[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromatin modifying proteins are attractive drug targets in oncology, given the fundamental reliance of cancer on altered transcriptional activity. Multiple transcription factors can be impacted downstream of primary target inhibition, thus making it challenging to understand the driving mechanism of action of pharmacologic inhibition of chromatin modifying proteins. This in turn makes it difficult to identify biomarkers predictive of response and pharmacodynamic tools to optimize drug dosing. In this report, we show that 89Zr-transferrin, an imaging tool we developed to measure MYC activity in cancer, can be used to identify cancer models that respond to broad spectrum inhibitors of transcription primarily due to MYC inhibition. As a proof of concept, we studied inhibitors of BET bromodomain containing proteins, as they can impart antitumor effects in a MYC dependent or independent fashion. In vitro, we show that transferrin receptor biology is inhibited in multiple MYC positive models of prostate cancer and double hit lymphoma when MYC biology is impacted. Moreover, we show that bromodomain inhibition in one lymphoma model results in transferrin receptor expression changes large enough to be quantified with 89Zr-transferrin and positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo. Collectively, these data further underscore the diagnostic utility of the relationship between MYC and transferrin in oncology, and provide the rationale to incorporate transferrin-based PET into early clinical trials with bromodomain inhibitors for the treatment of solid tumors.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Molecular Pharmaceutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solid tumors are hypoxic with altered metabolism, resulting in secretion of acids into the extracellular matrix and lower relative pH, a feature associated with local invasion and metastasis. Therapeutic and diagnostic agents responsive to this microenvironment may improve tumor-specific delivery. Therefore, we pursued a general strategy whereby caged small-molecule drugs or imaging agents liberate their parent compounds in regions of low interstitial pH. In this manuscript, we present a new acid-labile prodrug method based on the glycosylamine linkage, and its application to a class of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging tracers, termed [18F]FDG amines. [18F]FDG amines operate via a proposed two-step mechanism, in which an acid-labile precursor decomposes to form the common radiotracer 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose, which is subsequently accumulated by glucose avid cells. The rate of decomposition of [18F]FDG amines is tunable in a systematic fashion, tracking the pKa of the parent amine. In vivo, a 4-phenylbenzylamine [18F]FDG amine congener showed greater relative accumulation in tumors over benign tissue, which could be attenuated upon tumor alkalinization using previously validated models, including sodium bicarbonate treatment, or overexpression of carbonic anhydrase. This new class of PET tracer represents a viable approach for imaging acidic interstitial pH with potential for clinical translation.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Bioconjugate Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical trials have established the benefit of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) combined with radiotherapy (RT) in prostate cancer. ADT sensitizes prostate cancer to RT-induced death at least in part through inhibition of DNA repair machinery, but for unknown reasons adjuvant ADT provides further survival benefits. Here we show that androgen receptor (AR) expression and activity are durably upregulated following RT in multiple human prostate cancer models in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the degree of AR upregulation correlates with survival in vitro and time to tumor progression in animal models. We also provide evidence of AR pathway upregulation, measured by a rise in serum levels of AR-regulated hK2 protein, in nearly 20 percent of patients after RT. Furthermore, these men were three fold more likely to experience subsequent biochemical failure. Collectively, these data demonstrate that RT can upregulate AR signaling post-therapy to an extent that negatively impacts disease progression and/or survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates targeting the cell surface protein 6 transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate 1 (STEAP1) are in early clinical development for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa). In general, antigen expression directly affects the bioactivity of therapeutic antibodies, and the biologic regulation of STEAP1 is unusually complicated in PCa. Paradoxically, STEAP1 can be induced or repressed by the androgen receptor (AR) in different human PCa models, while also expressed in AR-null PCa. Consequently, there is an urgent need to translate diagnostic strategies to establish which regulatory mechanism predominates in patients to situate the appropriate therapy within standard of care therapies inhibiting AR.
To this end, we prepared and evaluated (89)Zr-labeled MSTP2109A ((89)Zr-2109A), a radiotracer for PET derived from a fully humanized monoclonal antibody to STEAP1 in preclinical PCa models.
(89)Zr-2109A specifically localized to the STEAP1-positive human PCa models CWR22Pc, 22Rv1, and PC3. Moreover, (89)Zr-2109A sensitively measured treatment-induced changes (∼66% decline) in STEAP1 expression in CWR22PC in vitro and in vivo, a model we showed to express STEAP1 in an AR-dependent manner.
