by using propensity score matching to compare therapeutic efficacy. In addition, major complications and length of postoperative hospital stay were compared. Results: Before propensity score matching (n = 580), the 5-year cumulative rates of local tumor progression for RF ablation and NAR (20.9% vs 12.7%, respectively; P = .093) and overall survival rates (85.5% vs 90.9%, respectively; P = .194) were comparable, while the 5-year cumulative intrahepatic distant recurrence rates (62.7% vs 36.6%, respectively; P < .001) and disease-free survival rates (31.7% vs 61.1%, respectively; P < .001) in the NAR group were significantly better than those in the RF ablation group. After matching (n = 198), there were no significant differences in therapeutic outcomes between the RF ablation and NAR groups, including 5-year cumulative intrahepatic distant recurrence (47.0% vs 40.2%, respectively; P = .240) and disease-free survival rates (48.9% vs 54.4%, respectively; P = .201). RF ablation was superior to NAR for major complication rates and length of postoperative hospital stay (P < .001). Conclusion: In patients with one BCLC stage 0 or A (≤ 3 cm) HCC who received RF ablation or NAR as first-line treatment, there were no significant differences in long-term therapeutic outcomes; however, RF ablation was associated with fewer major complications and a shorter hospital stay after treatment.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare the long-term outcomes of repeated hepatic resection and radiofrequency (RF) ablation for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by using propensity score matching. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. Thirty-nine patients who underwent repeated hepatic resection and 178 who underwent RF ablation for recurrent HCC (mean tumor size ± standard deviation, 1.8 cm ± 0.7) between November 1994 and December 2012 were included in the study. Patients ranged in age from 24 to 85 years (mean, 54.9 years). Men ranged in age from 25 to 85 years (mean, 54.8 years), and women ranged in age from 24 to 76 years (mean, 55.4 years). A 1:2 repeated hepatic resection group-RF ablation group matching was done by using propensity score matching. The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were compared before and after propensity score matching. Complications were assessed. Results: Before matching, OS rates at 1, 3, 5, and 8 years were 88.8%, 88.8%, 83.9%, and 56.3%, respectively, with repeated hepatic resection and 98.9%, 82.5%, 71.0%, and 58.3% for RF ablation. DFS rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 66.1%, 48.5%, and 43.1% for repeated hepatic resection and 70.1%, 40.8%, and 30.0% for RF ablation. After matching, the OS rates at 1, 3, 5, and 8 years were 98.7%, 85.7%, 72.1%, and 68.6%, respectively, and the DFS rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 71.8%, 45.1%, and 39.4% in the RF ablation group (n = 78). Neither the OS nor DFS rate was significantly different between the two groups before matching (P = .686 and P = .461) and after matching (P = .834 and P = .960). The postoperative mortality rate was 2.6% in the repeated hepatic resection group and 0% in the RF ablation group. Conclusion: The long-term OS and DFS were not significantly different between repeated hepatic resection and RF ablation for patients with recurrent HCC after hepatic resection.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the targeting and ablation performance between a newly developed radiofrequency (RF) electrode embedded with an electromagnetic position sensor (EMPS) at the electrode tip and a conventional RF electrode. Materials and methods: The institutional animal care and use committee approved this study. The targeting of paint balls within phantoms was performed under ultrasonography guidance by 2 radiologists (beginner vs expert) with an "in-plane" and "out-of-plane" approaches using the new RF electrode and a conventional RF electrode (n = 20 for each method). To evaluate the targeting performance, the electrode placement time and the number of electrode pullbacks for redirection were compared between the 2 electrodes. The ablation performance was also compared by analyzing the ablation volumes in ex vivo bovine and in vivo porcine livers (n = 30 and n = 24, respectively) and the cellular viability of the ablation zone in in vivo specimens. Results: In the phantom study, the RF electrode embedded with an EMPS showed a significantly shorter electrode placement time compared with the conventional RF electrode in both the in-plane and out-of-plane approaches by both radiologists (P < 0.05). The electrode pullback rate for both radiologists was lower in the new RF electrode than in the conventional RF electrode, but it did not reach statistical significance in the in-plane approach by the expert (P = 0.059). The ablation volumes analyzed with and without cellular viability in the ex vivo and in vivo studies were not significantly different between the 2 electrodes (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The RF electrode embedded with an EMPS is faster than the conventional electrode in the electrode placement into the target lesions. The ablation performance is not significantly different between the 2 electrodes.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Investigative Radiology
