[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RESUMEN Introducción Los inhibidores del transcriptasa inversa no-análogos de nucleósidos (ITINN) son comúnmente utilizados como parte del tratamiento antirretroviral (TARV) de inicio. Determinadas características de su perfil de to-lerabilidad y su baja barrera genética hacen que la suspensión de tratamiento no sea infrecuente. El obje-tivo del estudio NEXT fue conocer los motivos que provocan el cambio de un régimen inicial con ITINN de primera generación en la práctica clínica y cuáles son las pautas de elección alternativas. Métodos Estudio multicéntrico retrospectivo donde se incluyeron pacientes VIH que habían cambiado el régimen inicial basado en un ITINN de primera generación (efavirenz o nevirapina). Resultados Se analizaron un total de 316 pacientes, de los cuales 245 interrumpieron efavirenz (EFV) y 71 nevirapina (NVP). La mayoría de interrupciones fueron observadas en el primer mes de tratamiento (52%), especial-mente con EFV (86% de todas las discontinuaciones). La toxicidad del sistema nervioso central (SNC) fue la causa más frecuente de cambio en el primer mes (63%). Con respecto al régimen alternativo elegido, incluyó un inhibidor de la proteasa potenciado (IP/r) en el 52% de los casos y otro ITINN en el 62%, debido a que 44 pacientes recibieron ambas familias de fármacos de forma concomitante. El motivo principal de elección del régimen alternativo fue seguridad/tolerabilidad en el 58% de los casos.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The performance of missing transverse energy reconstruction algorithms is presented using √ s =8 TeV proton-proton (pp) data collected with the CMS detector. Events with anomalous missing transverse energy are studied, and the performance of algorithms used to identify and remove these events is presented. The scale and resolution for missing transverse energy, including the effects of multiple pp interactions (pileup), are measured using events with an identified Z boson or isolated photon, and are found to be well described by the simulation. Novel missing transverse energy reconstruction algorithms developed specifically to mitigate the effects of large numbers of pileup interactions on the missing transverse energy resolution are presented. These algorithms significantly reduce the dependence of the missing transverse energy resolution on pileup interactions. Finally, an algorithm that provides an estimate of the significance of the missing transverse energy is presented, which is used to estimate the compatibility of the reconstructed missing transverse energy with a zero nominal value.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Instrumentation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MAGIC is a system of two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes located in
the Canary island of La Palma, Spain. During summer 2011 and 2012 it underwent
a series of upgrades, involving the exchange of the MAGIC-I camera and its
trigger system, as well as the upgrade of the readout system of both
telescopes. We use observations of the Crab Nebula taken at low and medium
zenith angles to assess the key performance parameters of the MAGIC stereo
system. For low zenith observations the trigger threshold of the MAGIC
telescopes is about 50GeV. The integral sensitivity for sources with Crab
Nebula-like spectrum above 220GeV is (0.66+/-0.03)% of Crab Nebula flux in 50 h
of observations. The angular resolution at those energies is < 0.07 degree,
while the energy resolution is 16%. We also re-evaluate the effect of the
systematic uncertainty on the data taken with the MAGIC telescopes after the
upgrade. We estimate that the systematic uncertainties can be divided in
following components: < 15% in energy scale, 11-18% in flux normalization and
+/-0.15 for the energy spectrum power-law slope.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: We aimed to assess α-synuclein inclusions in gastric mucosa samples from patients with symptomatic PD and controls. Background: α-Synuclein inclusions, a neuropathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), have been in some parts of the enteric nervous system, especially in distal enteric samples (Lebouvier et al 2010) of PD patients. Methods: Random antral and pyloric biopsies were obtained by gastroscopy in 28 patients with advanced PD and in 29 age and gender matched controls. The reasons for the gastroscopy were 1) instauration of enteral L-Dopa therapy among the PD group 2) diagnostic purposes in the control group, being gastro-esophageal reflux, anemia and abdominal pain the main indications. The clinical definition of the cases and controls was made a priori. and in 6 controls, data suggestive of " presymptomatic parkinsonism " were present. Biopsies were immunostained for α-synuclein. The neuropathological diagnosis was established post hoc. Results: There were no differences in the baseline characteristics of the groups. Eight biopsies in the advanced PD group were excluded for technical reasons. Positive fibres for the α-synuclein protein were observed in 17 out of 28 (60.7%) PD patients, 1 out of 23 controls (4.3%), and 1 out of 6 (16.7%) cases of incident " presymptomatic parkinsonism ". Neuropathological diagnosis of PD based on α-synuclein immunostaining showed a sensitivity of 85% (95% confidence interval [CI] 62.1 to 96.8), specificity of 95% (95% CI 76.2 to 99.9) and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.90 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.00). α-Synuclein positive fibres predominated in the pyloric region. No adverse events related to the procedure were recorded. Conclusions: Detection of α-synuclein inclusions in the gastric mucosa is a useful and safe tool providing in vivo evidence of the underlying neurodegenerative peripheral involvement linked to PD. Further studies are warranted to determine its pathophysiological implications, especially in early symptomatic cases and risk groups (familial forms or REM Sleep Behaviour disorder cases). Category-Movement Disorders: Parkinson's Disease Wednesday, April 30, 2014 7:30 AM P4: Poster Session IV: Movement Disorders: Biomarkers and Treatment (7:30 AM-11:00 AM)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resumen Las redes sociales se utilizan para comunicar objetivos del cambio social. Nuestra finalidad es reflexio-nar sobre qué valor aportan los vídeos emitidos a través de YouTube por organizaciones del Tercer Sector para predecir su eficacia por su potencial capacidad viral. Recurriendo al modelo de análisis de contenido predictivo definimos los perfiles característicos de los mensajes emitidos y medimos la eficacia potencial de cada perfil analizando la recepción. Fusionando datos obtenidos de ambos análisis definimos qué factores del mensaje pueden ser indicadores predictivos de viralidad. Abstract The social networks are used to communicate social change goals. Our aim is to reflect on the value provided by the video contents shared in YouTube by non-profit sector organizations to predict their viral effectiveness. Based on the predictive content analysis model a profiled sample of the most representative messages shared has been defined to measure the potential effectiveness of each of them according to the results of analyzing the reception. The combination of the results of both analyses allows identifying some factors that shall be considered indicators of the virality effectiveness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resumen Este artículo ofrece un análisis comparativo de los factores de liderazgo en el sector de las relaciones públicas y la gestión de la comunicación entre España y el conjunto de los 23 países que han participado en el Cross-Cultural Cultural Study of Leadership in Public Relations and Communication Management, promovido por la Universidad de Alabama y financiado por IBM y Heyman Associates. Siguiendo el modelo conceptual de Meng y Berger (2011), se abordan los desafíos que afrontan las relaciones públicas en la actualidad, así como los requisitos y características de los 'líderes excelentes'. Los resultados obtenidos suponen un avance en el conocimiento científico sobre el liderazgo en la gestión de comunicación, un tema aún de escaso desarrollo en la literatura académica internacional y especialmente poco explorado en España. Investigadores en Relaciones Públicas (AIRP) y, entre otras investigaciones, coordina en España el proyecto European Communication Monitor. Abstract This paper offers a comparative analysis of leadership dimensions in public relations and communication management between Spain and a group of 23 countries which have participated in the Cross-Cultural Study of Leadership in Public relations and Communication Management, conducted by the University of Alabama and financed by IBM and Heymann Associates. Following the conceptual model from Meng and Berger (2011), this paper investigates the challenges faced by public relations, as well as the prerequisites of excellent leaders. Achieved results make a breakthrough in scientific knowledge about leadership in communication management, a little developed subject in academic literature, especially in Spain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An important driver of amphibian declines is chytridiomy-cosis, a disease caused by the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd; Berger et al. 1998; Daszak et al. 1999, 2003; Ron and Merino-Viteri 2000; Bosch et al. 2001; Collins and Stor-fer 2003, Ron et al. 2003; La Marca et al. 2005; Wake and Vre-denburg 2008; Walker et al. 2010). Bd is now known to be an emerging pathogen that is rapidly expanding its global range (Fisher et al. 2009) and now has attained a global distribution on all continents that contain amphibians (www.bd-maps.net). Research by Weldon et al. (2004) on the potential origin of Bd suggests that the panzootic originated in South Africa and has perhaps been dispersed by international trade in amphibians, becoming established around the word (Rödder et al. 2009). To date, the rapid and widespread distribution of Bd infection across hundreds of amphibian species is alarming. In Spain, outbreaks of chytridiomycosis and mass mortali-ties has been reported in many species and in different regions of the country (Bosch et al. 2001; Bosch and Martínez-Solano 2006; Walker et al. 2008, 2010). In the south of Spain, Bd is widely