These findings highlight the ability of immuno-PET with (89)Zr-2109A to detect acute changes in STEAP1 expression and argue for an expansion of ongoing efforts to image PCa patients with (89)Zr-2109A to maximize the clinical benefit associated with antibodies or antibody-drug conjugates to STEAP1.
Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor cabozantinib (XL184, BMS-907351 Cometriq) has displayed impressive clinical activity against several indications, culminating in its recent approval for medullary thyroid cancer. Among malignancies with tropism for the bone (prostate, breast), one striking feature of early clinical reports about this drug has been the rapid and complete resolution of bone scans, a phenomenon almost never observed even among therapies already shown to confer survival benefit. In castration-resistant prostate cancer, not all conventional response indicators change as dramatically posttreatment, raising the possibility that cabozantinib may impair the ability of bone-seeking radionuclides to integrate within the remodeling bone. To test this hypothesis, we surgically induced bone remodeling via physical insult in non-tumor-bearing mice and performed 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) positron emission tomographic (PET) and technetium 99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) scans pre- and posttreatment with cabozantinib and related inhibitors. A consistent reduction in the accumulation of either radiotracer at the site of bone remodeling was observed in animals treated with cabozantinib. Given that cabozantinib is known to inhibit several receptor tyrosine kinases, we drugged animals with various permutations of more selective inhibitors to attempt to refine the molecular basis of bone scan resolution. Neither the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor axitinib, the MET inhibitor crizotinib, nor the combination was capable of inhibiting 18F-NaF accumulation at known bioactive doses. In summary, although the mechanism by which cabozantinib suppresses radionuclide incorporation into foci undergoing bone remodeling remains unknown, that this phenomenon occurs in tumor-naïve models indicates that caution should be exercised in interpreting the clinical significance of this event.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Molecular Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One-year survival rates for newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are <50%, and unresectable HCC carries a dismal prognosis owing to its aggressiveness and the undruggable nature of its main genetic drivers. By screening a custom library of shRNAs directed toward known drug targets in a genetically defined Myc-driven HCC model, we identified cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9) as required for disease maintenance. Pharmacological or shRNA-mediated CDK9 inhibition led to robust anti-tumor effects that correlated with MYC expression levels and depended on the role that both CDK9 and MYC exert in transcription elongation. Our results establish CDK9 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for MYC-overexpressing liver tumors and highlight the relevance of transcription elongation in the addiction of cancer cells to MYC.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Genes & development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
The PET tracer, 124I-cG250, directed against carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) shows promise for presurgical diagnosis of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) (Divgi et al. in Lancet Oncol 8:304–310, 2007; Divgi et al. in J Clin Oncol 31:187–194, 2013). The radiometal 89Zr, however, may offer advantages as a surrogate PET nuclide over 124I in terms of greater tumor uptake and retention (Rice et al. in Semin Nucl Med 41:265–282, 2011). We have developed a nonlinear immunokinetic model to facilitate a quantitative comparison of absolute uptake and antibody turnover between 124I-cG250 and 89Zr-cG250 using a human ccRCC xenograft tumor model in mice. We believe that this unique model better relates quantitative imaging data to the salient biological features of tumor antibody–antigen binding and turnover.
We conducted experiments with 89Zr-cG250 and 124I-cG250 using a human ccRCC cell line (SK-RC-38) to characterize the binding affinity and internalization kinetics of the two tracers in vitro. Serial PET imaging was performed in mice bearing subcutaneous ccRCC tumors to simultaneously detect and quantify time-dependent tumor uptake in vivo. Using the known specific activities of the two tracers, the equilibrium rates of antibody internalization and turnover in the tumors were derived from the PET images using nonlinear compartmental modeling.
The two tracers demonstrated virtually identical tumor cell binding and internalization but showed markedly different retentions in vitro. Superior PET images were obtained using 89Zr-cG250, owing to the more prolonged trapping of the radiolabel in the tumor and simultaneous washout from normal tissues. Estimates of cG250/CAIX complex turnover were 1.35 – 5.51 × 1012 molecules per hour per gram of tumor (20 % of receptors internalized per hour), and the ratio of 124I/89Zr atoms released per unit time by tumor was 17.5.
Pairwise evaluation of 89Zr-cG250 and 124I-cG250 provided the basis for a nonlinear immunokinetic model which yielded quantitative information about the binding and internalization of radioantibody bound to CAIX on tumor cells in vivo. 89Zr-cG250 is likely to provide high-quality PET images and may be a useful tool to quantify CAIX/cG250 receptor turnover and cG250-accessible antigen density noninvasively in humans.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past several decades, radionuclides have matured from largely esoteric and experimental technologies to indispensible components of medical diagnostics. Driving this transition, in part, have been mutually necessary advances in biomedical engineering, nuclear medicine, and cancer biology. Somewhat unsung has been the seminal role of inorganic chemistry in fostering the development of new radiotracers. In this regard, the purpose of this Forum Article is to more visibly highlight the significant contributions of inorganic chemistry to nuclear imaging by detailing the development of five metal-based imaging agents: (64)Cu-ATSM, (68)Ga-DOTATOC, (89)Zr-transferrin, (99m)Tc-sestamibi, and (99m)Tc-colloids. In a concluding section, several unmet needs both in and out of the laboratory will be discussed to stimulate conversation between inorganic chemists and the imaging community.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Inorganic Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite their considerable advantages, many circulating biomarkers have well-documented limitations. One prominent shortcoming in oncology is a high frequency of false-positive indications for malignant disease in upfront diagnosis. Because one common cause of false positivism is biomarker production from benign disorders in unrelated host tissues, we hypothesized that probing the sites of biomarker secretion with an imaging tool could be a broadly useful strategy to deconvolute the meaning of foreboding but inconclusive circulating biomarker levels.
In preparation to address this hypothesis clinically, we developed (89)Zr-5B1, a fully human, antibody-based radiotracer targeting tumor-associated CA19.9 in the preclinical setting.
(89)Zr-5B1 localized to multiple tumor models representing diseases with undetectable and supraphysiologic serum CA19.9 levels. Among these, (89)Zr-5B1 detected orthotopic models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, an elusive cancer for which the serum assay is measured in humans but with limited specificity in part because of the frequency of CA19.9 secretion from benign hepatic pathologies.
In this report, a general strategy to supplement some of the shortcomings of otherwise highly useful circulating biomarkers with immunoPET is described. To expedite the clinical validation of this model, a human monoclonal antibody to CA19.9 (a highly visible but partially flawed serum biomarker for several cancers) was radiolabeled and evaluated, and the compelling preclinical evidence suggests that the radiotracer may enhance the fidelity of diagnosis and staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, a notoriously occult cancer.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kallikreins are a family of serine proteases with a range of tissue-specific and essential proteolytic functions. Among the best studied are the prostate tissue-specific KLK2 and KLK3 genes and their secreted protease products, human kallikrein 2, hk2, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Members of the so-called classic kallikreins, these highly active trypsin-like serine proteases play established roles in human reproduction. Both hK2 and PSA expression is regulated by the androgen receptor which has a fundamental role in prostate tissue development and progression of disease. This feature, combined with the ability to sensitively detect different forms of these proteins in blood and biopsies, result in a crucially important biomarker for the presence and recurrence of cancer. Emerging evidence has begun to suggest a role for these kallikreins in critical vascular events. This review discusses the established and developing biological roles of hK2 and PSA, as well as the historical and advanced use of their detection to accurately and non-invasively detect and guide treatment of prostatic disease.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The second-generation antiandrogen enzalutamide was recently approved for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Despite its success, the duration of response is often limited. For previous antiandrogens, one mechanism of resistance is mutation of the androgen receptor (AR). To prospectively identify AR mutations that might confer resistance to enzalutamide, we performed a reporter-based mutagenesis screen and identified a novel mutation, F876L, which converted enzalutamide into an AR agonist. Ectopic expression of AR F876L rescued the growth inhibition of enzalutamide treatment. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on antiandrogen–AR complexes suggested a mechanism by which the F876L substitution alleviates antagonism through repositioning of the coactivator recruiting helix 12. This model then provided the rationale for a focused chemical screen which, based on existing antiandrogen scaffolds, identified three novel compounds that effectively antagonized AR F876L (and AR WT) to suppress the growth of prostate cancer cells resistant to enzalutamide. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00499.001
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on their inability to express argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), some cancer entities feature the characteristic of l-arginine (Arg) auxotrophy. This inability to intrinsically generate Arg makes them applicable for arginine deiminase (ADI) treatment, an Arg-depleting drug. Arg is also used for the synthesis of endothelial nitric oxide (NO), which mainly confers vasodilatation but is also considered to have a major influence on tumor vascularization. The purpose of this study was to define changes in tumor vasculature in an ADI-treated melanoma xenograft mouse model using the blood pool agent AngioSense 750 and fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT). We used an ASS-negative melanoma xenograft mouse model and subjected it to weekly ADI treatment. Changes in tumor size were measured, and alterations in tumor vasculature were depicted by FMT and CD31 immunohistochemistry (IHC). On ADI treatment and effective antitumor therapy, we observed a drop in NO plasma levels and visualized changes in tumor vascularization with FMT and IHC. ADI treatment in melanoma xenografts has a tumor-reducing effect, which can be noninvasively imaged by quantifying tumor vascularization with FMT and IHC.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Molecular Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
A noninvasive technology that indiscriminately detects tumor tissue in the brain could substantially enhance the management of primary or metastatic brain tumors. Although the documented molecular heterogeneity of diseases that initiate or eventually deposit in the brain may preclude identifying a single smoking-gun molecular biomarker, many classes of brain tumors are generally avid for transferrin. Therefore, we reasoned that applying a radiolabeled derivative of transferrin ((89)Zr-labeled transferrin) may be an effective strategy to more thoroughly identify tumor tissue in the brain, regardless of the tumor's genetic background.
Transferrin was radiolabeled with (89)Zr, and its properties with respect to human models of glioblastoma multiforme were studied in vivo.
In this report, we show proof of concept that (89)Zr-labeled transferrin ((89)Zr-transferrin) localizes to genetically diverse models of glioblastoma multiforme in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrate that (89)Zr-transferrin can detect an orthotopic lesion with exceptional contrast. Finally, the tumor-to-brain contrast conferred by (89)Zr-transferrin vastly exceeded that observed with (18)F-FDG, currently the most widely used radiotracer to assess tumor burden in the brain.
The results from this study suggest that (89)Zr-transferrin could be a broadly applicable tool for identifying and monitoring tumors in the brain, with realistic potential for near-term clinical translation.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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As parallel advances in cancer biology and drug development continue to elevate the role of targeted therapies in oncology, the need for imaging biomarkers that systematically measure the biology associated with therapeutic intervention has become more urgent. Although the molecular imaging community has a commitment to develop technologies to this end, few investigational radiotracers directly measure the biology of common oncogenic signaling pathways often addressed by targeted therapies. Visible progress has been achieved with a handful of radiotracers rationally designed to intercalate the pathobiology of prostate cancer, a molecularly heterogeneous disease nevertheless broadly defined by a fairly small repertoire of recurrent oncogenic lesions.
That variable treatment responses or emergent resistance phenotypes are often documented in humans argues strongly for diagnostic technologies that can be realistically applied posttherapy to capture the dynamic patterns of disease response. The purpose of this review is to describe a collection of radiotracers developed to measure the pathobiology of prostate cancer for improved treatment monitoring, placing particular emphasis on the biologic rationale for their preparation. A chronologic description of radiotracer development programs is outlined, primarily to stress how an ongoing dialectic between earlier and more contemporary imaging technologies has accelerated discovery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A noninvasive technology that quantitatively measures the activity of oncogenic signaling pathways could have a broad impact on cancer diagnosis and treatment with targeted therapies. Here we describe the development of 89Zr-desferrioxamine–labeled transferrin (89Zr-transferrin), a new positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer that binds the transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC, CD71) with high avidity. The use of 89Zr-transferrin produces high-contrast PET images that quantitatively reflect treatment-induced changes in MYC-regulated TFRC expression in a MYC-driven prostate cancer xenograft model. Moreover, 89Zr-transferrin imaging can detect the in situ development of prostate cancer in a transgenic MYC prostate cancer model, as well as in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) before histological or anatomic evidence of invasive cancer. These preclinical data establish 89Zr-transferrin as a sensitive tool for noninvasive measurement of oncogene-driven TFRC expression in prostate and potentially other cancers, with prospective near-term clinical application.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite intense efforts to develop radiotracers to detect cancers or monitor treatment response, few are widely used as a result of challenges with demonstrating clear clinical use. We reasoned that a radiotracer targeting a validated clinical biomarker could more clearly assess the advantages of imaging cancer. The virtues and shortcomings of measuring secreted prostate-specific antigen (PSA), an androgen receptor (AR) target gene, in patients with prostate cancer are well documented, making it a logical candidate for assessing whether a radiotracer can reveal new (and useful) information beyond that conferred by serum PSA. Therefore, we developed (89)Zr-labeled 5A10, a novel radiotracer that targets "free" PSA. (89)Zr-5A10 localizes in an AR-dependent manner in vivo to models of castration-resistant prostate cancer, a disease state in which serum PSA may not reflect clinical outcomes. Finally, we demonstrate that (89)Zr-5A10 can detect osseous prostate cancer lesions, a context where bone scans fail to discriminate malignant and nonmalignant signals. SIGNIFICANCE: This report establishes that AR-dependent changes in PSA expression levels can be quantitatively measured at tumor lesions using a radiotracer that can be rapidly translated for human application and advances a new paradigm for radiotracer development that may more clearly highlight the unique virtues of an imaging biomarker.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of deficiencies in l-arginine biosynthesis, some cancers are susceptible to therapeutic intervention with arginine deiminase (ADI), an enzyme responsible for consuming the dietary supply of l-arginine to deprive the disease of an essential nutrient. ADI is currently being evaluated in several clinical trials, and fully realizing the drug's potential will depend on invoking the appropriate metrics to judge clinical response. Without a clear biologic mandate, PET/CT with (18)F-FDG is currently used to monitor patients treated with ADI. However, it is unclear if it can be expected that (18)F-FDG responses will indicate (or predict) clinical benefit.
(18)F-FDG responses to ADI therapy were studied in preclinical models of melanoma in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanism of response to ADI therapy was also studied, with a particular emphasis on biologic pathways known to regulate (18)F-FDG avidity.
Although proliferation of SK-MEL 28 was potently inhibited by ADI treatment in vitro and in vivo, no clear declines in (18)F-FDG uptake were observed. Further investigation showed that ADI treatment induces the posttranslational degradation of phosphatase and tensin homolog and the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway, an event known to enhance glycolysis and (18)F-FDG avidity. A more thorough mechanistic study showed that ADI triggered a complex mechanism of cell death, involving apoptosis via poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage-independent of caspase 3.
These findings suggest that some unexpected pharmacologic properties of ADI preclude using (18)F-FDG to evaluate clinical response in melanoma and, more generally, argue for further studies to explore the use of PET tracers that target apoptotic pathway activation or cell death.
Preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is little consensus on a standard approach to analysing bone scan images. The Bone Scan Index (BSI) is predictive of survival in patients with progressive prostate cancer (PCa), but the popularity of this metric is hampered by the tedium of the manual calculation.
Develop a fully automated method of quantifying the BSI and determining the clinical value of automated BSI measurements beyond conventional clinical and pathologic features.
We conditioned a computer-assisted diagnosis system identifying metastatic lesions on a bone scan to automatically compute BSI measurements. A training group of 795 bone scans was used in the conditioning process. Independent validation of the method used bone scans obtained ≤3 mo from diagnosis of 384 PCa cases in two large population-based cohorts. An experienced analyser (blinded to case identity, prior BSI, and outcome) scored the BSI measurements twice. We measured prediction of outcome using pretreatment Gleason score, clinical stage, and prostate-specific antigen with models that also incorporated either manual or automated BSI measurements.
The agreement between methods was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Discrimination between prognostic models was assessed using the concordance index (C-index).
Manual and automated BSI measurements were strongly correlated (ρ=0.80), correlated more closely (ρ=0.93) when excluding cases with BSI scores≥10 (1.8%), and were independently associated with PCa death (p<0.0001 for each) when added to the prediction model. Predictive accuracy of the base model (C-index: 0.768; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.702-0.837) increased to 0.794 (95% CI, 0.727-0.860) by adding manual BSI scoring, and increased to 0.825 (95% CI, 0.754-0.881) by adding automated BSI scoring to the base model.
Automated BSI scoring, with its 100% reproducibility, reduces turnaround time, eliminates operator-dependent subjectivity, and provides important clinical information comparable to that of manual BSI scoring.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · European Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite encouraging clinical results with next generation drugs (MDV3100 and abiraterone) that inhibit androgen receptor (AR) signaling in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), responses are variable and short-lived. There is an urgent need to understand the basis of resistance to optimize their future use. We reasoned that a radiopharmaceutical that measures intratumoral changes in AR signaling could substantially improve our understanding of AR pathway directed therapies. Expanding on previous observations, we first show that prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is repressed by androgen treatment in multiple models of AR-positive prostate cancer in an AR-dependent manner. Conversely, antiandrogens up-regulate PSMA expression. These expression changes, including increased PSMA expression in response to treatment with the antiandrogen MDV3100, can be quantitatively measured in vivo in human prostate cancer xenograft models through PET imaging with a fully humanized, radiolabeled antibody to PSMA, (64)Cu-J591. Collectively, these results establish that relative changes in PSMA expression levels can be quantitatively measured using a human-ready imaging reagent and could serve as a biomarker of AR signaling to noninvasively evaluate AR activity in patients with CRPC.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences