[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During development, neurons can be generated directly from a multipotent progenitor or indirectly through an intermediate progenitor (IP). This last mode of division amplifies the progeny of neurons. The mechanisms governing the generation and behavior of IPs are not well understood. In this work, we demonstrate that the lengthening of the cell cycle enhances the generation of neurons in a human neural progenitor cell system in vitro and also the generation and expansion of IPs. These IPs are insulinoma-associated 1 (Insm1)(+)/BTG family member 2 (Btg2)(-), which suggests an increase in a self-amplifying IP population. Later the cultures express neurogenin 2 (Ngn2) and become neurogenic. The signaling responsible for this cell cycle modulation is investigated. It is found that the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol in response to B cell lymphoma-extra large overexpression or ATP addition lengths the cell cycle and increases the number of IPs and, in turn, the final neuron outcome. Moreover, data suggest that the p53-p21 pathway is responsible for the changes in cell cycle. In agreement with this, increased p53 levels are necessary for a calcium-induced increase in neurons. Our findings contribute to understand how calcium signaling can modulate cell cycle length during neurogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Molecular biology of the cell