[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This brief data article summarizes the clinical risk factors and laboratory data of a group of subjects recruited for the AIM-HIGH trial (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) and an associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substudy. The sample is restricted to those on statin therapy at the time of enrollment and data are presented stratified by whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) markers of carotid plaque vascularity and inflammation were available or not. The data provided herein are directly related to the article "Longer Duration of Statin Therapy is Associated with Decreased Carotid Plaque Vascularity by Magnetic Resonance Imaging" .
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Plaque neovasculature is a major route for lipoprotein and leukocyte ingress into plaques, and has been identified as a risk factor for carotid plaque disruption. Vp, a variable derived from pharmacokinetic modeling of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), correlates with plaque neovasculature density. Because lipid-lowering therapy has been associated with regression of neovasculature in animal models, we sought to determine clinical correlates of carotid plaque neovasculature (as assessed by Vp) in participants on statin therapy for established cardiovascular disease. Methods: 98 participants from an AIM-HIGH sub-study underwent DCE-MRI of their carotid arteries. Expert readers who were blinded to all clinical variables analyzed the MR images to measure carotid plaque Vp in all participants. Associations between Vp and duration of statin therapy and other clinical risk factors were analyzed. Results: Prior duration of statin treatment at enrollment ranged from <1 year (21%) 1-5 years (40%) and >5 years (39%). In univariate analyses, shorter duration of statin therapy (P = 0.01), the presence of metabolic syndrome (P = 0.02), and higher body mass index (P = 0.01) and lipoprotein(a) (P = 0.01) were all significantly associated with higher baseline Vp values. In multivariate analyses, significant associations remained between shorter duration of statin therapy (P = 0.004) and lipoprotein(a) (P = 0.04). Conclusions: These are the first human, in vivo findings suggesting a relationship between duration of statin therapy and regression of carotid plaque neovasculature. Future longitudinal studies are warranted both to confirm this finding and to address whether changes in neovasculature may translate into change in risk for plaque disruption. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00880178, NCT01178320 and NCT00120289.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Murine noroviruses (MNV) are highly prevalent in research mouse colonies and infect macrophages and dendritic cells. Our laboratory found that MNV4 infection in mice lacking the LDL receptor alters the development of atherosclerosis, potentially confounding research outcomes. Therefore, we investigated whether MNV4 likewise altered atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. In the presence of oxidized LDL, MNV4 infection of ApoE(-/-) bone marrow-derived macrophages increased the gene expression of the inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide synthase, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and IL6. In addition, proteins involved in cholesterol transport were altered in MNV4-infected ApoE -/- bone marrow-derived macrophages and consisted of increased CD36 and decreased ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. MNV4 infection of ApoE(-/-) mice at 12 wk of age (during the development of atherosclerosis) had a variable effect on atherosclerotic lesion size. In one study, MNV4 significantly increased atherosclerotic plaque area whereas in a second study, no effect was observed. Compared with controls, MNV4-infected mice had higher circulating Ly6C-positive monocytes, and viral RNA was detected in the aortas of some mice, suggesting potential mechanisms by which MNV4 alters disease progression. Plaque size did not differ when ApoE -/- mice were infected at 4 wk of age (early during disease development) or in ApoE -/- mice maintained on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. Therefore, these data show that MNV4 has the potential to exert a variable and unpredictable effect on atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. We therefore propose that performing experiments in MNV-free mouse colonies is warranted.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Comparative medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of low levels of HDL cholesterol, hyperglycaemia, high waist circumference, hypertension and elevated triglycerides, and is associated with cardiovascular disease. Calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the thoracic aorta (TAC), measured by non-contrast cardiac computed tomography (CT) scans, is a marker for atherosclerosis and relates to mortality. We sought to evaluate the independent association of MetS and TAC on cardiac CT scans.
We examined the relation of the MetS, and each of its components, to the prevalence of TAC, measured from 2000 to 2002 in 6778 white, Chinese, African-American and Hispanic participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking, LDL cholesterol and lipid-lowering medications, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for a TAC score > 0 were: 1.19 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.28) for participants with MetS, 1.34 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.49) for those with diabetes and MetS, and 1.33 (95% CI 1.11, 1.58) for those with diabetes and no MetS compared with participants who were free of the MetS and diabetes. Associations were found for most of the components of the MetS with TAC.
We conclude that in adults without known heart disease, the MetS, most of its components and diabetes are associated with a higher prevalence of calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the thoracic arteries in a multi-ethnic population of men and women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Diabetic Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that murine norovirus (MNV), a virus prevalent in United States research institutions, increased atherosclerotic lesion size in Ldlr(-/-) mice when the mice were infected 8 wk after feeding an atherogenic diet. To determine whether the timing of MNV infection relative to atherosclerosis development altered the disease phenotype and to examine potential mechanisms by which MNV influences the disease process, we fed Ldlr(-/-) mice an atherogenic diet for 16 wk. Three days after initiating the atherogenic diet, half of the mice received MNV4 and the other half vehicle only (clarified cell-culture lysate; controls). Both groups of mice developed large aortic sinus lesions (control compared with MNV4: 133 ± 8 × 10(3) μm(2) compared with 140 ± 7 × 10(3) μm(2)) that were not significantly different in size. Because the timing of MNV infection relative to atherosclerosis development and hypercholesterolemia differed between our previous and the current studies, we examined whether hypercholesterolemia altered MNV4-induced changes in bone-marrow-derived macrophages. MNV4 infection increased the potential of macrophages to take up and store cholesterol by increasing CD36 expression while suppressing the ABCA1 transporter. Thus, the effects of MNV4 infection on atherosclerotic lesion size appear to be dependent on the timing of the infection: MNV4 infection promotes only established lesions. This effect may be due to MNV4's ability to increase cholesterol uptake and decrease efflux by regulating CD36 and ABCA1 protein expression.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Comparative medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum amyloid A (SAA) increases in response to acute inflammatory stimuli and is modestly and chronically elevated in obesity. SAA3, an inducible form of SAA, is highly expressed in adipose tissue in obese mice where it promotes monocyte chemotaxis, providing a mechanism for the macrophage accumulation that occurs with adipose tissue expansion in obesity. Humans do not express functional SAA3 protein, but instead express SAA1 and SAA2 in hepatic as well as extrahepatic tissues, making it difficult to distinguish between liver and adipose tissue-specific SAA effects. SAA3 does not circulate in plasma, but may exert local effects that impact systemic inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that SAA3 contributes to chronic systemic inflammation and adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in obesity using mice deficient for Saa3 (Saa3-/-). Mice were rendered obese by feeding a pro-inflammatory high fat, high sucrose diet with added cholesterol (HFHSC). Both male and female Saa3-/- mice gained less weight on the HFHSC diet compared to Saa3+/+ littermate controls, with no differences in body composition or resting metabolism. Female Saa3-/- mice, but not males, had reduced HFHSC diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage content. Both male and female Saa3-/- mice had reduced liver Saa1 and Saa2 expression in association with reduced plasma SAA. Additionally, female Saa3-/- mice, but not males, showed improved plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein profiles, with no changes in glucose metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that the absence of Saa3 attenuates liver-specific SAA (i.e., SAA1/2) secretion into plasma and blunts weight gain induced by an obesogenic diet. Furthermore, adipose tissue-specific inflammation and macrophage accumulation are attenuated in female Saa3-/- mice, suggesting a novel sexually dimorphic role for this protein. These results also suggest that Saa3 influences liver-specific SAA1/2 expression, and that SAA3 could play a larger role in the acute phase response than previously thought.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Association between clinical factors and high-risk plaque features, such as, thin or ruptured cap, intraplaque hemorrhage, presence of lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC), and increased LRNC volume as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was examined in patients with established vascular disease in the Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides (AIM-HIGH) trial. A total of 214 subjects underwent carotid MRI and had acceptable image quality for assessment of plaque burden, tissue contents, and MRI-modified American Heart Association lesion type by a core laboratory. We found that 77% of subjects had carotid plaques, 52% had lipid-containing plaques, and 11% had advanced American Heart Association type-VI lesions with possible surface defect, intraplaque hemorrhage, or mural thrombus. Type-VI lesions