distributed (www.bd-maps.net); Bosch et al., unpubl. data), suggesting that its occurrence in the north of Morocco is plausible. The two regions are spatially proximate with similar Mediterranean ecologies, however are separated by the straits of Gibraltar. In addition, ecological niche modelling has shown that the environmental envelope in the north of Morocco is suitable for the establishment of Bd where susceptible amphib-ians occur (Ron 2005; Rödder et al. 2009). The legal and illegal increase in the transport of animals for pet trade (Fisher and Garner 2007), and the possibility that the fungus could be vec-tored into Morocco on the feathers of water birds, are potential modes of transmission between Spain and Morocco. However, no systematic surveillance for Bd has been undertaken across this region, where several endemic species occur with a high ecological value. The aim of the present study is to conduct the first survey for Bd in north Morocco in order to determine the presence, prevalence and intensity of infection in the amphib-ian populations that occur within region. These data will allow us to understand the distributional patterns of Bd, providing
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The very high energy (VHE) \gamma-ray source HESS J0632+057 has recently been
confirmed to be a \gamma-ray binary. The optical counterpart is the Be star MWC
148, and a compact object of unknown nature orbits it every ~321 d with a high
eccentricity of ~0.8. We monitored HESS J0632+057 with the stereoscopic MAGIC
telescopes from 2010 October to 2011 March and detected significant VHE
\gamma-ray emission during 2011 February, when the system exhibited an X-ray
outburst. We find no \gamma-ray signal in the other observation periods when
the system did not show increased X-ray flux. Thus HESS J0632+057 exhibits
\gamma-ray variability on timescales of the order of one to two months possibly
linked to the X-ray outburst that takes place about 100 days after the
periastron passage. Furthermore our measurements provide for the first time the
\gamma-ray spectrum down to about 140 GeV and indicate no turnover of the
spectrum at low energies. We compare the properties of HESS J0632+057 with the
similar \gamma-ray binary LS I +61 303, and discuss on the possible origin of
the multi-wavelength emission of the source
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resumen Desde su nacimiento, la llamada web 2.0 o web social ha puesto a disposición de las empresas un arsenal de herramientas que, por primera vez, pueden hacer realidad las promesas de diálogo, transparencia, consenso y entendimiento mutuo con los públicos, meta hacia la que deben avanzar las relaciones públicas. Carlos desde el curso 2006-2007. Además, ha trabajado en diferentes medios de comunicación escritos y en agencias de comunicación.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of techniques such as low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) allows the study of lichen thalli in different states of hydration and also near the natural state. The spatial organization of desiccated thalli, with reduced, very compact algal layers, is different from that of hydrated ones. Sometimes, the observation with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of photobiont pyrenoids from desiccated thalli reports pyrenoids with a central part of a weak stained matrix lacking pyrenoglobuli, named “empty zones”. “Empty zones” are not distinguishable with LTSEM and do not present immunolabelling with rubisco antibody in TEM. These zones could be originated by an expansion process during rehydration produced in chemical fixation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract: This paper reports on a comprehensive model evaluation protocol for urban scale flow and dispersion models that has been developed within the framework of the COST action 732 on Quality Assurance and Improvement of Micro-Scale Meteorological Models. It briefly discusses the different components forming model evaluation with particular emphasis on model validation and on the implementation of the protocol for a specific test case: the MUST (Mock Urban Setting Test) experiment. The protocol was first developed with building-resolving models in mind, but more traditional integral models have also been included. Currently the Action is finalising the MUST exercise results and will suggest the best approach for further model evaluation and for the standardization of CFD modelling practise for micro-scale meteorological applications.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · International Journal of Environment and Pollution
