Muhammad Salaam

South Carolina Department of Mental Health, Columbia, South Carolina, United States

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Publications (8)10.36 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Several studies have examined the effects of psychological distress and coping mechanisms among college students. This is important because psychological morbidities (e.g. substance abuse, mood disorders, anxiety) increase in early adulthood. In particular, college and graduate school can be a stressful period in life exacerbated by discriminatory experiences. This study seeks to explore the effects of discrimination on psychological health, coping behaviors, and seeking of support services. Methods: Surveys were administered to Black male students pursuing undergraduate and graduate degrees at a predominantly white institution (PWI) and a Historically Black College University (HBCU) during Spring 2010. Using SAS 9.2, T-test compared scores of psychological indicators of respondents. Crude and multivariate regression analysis examined the association of psychological indicators with behavioral, individual, and contextual factors, including experiences of discrimination. Results: 110 Black males comprised of undergraduate (n=97) and graduate (n=13) students completed the survey. Most black males self-reported “ever” experiencing discrimination 92%, while 60% reported experiencing “daily” discrimination, 14% (n=9) of students surveyed were considered psychological distressed. Decreased psychological wellbeing was associated with increased reporting of daily discrimination (p = 0.029). Additionally 50% of Black male students were indifferent or did not feel comfortable seeking help at the college’s counseling center for emotional or mental health needs. Conclusion: Black male students continue to experience discrimination on a regular basis. Black males reported not feeling comfortable seeking counseling services. Thus health outreach efforts should be considered to help promote services and comfortability among Black males.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – African-Americans historically report greater exposure to discrimination and also experience unfavorable outcomes associated with physical health, poverty concentration, residential segregation, and poorer education. The effects of discrimination are particularly harmful on mental health as discriminatory experiences contribute significantly to diminished mental health status and psychological distress. African-Americans pursuing graduate education may experience additional stressors, increasing the risk for poorer mental health. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association of psychological health and discrimination experiences among black and white graduate students at a southeastern university.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care
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    ABSTRACT: Historically, African-Americans (AAs) have been marginalized and report greater exposure to discrimination. Consequently, AAs may experience disparate outcomes related to poorer overall health, lowered educational success, and other undesirable consequences. Discriminatory experiences contribute significantly to diminished psychological well-being and distress. Although the relationship between discrimination and poorer mental health is well-documented, experiences of discrimination within AA subpopulations should be examined. Quantitative data was collected during the spring of 2010 from 822 undergraduate and graduate students at a historically black college (HBC) and a predominantly white institution (PWI) in a southeastern US metropolitan city. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association of the independent variable and covariates with psychological distress and well-being. Mean scores for day-to-day discrimination were higher for AA graduate students (5.3) compared to Caucasians (3.2) (p < 0.0001). AAs were 4 times more likely than Caucasians to experience moderate amounts of discrimination and 24 times more likely to experience high amounts of discrimination. Among undergraduate students, a greater proportion of HBC students did not feel comfortable utilizing the counseling center (23%), did not feel safe on campus (26%), and did not feel there was a campus department for diversity (12.5%) versus PWI students (p < 0.05). Decreased psychological well-being was associated with increased reporting of daily discrimination among AA men (p < 0.05). Findings identify factors related to psychosocial health among young educated AAs. Higher learning institutions should consider the importance of the campus environment and minority student experiences when designing and implementing student services.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Black women experience some of the highest levels of psychological distress, but have the lowest rates of mental health treatment. Graduate students often experience distress that can negatively affect their academic success and increase risk of depression. Consequently, without adequate treatment, Black female graduate (BFG) students may have an increased risk of mental health problems. Graduate students at a predominately white institution completed surveys pertaining to their experiences of psychological distress, discrimination, and the utilization of campus resources for help when emotional problems or academic conflicts occurred. Simple linear regressions were performed to examine differences in discrimination, psychological distress, comfort using campus-based mental health services, and knowledge regarding resources to address academic conflicts by race and classification (undergraduate vs. graduate). There were 486 female students that completed the survey. BFG students reported significantly more day-to-day experiences of discrimination than White female graduate (WFG) students (p <0.0001) and Black female undergraduates (BFU; p <0.0001). BFG reported more lifetime experiences with discrimination than BFU (p<0.0001) and WFG (p<0.0001). BFG reported greater psychological distress than WFG (p <0.02). BFG were less comfortable seeking mental health service than BFU(p<0.05). Knowledge of resources to resolve academic conflict was lower for BFG compared to BFU (p <0.05). Although BFG have significantly more experiences of discrimination and greater psychological distress than WFG and BFU, they are less likely to access mental health services. These findings suggest that experiences of discrimination increase as Black females mature and that targeted interventions to increase mental health utilization for BFG.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2011
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    ABSTRACT: To conduct a 1-year randomized clinical trial to evaluate a remote comprehensive diabetes self-management education (DSME) intervention, Diabetes TeleCare, administered by a dietitian and nurse/certified diabetes educator (CDE) in the setting of a federally qualified health center (FQHC) in rural South Carolina. Participants were recruited from three member health centers of an FQHC and were randomized to either Diabetes TeleCare, a 12-month, 13-session curriculum delivered using telehealth strategies, or usual care. Mixed linear regression model results for repeated measures showed a significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin (GHb) in the Diabetes TeleCare group from baseline to 6 and 12 months (9.4 +/- 0.3, 8.3 +/- 0.3, and 8.2 +/- 0.4, respectively) compared with usual care (8.8 +/- 0.3, 8.6 +/- 0.3, and 8.6 +/- 0.3, respectively). LDL cholesterol was reduced at 12 months in the Diabetes TeleCare group compared with usual care. Although not part of the original study design, GHb was reduced from baseline to 12 and 24 months in the Diabetes TeleCare group (9.2 +/- 0.4, 7.4 +/- 0.5, and 7.6 +/- 0.5, respectively) compared with usual care (8.7 +/- 0.4, 8.1 +/- 0.4, and 8.1 +/- 0.5, respectively) in a post hoc analysis of a subset of the randomized sample who completed a 24-month follow-up visit. Telehealth effectively created access to successfully conduct a 1-year remote DSME by a nurse CDE and dietitian that improved metabolic control and reduced cardiovascular risk in an ethnically diverse and rural population.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Diabetes care
  • Jennifer Davis · Sacoby Wilson · Muhammad Salaam · Rahnuma Hassan
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    ABSTRACT: Our study seeks to determine the role that residential segregation plays in driving the distribution of ecologic salutogens (i.e., factors that promote health) and pathogens (i.e., factors that impede health) in neighborhoods across the nation, ultimately driving health disparities in diverse populations. Currently, there is considerable debate concerning specific mechanisms culminating in a health disparity. Limited research purports that residential segregation is a critical starting point to gain better insight into the origins and persistence of environmental health disparities and may be part of the causal pathway leading to health disparities in exposure risks. In this study we aim to determine the variability in the distribution of salutogens and pathogens across levels of residential racial segregation. This cross-sectional study uses county-level data to describe the distribution of salutogenic (i.e., number of schools, health facilities, banks, religious institutions, and social/community service facilities) and pathogenic ( i.e., number of fast food places, gas stations, liquor stores, pawn shops, owned vs. rented housing, waste treatment facilities) determinants of health on a national scale. The dissimilarity index (D) was used to measure residential segregation for whites, blacks, and Hispanics. We found that a disproportionate amount of salutogens were present in white neighborhoods, while black and Hispanic neighborhoods housed a disproportionate number of pathogens. Highly racially segregated neighborhoods shoulder a disproportionate burden of pathogenic exposures and these exposure disparities may modify risk factors for adverse health outcomes. Furthermore, we found that pathogenic exposures were especially pronounced in high poverty and highly segregated neighborhoods.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2009
  • Muhammad Salaam · Sacoby Wilson
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study investigated county-level exposure to Toxics Releases Inventory (TRI) emissions and influences on preterm delivery and low birth weight (LBW) in South Carolina. Methods: Aggregate level birth data on infants was obtained from 1995-2005 on all 46 counties in South Carolina. Data on TRI emissions, demographics and socioeconomic variables were also collected for the same time period. Results: From 1995-2005, preterm births increased from 9.6% to 12.7% and LBW infants also increased from 9.1% to 10.1%. Simultaneously, TRI emission levels and the number of facilities also increased. Counties with high levels of TRI emissions also showed high percentages of African Americans, high poverty, and low income. Conclusions: Health disparities in birth outcomes currently exist in South Carolina. Although African-Americans make up only a third of the newborn population, they account for 43% of preterm infants and 50% of infants with low birth weight. These health disparities are possibly influenced by levels of environmental pollution throughout the state. Other socioeconomic factors, including poverty and income, may also contribute to the complexity of these disparities. Additional research is needed to understand the strength of the association between environmental exposures and birth outcomes at the individual level.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2009
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    ABSTRACT: ContextRecruiting and retaining minorities from rural, community health centers is a challenge. Collaboration between the researchers and health center personnel and activities to enhance trust may improve results.PurposeTo describe recruitment and retention strategies and report results of a 12-month clinical trial of a telemedicine-based diabetes self-management intervention, conducted within a rural community health center.MethodsMulti-level, multi-staged recruitment process including collaborative planning, data extraction, medical record review, telephone screen, 2 in-person enrollment visits and randomization. Target sample was adults ≥ 35 years of age with type 2 diabetes, glycated hemoglobin (GHb) > 7% with no significant comorbidities to prevent safe participation. Follow-up visits occurred at 6 and 12 months post-randomization.FindingsOf those eligible from medical record review, 65% were African-American(AA)/other and female. Approximately 33% of those successfully contacted by telephone were randomized (n = 165), yielding a predominately AA/other (73.9%) and female (74.5%) sample. Among those eligible at the Telephone Screen, a greater percentage of Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) refused participation than AA/other (54.2% vs 45.8%), while a greater percentage of women refused compared to men (64.4% vs 35.6%). Significant baseline differences were found by ethnicity for education, insurance, transportation and diastolic blood pressure; by gender for income, transportation, weight, and home monitoring of blood glucose. Overall 6 and 12 month retention rates were 90.9% and 82.4%, respectively, with a greater percentage of AA/Other and female participants retained.ConclusionsOur collaborative approach was successful in recruiting and retaining ethnically diverse study participants who reside in a rural underserved area of South Carolina. Differences in baseline characteristics and retention by ethnicity and gender were found. Successful translational research must allow for a collaborative approach addressing factors at the level of the community health center, key personnel, and patients in an effort to build trust for the purpose of advancing the science of translating research to practice.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Contemporary clinical trials

Publication Stats

70 Citations
10.36 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • South Carolina Department of Mental Health
      Columbia, South Carolina, United States
  • 2009-2012
    • University of South Carolina
      • • Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics
      • • Center for Research in Nutrition and Health Disparities
      Columbia, South Carolina, United States