were associated with older age (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6 per 5 years increase, p <0.001). After adjusting for age, these lesions were associated with history of cerebrovascular disease (OR = 4.1, p = 0.01), higher levels of lipoprotein(a) (OR = 2.0 per 1 SD increase, p = 0.02), and larger percent wall volume (PWV [OR = 4.6 per 1 SD increase, p <0.001]) but, were negatively associated with metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.2, p = 0.02). Presence of LRNC was associated with the male gender (OR = 3.2, p = 0.02) and PWV (OR = 3.8 per 1 SD, p <0.001); however, it was negatively associated with diabetes (OR = 0.4, p = 0.02) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (OR = 0.7 per 1 SD, p = 0.02). Increased percent LRNC was associated with PWV (regression coefficient = 0.36, p <0.001) and negatively associated with ApoA1 levels (regression coefficient = -0.20, p = 0.03). In conclusion, older age, male gender, history of cerebrovascular disease, larger plaque burden, higher lipoprotein(a), and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or ApoA1 level have statistically significant associations with high-risk plaque features. Metabolic syndrome and diabetes showed negative associations in this population.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · The American Journal of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Piperidine-based peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonists are agents that are efficacious in improving lipid, glycemic, and inflammatory indicators in diabetes and obesity. This study sought to determine whether CP-900691 ((S)-3-[3-(1-carboxy-1-methyl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid 4-trifluoromethyl-benzyl ester; CP), a member of this novel class of agents, by decreasing plasma triglycerides, could prevent diabetic nephropathy in the Black and Tan, BRachyuric (BTBR) ob/ob mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Four-week old female BTBR WT and BTBR ob/ob mice received either regular chow or one containing CP (3 mg/kg per day) for 14 weeks. CP elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein, albuminuria, and urinary excretion of 8-epi PGF2α, a product of the nonenzymatic metabolism of arachidonic acid and whose production is elevated in oxidative stress, in BTBR WT mice. In BTBR ob/ob mice, CP reduced plasma triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, fasting blood glucose, body weight, and plasma interleukin-6, while concomitantly improving insulin resistance. Despite these beneficial metabolic effects, CP had no effect on elevated plasma insulin, 8-epi PGF2α excretion, and albuminuria, and surprisingly, did not ameliorate the development of diabetic nephropathy, having no effect on the accumulation of renal macrophages, glomerular hypertrophy, and increased mesangial matrix expansion. In addition, CP did not increase plasma high-density lipoprotein in BTBR ob/ob mice, while paradoxically increasing total cholesterol levels. These findings indicate that 8-epi PGF2α, possibly along with hyperinsulinemia and inflammatory and dysfunctional lipoproteins, is integral to the development of diabetic nephropathy and should be considered as a potential target of therapy in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 23 June 2014; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2014.80.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Laboratory Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory activation of myeloid cells is accompanied by increased glycolysis, which is required for the surge in cytokine production. Although in vitro studies suggest that increased macrophage glucose metabolism is sufficient for cytokine induction, the proinflammatory effects of increased myeloid cell glucose flux in vivo and the impact on atherosclerosis, a major complication of diabetes, are unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that increased glucose uptake in myeloid cells stimulates cytokine production and atherosclerosis. Overexpression of the glucose transporter GLUT1 in myeloid cells caused increased glycolysis and flux through the pentose phosphate pathway but did not induce cytokines. Moreover, myeloid-cell-specific overexpression of GLUT1 in LDL receptor-deficient mice was ineffective in promoting atherosclerosis. Thus, increased glucose flux is insufficient for inflammatory myeloid cell activation and atherogenesis. If glucose promotes atherosclerosis by increasing cellular glucose flux, myeloid cells do not appear to be the key targets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
This study sought to investigate associations of phosphate metabolism biomarkers with aortic valve calcification (AVC).
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a common progressive condition that involves inflammatory and calcification mediators. Currently there are no effective medical treatments, but mineral metabolism pathways may be important in the development and progression of disease.
We examined associations of phosphate metabolism biomarkers, including serum phosphate, urine phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, with CT-assessed AVC at study baseline and in short-term follow-up in 6814 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
At baseline, AVC prevalence was 13.2%. Higher serum phosphate levels were associated with significantly greater AVC prevalence (relative risk 1.3 per 1 mg/dL increment, 95% confidence incidence: 1.1 to 1.5, p < 0.001). Serum FGF-23, serum PTH, and urine phosphate were not associated with prevalent AVC. Average follow-up CT evaluation was 2.4 years (range 0.9–4.9 years) with an AVC incidence of 4.1%. Overall, phosphate metabolism biomarkers were not associated with incident AVC except in the top FGF-23 quartile.
Serum phosphate levels are significantly associated with AVC prevalence. Further study of phosphate metabolism as a modifiable risk factor for AVC is warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Significant cardiovascular morbidity has been associated with mitral annulus calcification (MAC), but limited data exist regarding its progression. The purpose of this study was to examine the natural history of and risk factors for MAC progression.
The MESA is a longitudinal cohort study of participants aged 45 to 84 years without clinical cardiovascular disease who underwent serial cardiac computed tomography studies with quantification of MAC. Regression models were used to identify risk factors associated with MAC incidence and progression.
Prevalent MAC was observed in 534 (9%) of 5,895 participants. Over a median 2.3 years, 280 (5%) developed incident MAC. After adjustment, age was the strongest predictor of incident MAC (adjusted OR, 2.25 per 10 years; 95% CI, 1.97-2.58; P < .0001). Female gender, white ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, serum cholesterol, smoking, and interleukin-6 were also significant predictors of incident MAC. In participants with prevalent MAC, the median rate of change was 10.1 [IQR, -6.7 to 60.7] Agatston units (AU)/year. Baseline MAC severity was the predominant predictor of rate of MAC progression (β-coefficient per 10 AU, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.85-0.91; P < .0001), although ethnicity and smoking status possessed modest influence.
Several cardiovascular risk factors predicted incident MAC, as did female gender. Severity of baseline MAC was the primary predictor of MAC progression, suggesting that, while atherosclerotic processes may initiate MAC, they are only modestly associated with its progression over these time frames.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · American heart journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to examine the relationship between baseline and on-study apolipoproteins (apo) A-1 and B and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and the development of subsequent cardiovascular (CV) events in the AIM-HIGH Trial.
Niacin has been reported to lower apoB and Lp(a) and to raise apoA-1.
Individuals with CV disease and low baseline levels of HDL-C were randomized to simvastatin plus placebo or simvastatin plus extended-release niacin (ERN, 1500-2000 mg/day), with ezetimibe added, as needed, in both groups to maintain an on-treatment LDL-C in the range of 40-80 mg/dL. Hazard ratios (HR) were used to evaluate the relationship between levels of apo A-1, apoB and Lp(a) and CV events in each treatment group.
Baseline apoB and the apoB/apoA-I ratio were significantly predictive of CV events only for the placebo group (HR=1.17, p=0.018 and HR=1.19, p=0.016). Baseline and on-study Lp(a) were predictive of CV events in both simvastatin+placebo (baseline HR= 1.24, p=0.002 and on-study HR=1.21, p=0.017) and the simvastatin+ERN group (baseline HR=1.25, p=0.001 and on-study HR=1.18 p=0.028). ERN modestly increased 1-year apoA-1 (7%), decreased apoB (13%), decreased the ApoB/ApoA-1 ratio (19%), and decreased Lp(a) 21%, but did not reduce CV events.
Lp(a) was associated with increased CV risk in both treatment groups indicating that it contributes to residual CV risk. However, there was no evidence that ERN reduced CV risk despite favorable lipoprotein changes.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the incidence of valvular and arterial calcification is not well established despite known associations between these drugs and cardiovascular events.
To compare the association between the baseline use of aspirin with other NSAID class medications with the incidence and prevalence of aortic valve calcification (AVC) and coronary artery calcification (CAC).
The relationship of NSAID use to AVC and CAC detected by computed tomography was assessed in 6814 participants within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) using regression modeling. Results were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study site, anti-hypertensive medication use, education, income, health insurance status, diabetes, smoking, exercise, body mass index, blood pressure, serum lipids, inflammatory markers, fasting glucose, statin medication use, and a simple diet score. Medication use was assessed by medication inventory at baseline which includes the use of non-prescription NSAIDs. MESA collects information on both incident and prevalent calcification. The 4814 participants of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study, a German prospective cohort study with similar measures of calcification, were included in this analysis to enable replication.
Mean age of the MESA participants was 62 years (51% female). After adjustment for possible confounding factors, a possible association between aspirin use and incident AVC (Relative Risk(RR): 1.60; 95%Confidence Interval (CI): 1.19-2.15) did not replicate in the HNR cohort (RR: 1.06; 95%CI: 0.87-1.28). There was no significant association between aspirin use and incident CAC in the MESA cohort (RR 1.08; 95%CI: 0.91-1.29) or in the HNR cohort (RR 1.24; 95%CI: 0.87-1.77). Non-aspirin NSAID use was not associated with either AVC or CAC in either cohort. There were no associations between regular cardiac dose aspirin and incident calcification in either cohort.
Baseline NSAID use, as assessed by medication inventory, appears to have no protective effect regarding the onset of calcification in either coronary arteries or aortic valves.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this secondary analysis of the AIM-HIGH trial, the objectives were to examine the relationship between niacin treatment, lipoproteins, and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes.
During 3-year follow-up in 3,414 patients with established CV disease and low HDL-C, combined niacin + LDL-lowering therapy did not reduce CV events versus LDL-lowering therapy alone.
Subjects taking simvastatin ± ezetimibe were randomized to extended-release (ER) niacin 1500-2000 mg or minimal immediate-release niacin (<150 mg) as placebo at bedtime. LDL-C in both groups was maintained from 40 to 80 mg/dL. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards for relationships between lipoproteins and the composite endpoint of CV death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, or symptom-driven revascularization.
CV outcomes were not associated with ER niacin in any baseline lipoprotein tertile. In a subset of patients in both the highest triglyceride (≥198 mg/dl) and lowest HDL-C (<33 mg/dl) tertiles, ER niacin showed a trend toward benefit (HR=0.74, p=0.073). In-trial LDL-C, nonHDL-C, and TC/HDL-C ratio were positively associated with CV events in the control group, but these relationships were absent in the ER niacin group.
Baseline lipoprotein tertiles did not predict differential benefit or harm with ER niacin added to LDL-lowering therapy, but a small dyslipidemic subgroup may benefit. ER niacin attenuated expected relationships of lipoprotein risk factors with CV events, raising the possibility that nonlipoprotein actions of niacin could impact risk.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue inflammation and specifically, pro-inflammatory macrophages are believed to contribute to insulin resistance (IR) in obesity in humans and animal models. Recent studies have invoked T cells in the recruitment of pro-inflammatory macrophages and the development of IR. To test the role of the T cell response in adipose tissue of mice fed an obesogenic diet, we used two agents (CTLA-4 Ig and anti-CD40L antibody) that block co-stimulation, which is essential for full T cell activation. C57BL/6 mice were fed an obesogenic diet for 16 weeks, and concomitantly either treated with CTLA-4 Ig, anti-CD40L antibody or an IgG control (300 µg/week). The treatments altered the immune cell composition of adipose tissue in obese mice. Treated mice demonstrated a marked reduction in pro-inflammatory adipose tissue macrophages and activated CD8+ T cells. Mice treated with anti-CD40L exhibited reduced weight gain, which was accompanied by a trend toward improved IR. CTLA-4 Ig treatment, however, was not associated with improved IR. These data suggest that the presence of pro-inflammatory T cells and macrophages can be altered with co-stimulatory inhibitors, but may not be a significant contributor to the whole body IR phenotype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reversibility of diabetic nephropathy remains controversial. Here, we tested whether replacing leptin could reverse the advanced diabetic nephropathy modeled by the leptin-deficient BTBR ob/ob mouse. Leptin replacement, but not inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), resulted in near-complete reversal of both structural (mesangial matrix expansion, mesangiolysis, basement membrane thickening, podocyte loss) and functional (proteinuria, accumulation of reactive oxygen species) measures of advanced diabetic nephropathy. Immunohistochemical labeling with the podocyte markers Wilms tumor 1 and p57 identified parietal epithelial cells as a possible source of regenerating podocytes. Thus, the leptin-deficient BTBR ob/ob mouse provides a model of advanced but reversible diabetic nephropathy for further study. These results also suggest that restoration of lost podocytes is possible but is not induced by RAAS inhibition, possibly explaining the limited efficacy of RAAS inhibitors in promoting repair of diabetic nephropathy.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale:
Macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue associates with insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular disease risk. We previously have shown that generation of reactive oxygen species and monocyte chemotactic factors after exposure of adipocytes to saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate, occurs via translocation of NADPH oxidase 4 into lipid rafts (LRs). The anti-inflammatory effects of apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on macrophages and endothelial cells seem to occur via cholesterol depletion of LRs. However, little is known concerning anti-inflammatory effects of HDL and apoAI on adipocytes.
To determine whether apoAI and HDL inhibit inflammation in adipocytes and adipose tissue, and whether this is dependent on LRs.
Methods and results:
In 3T3L-1 adipocytes, apoAI, HDL, and methyl-β-cyclodextrin inhibited chemotactic factor expression. ApoAI and HDL also disrupted LRs, reduced plasma membrane cholesterol content, inhibited NADPH oxidase 4 translocation into LRs, and reduced palmitate-induced reactive oxygen species generation and monocyte chemotactic factor expression. Silencing ATP-binding cassette A-1 abrogated the effect of apoAI, but not HDL, whereas silencing ATP-binding cassette G-1 or scavenger receptor B-1 abrogated the effect of HDL but not apoAI. In vivo, apoAI transgenic mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose, cholesterol-containing diet showed reduced chemotactic factor and proinflammatory cytokine expression and reduced macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue.
ApoAI and HDL have anti-inflammatory effects in adipocytes and adipose tissue similar to their effects in other cell types. These effects are consistent with disruption and removal of cholesterol from LRs, which are regulated by cholesterol transporters, such as ATP-binding cassette A-1, ATP-binding cassette G-1, and scavenger receptor B-1.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Circulation Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited information is available regarding genetic contributions to valvular calcification, which is an important precursor of clinical valve disease.
We determined genomewide associations with the presence of aortic-valve calcification (among 6942 participants) and mitral annular calcification (among 3795 participants), as detected by computed tomographic (CT) scanning; the study population for this analysis included persons of white European ancestry from three cohorts participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium (discovery population). Findings were replicated in independent cohorts of persons with either CT-detected valvular calcification or clinical aortic stenosis.
One SNP in the lipoprotein(a) (LPA) locus (rs10455872) reached genomewide significance for the presence of aortic-valve calcification (odds ratio per allele, 2.05; P=9.0×10(-10)), a finding that was replicated in additional white European, African-American, and Hispanic-American cohorts (P<0.05 for all comparisons). Genetically determined Lp(a) levels, as predicted by LPA genotype, were also associated with aortic-valve calcification, supporting a causal role for Lp(a). In prospective analyses, LPA genotype was associated with incident aortic stenosis (hazard ratio per allele, 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32 to 2.15) and aortic-valve replacement (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.27) in a large Swedish cohort; the association with incident aortic stenosis was also replicated in an independent Danish cohort. Two SNPs (rs17659543 and rs13415097) near the proinflammatory gene IL1F9 achieved genomewide significance for mitral annular calcification (P=1.5×10(-8) and P=1.8×10(-8), respectively), but the findings were not replicated consistently.
Genetic variation in the LPA locus, mediated by Lp(a) levels, is associated with aortic-valve calcification across multiple ethnic groups and with incident clinical aortic stenosis. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others.).
Preview · Article · Feb 2013 · New England Journal of Medicine