Bruce A Barshop

University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, United States

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Publications (93)438.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The acetyltransferase, E1a binding protein (p300), is proposed to regulate various aspects of skeletal muscle development, metabolism and mitochondrial function, via its interaction with numerous transcriptional regulators and other proteins. Remarkably, however, the contribution of p300 to skeletal muscle function and metabolism, in vivo, is poorly understood. To address this, we used Cre-LoxP methodology to generate mice with skeletal muscle-specific knockout of p300 (mKO). mKO mice were indistinguishable from their wildtype/floxed (WT) littermates, with no differences in lean mass, skeletal muscle structure, fiber type, respirometry flux, or metabolites of fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. Ex-vivo muscle function in extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles, including peak stress and time to fatigue, as well as in vivo running capacity were also comparable. Moreover, expected adaptations to a 20-d voluntary wheel running regime were not compromised in mKO mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that p300 is not required for the normal development or functioning of adult skeletal muscle, nor is it required for endurance exercise-mediated mitochondrial adaptations.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · The FASEB Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The hepatic urea cycle is the main metabolic pathway for detoxification of ammonia. Inborn errors of urea cycle function present with severe hyperammonemia and a high case fatality rate. Long-term prognosis depends on the residual activity of the defective enzyme. A reliable method to estimate urea cycle activity in-vivo does not exist yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate a practical method to quantify (13)C-urea production as a marker for urea cycle function in healthy subjects, patients with confirmed urea cycle defect (UCD) and asymptomatic carriers of UCD mutations. Methods: (13)C-labeled sodium acetate was applied orally in a single dose to 47 subjects (10 healthy subjects, 28 symptomatic patients, 9 asymptomatic carriers). Results: The oral (13)C-ureagenesis assay is a safe method. While healthy subjects and asymptomatic carriers did not differ with regards to kinetic variables for urea cycle flux, symptomatic patients had lower (13)C-plasma urea levels. Although the (13)C-ureagenesis assay revealed no significant differences between individual urea cycle enzyme defects, it reflected the heterogeneity between different clinical subgroups, including male neonatal onset ornithine carbamoyltransferase deficiency. Applying the (13)C-urea area under the curve can differentiate between severe from more mildly affected neonates. Late onset patients differ significantly from neonates, carriers and healthy subjects. Conclusion: This study evaluated the oral (13)C-ureagenesis assay as a sensitive in-vivo measure for ureagenesis capacity. The assay has the potential to become a reliable tool to differentiate UCD patient subgroups, follow changes in ureagenesis capacity and could be helpful in monitoring novel therapies of UCD.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Alkaptonuria is an autosomal recessive disease involving a deficiency of the enzyme homogentisate dioxygenase, which is involved in the tyrosine degradation pathway. The enzymatic deficiency results in high concentrations of homogentisic acid (HGA), which results in orthopedic and cardiac complications, among other symptoms. Nitisinone (NTBC) has been shown to effectively treat alkaptonuria by blocking the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate to HGA, but there have been concerns that using doses higher than about 2 mg/day could cause excessively high levels of tyrosine, resulting in crystal deposition and corneal pathology. We have enrolled seven patients in a study to determine whether higher doses of NTBC were effective at further reducing HGA levels while maintaining tyrosine at acceptable levels. Patients were given varying doses of NTBC (ranging from 2 to 8 mg/day) over the course of between 0.5 and 3.5 years. Urine HGA, plasma tyrosine levels, and plasma NTBC were then measured longitudinally at various doses. We found that tyrosine concentrations plateaued and did not reach significantly higher levels as NTBC doses were increased above 2 mg/day, while a significant drop in HGA continued from 2 to 4 mg/day, with no significant changes at higher doses. We also demonstrated using untargeted metabolomics that elevations in tyrosine from treatment resulted in proportional elevations in alternative tyrosine metabolic products, that of N-acetyltyrosine and γ-glutamyltyrosine.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015
  • Ilya Gertsman · Jon A Gangoiti · William L Nyhan · Bruce A Barshop
