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ABSTRACT: To obtain a specific antagonist of CXCR4, SDF-1P2G54 by mutating SDF-1 second proline (P) into glycin (G) and removing the α-helix of its C-terminal. SDF-1p2g54 gene amplified by PCR was inserted into the vector pET-30a (+) and transformed into Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain BL21. After IPTG induction of E. coli, the expressed recombinant protein was purified with nickel-affinity chromatography column under denaturing conditions and refolded with gradient dilution and ultra-filtration. The chemotactic effect of SDF-1P2G54 on Jurkat cells and its antagonistic effect against SDF-1 were determined by transwell assay; flow cytometry was used to assay the ability of SDF-1P2G54 to induce calcium influx and CXCR4 internalization in MOLT4 cells. The recombinant protein SDF-1P2G54 completely lost the functions to activate CXCR4 or to induce transmembrane migration of Jurkat cells and calcium influx in MOLT4 cells, but maintained a high affinity to CXCR4. SDF-1P2G54 effectively inhibited the chemotactic effect of wild-type SDF-1 to Jurkat cells, and induced rapid CXCR4 internalization in MOLT4 cells. SDF-1P2G54 is a new antagonist of CXCR4 with a potential value as an effective inhibitor of HIV-1 infection, cancer metastasis or other major diseases.