  • Young-sun Kim · Hyo Keun Lim · Hyunchul Rhim · Min Woo Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has gained a wide acceptance as a first-line therapeutic option for small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For very early-stage HCC, despite a higher rate of local tumor progression, RFA is considered as a viable alternative to surgical resection owing to its comparable long-term survival, reduced morbidity, and greater preservation of hepatic parenchyma. For HCCs larger than 2cm, RFA can contribute to near-curative therapy when combined with chemoembolization. RFA can be used as part of a multimodal treatment strategy for more advanced or recurrent cases, and could be a useful bridging therapy for patients who are waiting for liver transplantation. However, the use of RFA is still limited in treating large tumors and some tumors in high-risk locations. To overcome its current limitations, other ablation techniques are being developed and it is important to validate the role of other techniques for enhancing performance of ablation therapy for HCC.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Baillière&#x027 s Best Practice and Research in Clinical Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the enhancement of the efficacy of systemic doxorubicin by pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-induced, localized mild hyperthermia. For the in vitro study, the intranuclear uptake of doxorubicin by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-7 cells incubated at different temperatures was compared. For the in vivo study, mice with SCC-7 tumors were assigned to either the control, conventional hyperthermia, HIFU hyperthermia, doxorubicin-alone, conventional hyperthermia + doxorubicin or HIFU hyperthermia + doxorubicin group. Conventional hyperthermia was induced by immersing the tumor in warm water (42.5°C), and HIFU hyperthermia was induced by HIFU after optimizing the parameters with direct temperature measurements (frequency = 1 MHz, pulse repetition frequency = 5 Hz, power = 12 W, duty cycle = 50%). In the in vitro study, fluorescence was more intense at 42°C than at 37°C and was time dependent. In the in vivo study, tumor growth in the HIFU hyperthermia + doxorubicin group was most prominently suppressed with the highest apoptotic index compared with all other groups (p < 0.05). Pulsed HIFU-induced localized mild hyperthermia enhanced the anti-cancer efficacy of systemic doxorubicin more than conventional mild hyperthermia.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Ultrasound in medicine & biology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine whether semiquantitative perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging parameters are associated with therapeutic effectiveness of MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ( HIFU high-intensity focused ultrasound ) ablation of uterine fibroids and which semiquantitative perfusion parameters are significant with regard to treatment efficiency. Materials and methods: This study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Seventy-seven women (mean age, 43.3 years) with 119 fibroids (mean diameter, 7.5 cm) treated with MR imaging-guided HIFU high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation were analyzed. The correlation between semiquantitative perfusion MR parameters (peak enhancement, relative peak enhancement, time to peak, wash-in rate, washout rate) and heating and ablation efficiencies (lethal thermal dose volume based on MR thermometry and nonperfused volume based on immediate contrast-enhanced image divided by intended treatment volume) were evaluated by using a linear mixed model on a per-fibroid basis. The specific value of the significant parameter that had a substantial effect on treatment efficiency was determined. Results: The mean peak enhancement, relative peak enhancement, time to peak, wash-in rate, and washout rate of the fibroids were 1293.1 ± 472.8 (range, 570.2-2477.8), 171.4% ± 57.2 (range, 0.6%-370.2%), 137.2 seconds ± 119.8 (range, 20.0-300.0 seconds), 79.5 per second ± 48.2 (range, 12.5-236.7 per second), and 11.4 per second ± 10.1 (range, 0-39.3 per second), respectively. Relative peak enhancement was found to be independently significant for both heating and ablation efficiencies (B = -0.002, P < .001 and B = -0.003, P = .050, respectively). The washout rate was significantly associated with ablation efficiency (B = -0.018, P = .043). Both efficiencies showed the most abrupt transitions at 220% of relative peak enhancement. Conclusion: Relative peak enhancement at semiquantitative perfusion MR imaging was significantly associated with treatment efficiency of MR imaging-guided HIFU high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of uterine fibroids, and a value of 220% or less is suggested as a screening guideline for more efficient treatment.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purposes of this study were to assess the widths of the intercostal spaces of the right inferior human rib cage through which high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy would be applied for treating liver cancer and to elucidate the demographic factors associated with intercostal space width. Subjects and methods: From March 2013 to June 2013, the widths of the intercostal spaces and the ribs at six areas of the right inferior rib cage (area 1, lowest intercostal space on anterior axillary line and the adjacent upper rib; area 2, second-lowest intercostal space on anterior axillary line and the adjacent upper rib; areas 3 and 4, lowest and second-lowest spaces on midaxillary line; areas 5 and 6, lowest and second-lowest spaces on posterior axillary line) were sonographically measured in 466 patients (214 men, 252 women; mean age, 53.0 years) after an abdominal sonographic examination. Demographic factors and the presence or absence of chronic liver disease were evaluated by multivariate analysis to investigate which factors influence intercostal width. Results: The width of the intercostal space was 19.7 ± 3.7 mm (range, 9-33 mm) at area 1, 18.3 ± 3.4 mm (range, 9-33 mm) at area 2, 17.4 ± 4.0 mm (range, 7-33 mm) at area 3, 15.4 ± 3.5 mm (range, 5-26 mm) at area 4, 17.2 ± 3.7 mm (range, 7-28 mm) at area 5, and 14.5 ± 3.6 mm (range, 4-26 mm) at area 6. The corresponding widths of the ribs were 15.2 ± 2.3 mm (range, 8-22 mm), 14.5 ± 2.3 mm (range, 9-22 mm), 13.2 ± 2.0 mm (range, 9-20), 14.3 ± 2.2 mm (range, 9-20 mm), 15.0 ± 2.2 mm (range, 10-22 mm), and 15.1 ± 2.3 mm (range, 8-21 mm). Only female sex was significantly associated with the narrower intercostal width at areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 (regression coefficient, 1.124-1.885; p = 0.01-0.04). Conclusion: There was substantial variation in the widths of the intercostal spaces of the right inferior rib cage such that the anterior and inferior aspects of the intercostal space were relatively wider. Women had significantly narrower intercostal spaces than men.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · American Journal of Roentgenology
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the value of fusion imaging with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance (MR) images for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of very-early-stage hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) that are inconspicuous on fusion imaging with B-mode ultrasound (US) and CT/MR images. This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Fusion imaging with CEUS using Sonazoid contrast agent and CT/MR imaging was performed on HCCs (<2 cm) that were inconspicuous on fusion imaging with B-mode US. We evaluated the number of cases that became conspicuous on fusion imaging with CEUS. Percutaneous RFA was performed under the guidance of fusion imaging with CEUS. Technical success and major complication rates were assessed. In total, 30 patients with 30 HCCs (mean, 1.2 cm; range, 0.6-1.7 cm) were included, among which 25 (83.3%) became conspicuous on fusion imaging with CEUS at the time of the planning US and/or RFA procedure. Of those 25 HCCs, RFA was considered feasible for 23 (92.0%), which were thus treated. The technical success and major complication rates were 91.3% (21/23) and 4.3% (1/23), respectively. Fusion imaging with CEUS and CT/MR imaging is highly effective for percutaneous RFA of very-early-stage HCCs inconspicuous on fusion imaging with B-mode US and CT/MR imaging.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Clinical and molecular hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation is increasingly adopted for treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. As a noninvasive therapy performed on an outpatient basis, it has been viewed by patients to have distinct advantages over other treatment options. However, its breadth of clinical application is still limited. To address this issue, various techniques have been implemented. Conclusion: In this article, we discuss techniques that contribute to widening patient selection for MRI-guided HIFU therapy of uterine fibroids.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · American Journal of Roentgenology
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    ABSTRACT: To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure terms, imaging findings, therapeutic efficacy, follow-up, and complications. Accuracy of the terminology and the use of alternative terms instead of standard terminology were analyzed. In addition, disparities in accuracy of terminology in articles according to the medical specialty and the type of radiology journal were evaluated. Among the articles (n = 308) included in this study, the accuracy of the terms 'procedure or session', 'treatment', 'index tumor', 'ablation zone', 'technical success', 'primary technique effectiveness rate', 'secondary technique effectiveness rate', 'local tumor progression', 'major complication', and 'minor complication' was 97% (298/307), 97% (291/300), 8% (25/307), 65% (103/159), 55% (52/94), 33% (42/129), 94% (17/18), 45% (88/195), 99% (79/80), and 100% (77/77), respectively. The overall accuracy of each term showed a tendency to improve over the years. The most commonly used alternative terms for 'technical success' and 'local tumor progression' were 'complete ablation' and 'local (tumor) recurrence', respectively. The accuracy of terminology in articles published in radiology journals was significantly greater than that of terminology in articles published in non-radiology journals, especially in Radiology and The Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. The proposal for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria for RF tumor ablation has been gaining support according to the recently published scientific reports, especially in the field of radiology. However, more work is still needed for the complete standardization of terminology.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Korean journal of radiology: official journal of the Korean Radiological Society

Publication Stats

2k Citations
269.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001-2015
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Samsung Medical Center
      • • Department of Radiology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2000-2015
    • Samsung Medical Center
      • Department of Radiology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • University of Seoul
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea