[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objectives:
European legislation requires reporting from Member States on acute poisoning incidents involving pesticides. However, standard rules for data collection and reporting have not yet been set out. The new categorization system presented in this paper is aimed at enabling Member States to gather comparable data and provide standard reporting on pesticide poisoning exposures.
Materials and methods:
European Regulations providing separate official categorization of biocidal and plant protection pesticides, were used as a basis to build up a unified pesticide categorization and coding system. Data on selected pesticide exposures collected by Poison Control Centres in six EU countries were reviewed, categorized and reported according to the proposed system.
The resulting pesticide categorization system has two dimensions. The first part identifies the main category of use, i.e. biocide/plant protection pesticide/unknown, and the secondary category of use, e.g. Rodenticides, Insecticides and acaricides. The second part of the system is organized into two levels: level one identifies chemical grouping, e.g. Coumarins, Pyrethrins/pyrethroids, while level two identifies the active compound by using its Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number. The system was used to provide a unified categorization to compare exposures to plant protection and biocidal Rodenticides and Pyrethrins/pyrethroids Insecticides and acaricides identified by six EU member states.
The developed pesticide categorization system was successfully applied to data extracted from different databases and was able to make the required information comparable. The data reported filling in common templates containing a pre-ordinate list of active compounds categorized according the proposed system, highlighted different capabilities in data collection and recording, showing that some of the collaborating centres were not able to distinguish between main categories of pesticide products or provide information on active compounds. The results indicate that a special effort should be dedicated to support detailed data recording at national level. Providing common tools to systematically report to the EU Commission hazardous exposures to pesticides, as well as to other selected categories of products, could allow for data comparability between Member States and greatly improve post marketing surveillance and alerting systems in Europe.
Full-text available · Article · May 2016 · Environment international
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish.
Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart.
Article · Jan 2015 · DMW - Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Vergiftungen machen auch heute noch einen erheblichen Anteil medizinischer Behandlungsfälle, speziell auf der Intensivstation, aus. In diesem Kapitel werden häufige Vergiftungssyndrome (Toxidrome), pharmakologische Grundlagen der Bewertung und der Therapie von Vergiftungen, Methoden der spezifischen klinischen und apparativen Untersuchungen bei Vergiftungen, die Methodik der toxikologischen Risikobewertung und die Bedeutung spezifischer Therapieoptionen beschrieben, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des aktuellen Stellenwertes von Methoden zur Absorptionsverminderung und Eliminationsbeschleunigung. Die Rolle der Giftinformationszentren als konsiliarische Unterstützung wird verdeutlicht, Kontakttelefonnummern sind angegeben. Alle heute klinisch wichtigen Antidota werden vorgestellt und ihren Indikationen zugeordnet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: L’acronyme « ECHEMNET » signifie « European Chemical Emergency Networks ». Imaginez ce scénario : 15 patients avec des symptômes gastrointestinaux après avoir assisté à un concert à Rome et 12 patients avec des problèmes respiratoires après avoir mangé dans une cafétéria d’une université en Tchéquie. Personne n’associait ces deux événements. Le but des projets ASHT et ECHEMNET est la création d’un système d’alerte (RAS-CHEM, Rapid Alert System for Chemicals) utilisant une base de données européenne pour détecter une libération de produits chimiques avec intention criminelle ou terroriste.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Toxin-producing microalgae are thriving worldwide due to coral reef destruction and global warming with major consequences on ecosystems, international trade and human health. Microalgae belonging to the family of flagellate protists, in particular dinoflagellates, secrete a variety of high-molecular-weight polyether toxins that accumulate through the marine food chain to cause disease in humans by acting as sodium channel activator toxins; ciguatera is the most frequent seafood-borne illness worldwide with 50,000 to 500,000 global incidences per annum and is usually limited to endemic areas located between 35° northern and 35° southern latitude. The rising global incidence frequency renders it a major human health problem, because no curative treatment is available yet and reliable detection assays are lacking. During the last decade ciguatera has increasingly become endemic in previously unaffected areas for two reasons: first global warming has contributed to the emergence of dinoflagellate species in subtropical and even temperate regions that previously had been constrained to tropical areas and second: in Europe globalization of fishing industry and tourism has led to a progressive increase in the number of ciguatera cases and a lack of awareness among medical personnel contributes to under-reporting. We review, through a recent ciguatera outbreak in Germany, the risk for ciguatera poisoning in Europe and highlight characteristic symptoms, current knowledge about disease pathomechanisms and treatment options.
Full-text available · Article · Dec 2014 · Toxicon
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Poisons centers (PC) support medical management of poisoning cases in all parts of the health system, in particular in emergency cases, by supplying specific information on the toxicity of agents involved and by advising on medical management of the poisoning case. Detailed product information on cosmetic products and hazardous mixtures has to be notified by industry to facilitate the PC services. Harmonized notification formats and procedures and Europe-wide product databases as the Cosmetic Products Notification Portal help to increase data quality and to reduce notification workload.