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    ABSTRACT: The drug nitisinone (NTBC) is used to treat tyrosinemia type I, and more recently has been also used for the treatment of another disorder of tyrosine metabolism, alkaptonuria. While studying the dose effects of NTBC treatment on alkaptonuria, untargeted metabolomics revealed perturbations in a completely separate pathway, that of tryptophan metabolism. Significant elevations in several indolic compounds associated with the indolepyruvate pathway of tryptophan metabolism were present in NTBC-treated patient sera and correlated with elevations of an intermediate of tyrosine metabolism. Indolic compounds of this pathway have long been associated with commensal bacterial and plant metabolism. These exogenous sources of indoles have been more recently implicated in affecting mammalian cell function and disease. We studied the correlation of these indolic compounds in other disorders of tyrosine metabolism including tyrosinemia types I and II as well as transient tyrosinemia, and demonstrated that 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (4-HPP) was directly responsible for the promotion of this pathway. We then investigated the regulation of the indolepyruvate pathway and the role of 4-HPP further in both mammalian cells and intestinal microbial cultures. We demonstrated that several of the indolic products, including indolepyruvate and indolelactate, were in fact generated by human cell metabolism, while the downstream indole metabolite, indolecarboxaldehyde, was produced exclusively by microbial cultures of human gut flora. This study describes a symbiotic perturbation in host and microbiome tryptophan metabolism in response to elevations related to defects of tyrosine metabolism and concomitant drug treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (MCCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism that has a highly variable clinical phenotype, ranging from acute metabolic acidosis to nonspecific symptoms such as developmental delay, failure to thrive, hemiparesis, muscular hypotonia, and multiple sclerosis. Implementation of newborn screening for MCCD has resulted in broadening the range of phenotypic expression to include asymptomatic adults. The purpose of this study was to identify factors underlying the varying phenotypes of MCCD. Methods: We performed exome sequencing on DNA from 33 cases and 108 healthy controls. We examined these data for associations between either MCC mutational status, genetic ancestry, or consanguinity and the absence or presence/specificity of clinical symptoms in MCCD cases. Results: We determined that individuals with nonspecific clinical phenotypes are highly inbred compared with cases that are asymptomatic and healthy controls. For 5 of these 10 individuals, we discovered a homozygous damaging mutation in a disease gene that is likely to underlie their nonspecific clinical phenotypes previously attributed to MCCD. Conclusion: Our study shows that nonspecific phenotypes attributed to MCCD are associated with consanguinity and are likely not due to mutations in the MCC enzyme but result from rare homozygous mutations in other disease genes.Genet Med 17 8, 660-667.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Genetics in Medicine
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    Ilya Gertsman · Jon A. Gangoiti · Bruce A. Barshop
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    ABSTRACT: Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics is a rapidly growing field in both research and diagnosis. Generally, the methodologies and types of instruments used for clinical and other absolute quantification experiments are different from those used for biomarkers discovery and untargeted analysis, as the former requires optimal sensitivity and dynamic range, while the latter requires high resolution and high mass accuracy. We used a Q-TOF mass spectrometer with two different types of pentafluorophenyl (PFP) stationary phases, employing both positive and negative ionization, to develop and validate a hybrid quantification and discovery platform using LC–HRMS. This dual-PFP LC–MS platform quantifies over 50 clinically relevant metabolites in serum (using both MS and MS/MS acquisitions) while simultaneously collecting high resolution and high mass accuracy full scans to monitor all other co-eluting non-targeted analytes. We demonstrate that the linearity, accuracy, and precision results for the quantification of a number of metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, acylcarnitines and purines/pyrimidines, meets or exceeds normal bioanalytical standards over their respective physiological ranges. The chromatography resolved highly polar as well as hydrophobic analytes under reverse-phase conditions, enabling analysis of a wide range of chemicals, necessary for untargeted metabolomics experiments. Though previous LC–HRMS methods have demonstrated quantification capabilities for various drug and small molecule compounds, the present study provides an HRMS quant/qual platform tailored to metabolic disease; and covers a multitude of different metabolites including compounds normally quantified by a combination of separate instrumentation.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Metabolomics