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of the Classification Societies has changed today. Their task projection addresses issues of safety in navigation and protection of human life at sea and of the marine environment. The importance of their technical expertise is to be outlined in the perspective of third-party rights and general duty of care. The Classification Societies do not have an international regulation that will define their liability at present. They effectively protect themselves within the framework of the classification contract with Owners. Classification Societies, as much as Shipbuilders, have a responsibility for damage to third parties out of negligence in the performance of their work. They are exposed to Court decisions in the various jurisdictions. As international Convention is necessary and to that effect the works of the CMI should be taken into account.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein is described the synthesis of several analogs of the natural product IB-01211 from concatenated azoles, via a biomimetic pathway based on cyclization–oxidation of serine containing peptides combined with the Hantzsch synthesis. The macrocyclization of rigid peptide compounds 1 and 2 to give IB-01211 and its epimer 12b was explored, and the results are compared here to those previously obtained for the macrocyclization of more flexible structures in the syntheses of YM-216391, telomestatin, and IB-01211. Lastly, the preliminary results of anti-tumor activity screening of the synthesized analogs are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introducción y objetivos. En este estudio se analizan los costes asociados a la utilización del stent liberador de fármaco Taxus frente a un stent convencional en el trata-miento percutáneo de arterias coronarias, en el marco de hospitales españoles. Métodos. Se ha desarrollado un modelo analítico de de-cisión para comparar los costes de la intervención y la re-hospitalización en un período de 12 y de 24 meses tras la intervención. El análisis contempla a la población general y a una subpoblación de alto riesgo (con diabetes, vasos pe-queños o lesiones largas). Se ha simulado el resultado del ensayo clínico TAXUS IV en una población de riesgo simi-lar y se han analizado los costes propios, así como el im-pacto presupuestario con escenarios alternativos. Resultados. Para la población general, la media del coste por paciente a los 12 meses fue de 6.934 € en el caso de Taxus y de 6.756 € en el caso de un stent con-vencional (incremento del 2,6%), y a los 24 meses de 6.991 y de 6.887 € (incremento del 1,5%). En la subpo-blación de alto riesgo, la estrategia de tratamiento con Taxus fue menos costosa a los 12 meses (decremento del 3,0%) y a los 24 meses (decremento del 4,7%). Conclusiones. Una estrategia de tratamiento generali-zado con stent Taxus eleva ligeramente el impacto presu-puestario, mientras que en los pacientes con mayor ries-go de reestenosis el coste neto se reduce. Dada la disminución en el número de revascularizaciones repeti-das con este stent, la relación coste-efectividad puede ser aceptable en la población general tratada y es domi-nante en la subpoblación de mayor riesgo.
Preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Revista Espa de Cardiologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Libre (free / open source) software is a good example of global software development. Thousands of projects, in a wide range of domains which involve hundreds of thousands of developers and contributors from all around the world. Some large (both in size and developer community) libre software projects have shown evidence of producing code with complete functionality and fast evolution (with linear or superlinear growth), while maintaining low defect den-sity. Many companies are exploring how to benefit from this situation, considering several approaches related to li-bre software development. For instance, some of them have hired full-time developers, focusing their work on some libre software projects they consider strategic. However, before joining the core development team of the project, these hired developers have to follow a process of software comprehension, and get used to the rules and com-munication mechanisms used in the project. We were inter-ested in the differences between this case and that of volun-teer developers working in the same project, Therefore, we studied the duration and basic characteristics of this joining process for the developers of GNOME (a well known, large, libre software project). In our analysis, we have found two groups with clearly different joining patterns. Moreover, we have related those patterns to the different behaviors of volunteer and hired developers: volunteers tend to follow a step-by-step joining process, while hired developers usually experience a "sudden" integration. Some reasons for this different behavior are also discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antirrhinum lopesianum Rothm. is a narrow endemic of the Lusitan Duriensean biogeographical sector (central western Spain and north-eastern Portugal). The species is listed as threatened in several Spanish documents, although it does not figure as such in any Portuguese document. This paper provides a detailed study of its distribution, estimates of the sizes of its populations, the threats it faces, and its current conservation status. The total number of individuals thought to exist is only 768, distributed along the valley of the River Duero on the Spanish – Portuguese border (562, 71.2%), and in the Portuguese Sabor River valley (206, 26.8%). The main threat to the species is loss of habitat: about one third of the Iberian populations can be considered threatened; one population containing 37.6% of