[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in water samples at trace levels by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS). Water samples were extracted by the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe) method. The QqQ analyzer acquired data in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM), permitting both quantification and confirmation in a single injection with a running time reduced up to 11.0 min. The effect of matrix interferences in extracts on analyte quantification and the identification of PCBs in water samples was deeply studied. The results showed that PCBs were prone to strong matrix interactions in water samples, and the quantification and identification of PCBs were highly affected by a matrix enhancement effect. To evaluate the performance of the method, validation experiments were carried out on water samples at three spiking levels (1.6, 8.0, 40.0 µg L(-1)). Recovery was in the range of 95 - 109% at 1.6 µg L(-1), 90 - 95% at 8.0 µg L(-1) and 97 - 102% at 40.0 µg L(-1), respectively. Precision values expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) were lower than 15%. Linearity in the range of 0.5 - 50.0 µg L(-1) provided determination coefficients (R(2)) higher than 0.999 for all compounds. The limits of detection (LODs) for PCBs were ≤0.1 µg L(-1) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.04 to 0.3 µg L(-1). The applicability of the proposed method to detect and quantify PCBs has been demonstrated in analyse of 15 real samples.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Analytical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, a novel and recyclable amino-functionalized nano-composite material (NCM) using tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) as a coupling agent was synthesized. The properties of the TEPA-NCM were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis (EA). An effective dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) procedure using the TEPA-NCM was developed, and comparative studies were carried out among Carbon/NH₂ SPE, primary secondary amine (PSA) dSPE and TEPA-NCM dSPE. The results showed that TEPA-NCM dSPE was faster, easier and more effective to clean and enrich than the Carbon/NH₂ cartridges, and the TEPA-NCM was much more effective to remove the pigments in vegetable samples than the PSA materials. The TEPA-NCM could be reused at least five times without much sacrifice of the cleanup efficiency. Furthermore, a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous determination of 29 pesticides (such as organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides) in vegetables by dSPE using acetonitrile as an extraction solvent and TEPA-NCM as an adsorbent instead of PSA. The recoveries were in the range of 75-114% for all analytes except for trans-chlordane. The RSDs were in the range of 2-17%. The linearities were in the range of 0.4-100.0 μg/kg with determination coefficients (r²) higher than 0.986 for all compounds. The limits of detection (LODs) for all pesticides were less than 0.29 μg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.17 and 0.95 μg/kg. The developed method was applied to fifteen real vegetable samples, and it was confirmed that the TEPA-NCM was one of a kind of highly effective dSPE materials used for the pesticides analyses.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Chromatography A