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    ABSTRACT: The advent of model-enabled workflows in systems biology allows for the integration of experimental data types with genome-scale models to discover new features of biology. This work demonstrates such a workflow, aimed at establishing a metabolomics platform applied to study the differences in metabolomes between anaerobic and aerobic growth of Escherichia coli. Constraint-based modeling was utilized to deduce a target list of compounds for downstream method development. An analytical and experimental methodology was developed and tailored to the compound chemistry and growth conditions of interest. This included the construction of a rapid sampling apparatus for use with anaerobic cultures. The resulting genome-scale data sets for anaerobic and aerobic growth were validated by comparison to previous small-scale studies comparing growth of E. coli under the same conditions. The metabolomics data were then integrated with the E. coli genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) via a sensitivity analysis that utilized reaction thermodynamics to reconcile simulated growth rates and reaction directionalities. This analysis highlighted several optimal network usage inconsistencies, including the incorrect use of the beta-oxidation pathway for synthesis of fatty acids. This analysis also identified enzyme promiscuity for the pykA gene, that is critical for anaerobic growth, and which has not been previously incorporated into metabolic models of E coli. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013;9999: 1-13. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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    ABSTRACT: Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) is a fatty acid oxidation disorder with widely varying presentations that has presented a significant challenge to newborn screening (NBS). The Western States Regional Genetics Services Collaborative developed a workgroup to study infants with NBS positive for VLCADD. We performed retrospective analysis of newborns with elevated C14:1-acylcarnitine on NBS in California, Oregon, Washington, and Hawai'i including available confirmatory testing and clinical information. Overall, from 2,802,504 children screened, there were 242 cases screen-positive for VLCADD. There were 34 symptomatic true positive cases, 18 asymptomatic true positives, 112 false positives, 55 heterozygotes, 11 lost to follow-up, and 12 other disorders. One in 11,581 newborns had an abnormal NBS for suspected VLCADD. Comparison of analytes and analyte ratios from the NBS demonstrated statistically significant differences between true positive and false positive groups for C14:1, C14, C14:1/C2, and C14:1/C16. The positive predictive value for all true positive cases was 94%, 54%, and 23% when C14:1 was ≥2.0μM, ≥1.0μM, and ≥0.7μM, respectively. Sequential post-analytical analysis could reduce the referral rate in 25.8% of cases. This study is the largest reported follow-up of infants with NBS screen-positive results for suspected VLCADD and demonstrates the necessity of developing comprehensive and consistent long-term follow-up NBS systems. Application of clinical information revealed differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic children with VLCADD. Comparison of NBS analytes and analyte ratios may be valuable in developing more effective diagnostic algorithms.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2013
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    ABSTRACT: We collected data on 48 patients from 38 families with guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency. Global developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID) with speech/language delay and behavioral problems as the most affected domains was present in 44 participants, with additional epilepsy present in 35 and movement disorder in 13. Treatment regimens included various combinations/dosages of creatine-monohydrate, l-ornithine, sodium benzoate and protein/arginine restricted diets. The median age at treatment initiation was 25.5 and 39months in patients with mild and moderate DD/ID, respectively, and 11years in patients with severe DD/ID. Increase of cerebral creatine and decrease of plasma/CSF guanidinoacetate levels were achieved by supplementation with creatine-monohydrate combined with high dosages of l-ornithine and/or an arginine-restricted diet (250mg/kg/d l-arginine). Therapy was associated with improvement or stabilization of symptoms in all of the symptomatic cases. The 4 patients treated younger than 9months had normal or almost normal developmental outcomes. One with inconsistent compliance had a borderline IQ at age 8.6years. An observational GAMT database will be essential to identify the best treatment to reduce plasma guanidinoacetate levels and improve long-term outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Therapy to slow the relentless expansion of interstitial extracellular matrix that leads to renal functional decline in patients with CKD is currently lacking. Because chronic kidney injury increases tissue oxidative stress, we evaluated the antifibrotic efficacy of cysteamine bitartrate, an antioxidant therapy for patients with nephropathic cystinosis, in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. Fresh cysteamine (600 mg/kg) was added to drinking water daily beginning on the day of surgery, and outcomes were assessed on days 7, 14, and 21 after surgery. Plasma cysteamine levels showed diurnal variation, with peak levels similar to those observed in patients with cystinosis. In cysteamine-treated mice, fibrosis severity decreased significantly at 14 and 21 days after unilateral ureteral obstruction, and renal oxidized protein levels decreased at each time point, suggesting reduced oxidative stress. Consistent with these results, treatment of cultured macrophages with cysteamine reduced cellular generation of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, treatment with cysteamine reduced α-smooth muscle actin-positive interstitial myofibroblast proliferation and mRNA levels of extracellular matrix proteins in mice and attenuated myofibroblast differentiation and proliferation in vitro, but did not augment TGF-β signaling. In a study of renal ischemia reperfusion, cysteamine therapy initiated 10 days after injury and continued for 14 days decreased renal fibrosis by 40%. Taken together, these data suggest previously unrecognized antifibrotic actions of cysteamine via TGF-β-independent mechanisms that include oxidative stress reduction and attenuation of the myofibroblast response to kidney injury and support further investigation into the potential benefit of cysteamine therapy in the treatment of CKD.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic kidney disease is the leading cause of ESRD, but few biomarkers of diabetic kidney disease are available. This study used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to quantify 94 urine metabolites in screening and validation cohorts of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and CKD(DM+CKD), in patients with DM without CKD (DM-CKD), and in healthy controls. Compared with levels in healthy controls, 13 metabolites were significantly reduced in the DM+CKD cohorts (P≤0.001), and 12 of the 13 remained significant when compared with the DM-CKD cohort. Many of the differentially expressed metabolites were water-soluble organic anions. Notably, organic anion transporter-1 (OAT1) knockout mice expressed a similar pattern of reduced levels of urinary organic acids, and human kidney tissue from patients with diabetic nephropathy demonstrated lower gene expression of OAT1 and OAT3. Analysis of bioinformatics data indicated that 12 of the 13 differentially expressed metabolites are linked to mitochondrial metabolism and suggested global suppression of mitochondrial activity in diabetic kidney disease. Supporting this analysis, human diabetic kidney sections expressed less mitochondrial protein, urine exosomes from patients with diabetes and CKD had less mitochondrial DNA, and kidney tissues from patients with diabetic kidney disease had lower gene expression of PGC1α (a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis). We conclude that urine metabolomics is a reliable source for biomarkers of diabetic complications, and our data suggest that renal organic ion transport and mitochondrial function are dysregulated in diabetic kidney disease.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Globotriaosylceramide concentrations were assessed as potential predictors of change from baseline after 12 months by estimated glomerular filtration rate and left-ventricular mass index using pooled data from three randomized, placebo-controlled agalsidase alfa trials and open-label extensions of patients with Fabry disease. Methods: Males (aged 18 years or older) with Fabry disease received agalsidase alfa (0.2 mg/kg every other week for 12 months). A backward-elimination approach evaluated potential predictors (baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate and left-ventricular mass index; age at first dose; baseline and change from baseline at 12 months of globotriaosylceramide (urine, plasma); urine protein excretion; and systolic and diastolic blood pressure). Subgroups included patients randomized to placebo or agalsidase alfa (double-blind phase), then to agalsidase alfa (open-label extensions; placebo→agalsidase alfa or agalsidase alfa→agalsidase alfa, respectively) and stage 2/3 chronic kidney disease patients. Results: Baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, age at first dose, baseline urine globotriaosylceramide excretion, and baseline and change from baseline urine protein excretion significantly predicted change from baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate in the analysis population (N = 73; all P<0.05), although not in all subgroups. Change from baseline urine and plasma globotriaosylceramide (baseline and change from baseline) concentrations did not predict change from baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate. No predictors of left-ventricular mass index were significant. Conclusion: Changes in globotriaosylceramide concentrations do not appear to be useful biomarkers for prediction of Fabry disease-related changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate or left-ventricular mass index.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is a good candidate disorder for newborn screening because early treatment appears to improve outcomes. We report elevation of guanidinoacetate in archived newborn dried blood spots for 3 cases (2 families) of GAMT deficiency compared with an unaffected carrier and controls. We also report a new case of a patient treated from birth with normal developmental outcome at the age of 42months.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Cysteamine is approved for the treatment of cystinosis and is being evaluated for Huntington's disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Little is known about the bioavailability and biodistribution of the drug. The aim was to determine plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and tissue (liver, kidney, muscle) cysteamine levels following intraduodenal delivery of the drug in rats pretreated and naïve to cysteamine and to estimate the hepatic first-pass effect on cysteamine. Healthy male rats (n = 66) underwent intraduodenal and portal (PV) or jugular (JVC) venous catheterization. Half were pretreated with cysteamine, and half were naïve. Following intraduodenal cysteamine (20 mg/kg), serial blood samples were collected from the PV or the JVC. Animals were sacrificed at specific time points, and CSF and tissue were collected. Cysteamine levels were determined in plasma, CSF, and tissue. The C(max) was achieved in 5-10 min from PV and 5-22.5 min from JVC. The PV-C(max) (P = 0.08), PV-AUC(0-t) (P = 0.16), JVC-C(max) (P = 0.02) and JVC-AUC(0-t) (P = 0.03) were higher in naive than in pretreated animals. Plasma cysteamine levels returned to baseline in ≤120 min. The hepatic first-pass effect was estimated at 40%. Peak tissue and CSF cysteamine levels occurred ≤22.5 min, but returned to baseline levels ≤180 min. There was no difference in CSF and tissue cysteamine levels between naïve and pretreated groups, although cysteamine was more rapidly cleared in the pretreated group. Cysteamine is rapidly absorbed from the small intestine, undergoes significant hepatic first-pass metabolism, crosses the blood brain barrier, and is almost undetectable in plasma, CSF, and body tissues 2 h after ingestion. Sustained-release cysteamine may provide prolonged tissue exposure.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology
  • Ilya Gertsman · Bruce A. Barshop

    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2012

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2012
  • Bruce A. Barshop · Jon A. Gangoiti · Ilya Gertsman · Robert K. Naviaux

    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation with highly variable biochemical, genetic, and clinical characteristics. SCADD has been associated with accumulation of butyryl-CoA byproducts, including butyrylcarnitine (C4), butyrylglycine, ethylmalonic acid (EMA), and methylsuccinic acid (MS) in body fluid and tissues. Differences in genotype frequencies have been shown between patients diagnosed clinically versus those diagnosed by newborn screening. Moreover, while patients diagnosed clinically have a variable clinical presentation including developmental delay, ketotic hypoglycemia, epilepsy and behavioral disorders, studies suggest patients diagnosed by newborn screening are largely asymptomatic. Scant information is published about the biochemical, genetic and clinical outcome of SCADD patients diagnosed by newborn screening.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: We used exome sequencing to identify the genetic basis of combined malonic and methylmalonic aciduria (CMAMMA). We sequenced the exome of an individual with CMAMMA and followed up with sequencing of eight additional affected individuals (cases). This included one individual who was identified and diagnosed by searching an exome database. We identify mutations in ACSF3, encoding a putative methylmalonyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA synthetase as a cause of CMAMMA. We also examined a canine model of CMAMMA, which showed pathogenic mutations in a predicted ACSF3 ortholog. ACSF3 mutant alleles occur with a minor allele frequency of 0.0058 in ∼1,000 control individuals, predicting a CMAMMA population incidence of ∼1:30,000. ACSF3 deficiency is the first human disorder identified as caused by mutations in a gene encoding a member of the acyl-CoA synthetase family, a diverse group of evolutionarily conserved proteins, and may emerge as one of the more common human metabolic disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Nature Genetics

Publication Stats

2k Citations
438.55 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • University of Oregon
      Eugene, Oregon, United States
  • 1989-2015
    • University of California, San Diego
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2009
    • Rady Children's Hospital
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Valencia
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 2000
    • Seattle Children's Hospital
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Seattle, Washington, United States