all these plants (289) is severely threatened. To determine the Area of Occupancy and the Extent of Occurrence, an exhaustive bibliographical survey was carried out, and herbarium specimens deposited in several institutions were revised. It is, therefore, classifiable as Critically Endangered in Portugal and Endangered in Spain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Middleware platforms are becoming very popular among system developers. Due to its popularity, there is an increasing demand for dependable middleware support. In the past few years several research efforts have concentrated in augmenting the dependability of middle-ware infrastructures which have led to the definition of the FT-Corba specification. Active replication is one of the main techniques that have been used to achieve some of the required dependability attributes such as high-availability. This kind of replication requires determin-istic replicas to behave as a state machine what has been traditionally achieved by restricting replicas to be single-threaded. Unfortunately, single-threading results too restrictive for mid-dleware servers, especially transactional ones, where it is not admissible to process requests sequentially. In this paper, we show how it is possible to remove this restriction. We present a deterministic scheduling algorithm for multithreaded replicas in a transactional framework. Determinism of multithreaded replicas is achieved with a combination of reliable total order multicast and a deterministic scheduler. The former guarantees that all the replicas see the external events in the same order. The latter, ensures that all threads are scheduled in the same way at all replicas. One of the novelties of the approach is that determinism is achieved without resorting to inter-replica communication. Additionally, the paper also addresses how to perform online recovery while maintaining replica determinism in order to keep a high level of availability. £ This paper consolidates results from the papers  and .
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deception Island - South Shetlands, Antarctica is site of active volcanism. Since 1988 field surveys have been carried out with the aim of seismic monitoring, and in 1994 a seismic array was set up near the site of the Spanish summer base in order to better constrain the source location and spectral properties of the seismic events related to the volcanic activity. The array was maintained during the Antarctic summer of 1995 and the last field survey was carried out in 1996. Data show the existence of three different groups (or families) of seismic events: 1) long period events, with a quasi-monochromatic spectral content (1-3 Hz peak frequency) and a duration of more than 50 s, often occurring in small swarms lasting from several minutes to some day; 2) volcanic tremor, with a spectral shape similar to the long period events but with a duration of several minutes (2-10); 3) hybrid events, with a waveform characterised by the presence of a high frequency initial phase, followed by a low frequency phase with characteristics similar to those of the long period events. The high frequency phase of the hybrid events was analysed using polarisation techniques, showing the presence of P waves. This phase is presumably located at short epicentral distances and shallow source depth. All the analysed seismic events show back-azimuths between 120 and 330 degrees from north (corresponding to zones of volcanic activity) showing no seismic activity in the middle of the caldera. Particle motion, Fourier spectral and spectrogram analysis show that the low frequency part of the three groups of the seismic signals have similar patterns. Moreover careful observations show that the high frequency phase which characterises the hybrid events is present in the long period and in the tremor events, even with lower signal to noise ratios. This evidence suggests that long period events are events in which the high frequency part is simply difficult to observe, due to a very shallow source and/or hypocentral distance higher than that of hybrids, while the tremor is composed of rapidly occurring hybrid events. We propose a possible interpretation for the three groups of seismic events. These may be generated by multiple pressure-steps due to the rapid phase change from liquid to vapour in a shallow aquifer which comes in contact with hot materials. The pressure change can put a crack in resonance or excite the generation of multiple surface waves modes in the shallow layered structure.
Full-text · Article · Jan 1999 · Annals of geophysics = Annali di geofisica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As one of the possible applications of Photovoltaic Solar Energy, the Electronic Engineering Department of the Industrial Engineering College of Madrid has developed equipment which, in its prototype stage, has allowed a study to be made of the possibilities of connecting photovoltaic arrays to the electric power mains through a suitable high-power circuit. An additional objective was that the interfacing unit should have the fewest elements possible with a view to optimizing the overall efficiency of the installation.