F. Haberl

Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Arching, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (502)1044.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: During a search for coherent signals in the X-ray archival data of XMM–Newton, we discovered a modulation at 1.2 s in 3XMM J004301.4+413017 (3X J0043), a source lying in the direction of an external arm of M 31. This short period indicates a neutron star (NS). Between 2000 and 2013, the position of 3X J0043 was imaged by public XMM–Newton observations 35 times. The analysis of these data allowed us to detect an orbital modulation at 1.27 d and study the long-term properties of the source. The emission of the pulsar was rather hard (most spectra are described by a power law with Γ < 1) and, assuming the distance to M 31, the 0.3–10 keV luminosity was variable, from ∼3 × 1037 to 2 × 1038 erg s−1. The analysis of optical data shows that, while 3X J0043 is likely associated to a globular cluster in M 31, a counterpart with V ≳ 22 outside the cluster cannot be excluded. Considering our findings, there are two main viable scenarios for 3X J0043: a peculiar low-mass X-ray binary, similar to 4U 1822−37 or 4U 1626−67, or an intermediate-mass X-ray binary resembling Her X−1. Regardless of the exact nature of the system, 3X J0043 is the first accreting NS in M 31 in which the spin period has been detected.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
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    Frank Haberl · Richard Sturm
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    ABSTRACT: The last comprehensive catalogue of high-mass X-ray binaries in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) was published about 10 years ago. Since then new such systems were discovered, mainly by X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton. For the majority of the proposed HMXBs in the SMC no X-ray pulsations were discovered yet and unless other properties of the X-ray source and/or the optical counterpart confirm their HMXB nature, they remain only candidate HMXBs. From a literature search we collect a catalogue of 148 confirmed and candidate HMXBs in the SMC and investigate their properties to shed light on their real nature. Based on the sample of well established HMXBs (the pulsars), we investigate which observed properties are most appropriate for a reliable classification. Using spectral and temporal characteristics of the X-ray sources and colour-magnitude diagrams from the optical to the infrared of their likely counterparts and taking into account the uncertainty in the X-ray position we define different levels of confidence for being a genuine HMXB. From the lack of an infrared excess of the proposed counterpart, mainly for X-ray sources with large positional uncertainty, and using additional information obtained from more recent observations, we identify 27 objects as likely mis-identifications. This results in a catalogue of 121 relatively high-confidence HMXBs (the vast majority with Be companion stars) with about half of the objects showing X-ray pulsations while for the rest no pulsations are known yet. A comparison of the two subsamples suggests that long pulse periods in excess of a few 100 s are expected for the "non-pulsars", which are likely undetected because of aperiodic variability on similar time scales and insufficiently long X-ray observations. (abbreviated)
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the evolved supernova remnants MCSNR J0506-7025 and MCSNR J0527-7104 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Methods. We used data from XMM-Newton, the Australian Telescope Compact Array, and the Magellanic Cloud Emission Line Survey to study their broadband emission and used Spitzer and HI data to gain a picture of their environments. We performed a multi-wavelength morphological study and detailed radio and X-ray spectral analyses to determine their physical characteristics. Results. Both remnants were found to have bright X-ray cores, dominated by Fe L-shell emission, consistent with reverse shock heated ejecta with determined Fe masses in agreement with Type Ia explosion yields. A soft X-ray shell, consistent with swept-up interstellar medium, was observed in MCSNR J0506-7025, suggestive of a remnant in the Sedov phase. Using the spectral fit results and the Sedov self-similar solution, we estimated the age of MCSNR J0506-7025 to be ~16-28 kyr, with an initial explosion energy of (0.07-0.84)x10^51 erg. A soft shell was absent in MCSNR J0527-7104, with only ejecta emission visible in an extremely elongated morphology extending beyond the optical shell. We suggest that the blast wave has broken out into a low density cavity, allowing the shock heated ejecta to escape. We found that the radio spectral index of MCSNR J0506-7025 is consistent with the standard ~0.5 for SNRs. Radio polarisation at 6 cm indicates a higher degree of polarisation along the western front and at the eastern knot, with a mean fractional polarisation across the remnant of P~(20 \pm 6)%. Conclusions. The detection of Fe-rich ejecta in the remnants suggests that both resulted from Type Ia explosions. The newly identified Fe-rich cores in MCSNR J0506-7025 and MCSNR J0527-7104 makes them members of the expanding class of evolved Fe-rich remnants in the Magellanic Clouds.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: X-ray emission from Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) is crucial to understand star formation. A very limited amount of X-ray results is available for the protostellar (ClassI) phase. A systematic search of transient X-ray phenomena combined with a careful evaluation of the evolutionary stage offer a widely unexplored window to our understanding of YSOs X-ray properties. Within the EXTraS project, a search for transients and variability in the whole XMM-Newton archive, we discover transient X-ray emission consistent with ISO-Oph 85, a strongly embedded YSO in the rho Ophiuchi region, not detected in previous time-averaged X-ray studies. We extract an X-ray light curve for the flare and determine its spectral parameters from XMM-Newton/EPIC (European Photon Imaging Camera) data using quantile analysis. The X-ray flare ($2500\,s$), the only one detected in the XMM-Newton archive for ISO-Oph 85, has a luminosity of $LogL_X[erg/s]=31.1$ and a spectrum consistent with a highly-absorbed one-component thermal model ($N_H=1.0^{+1.2}_{-0.5}10^{23}\,cm^{-2}$, $kT=1.15^{+2.35}_{-0.65}\,keV)$. We set an upper limit of $LogL_X[erg/s]<29.5$ to the quiescent X-ray luminosity. We build a SED with IR to mm photometry drawn from literature and mid-IR Spitzer and sub-mm Herschel photometry analysed by us, and compare it with pre-computed models. The sub-mm emission peak in the Herschel data suggests that the object is a ClassI protostar. However, the Herschel/IR position offset is larger than for other YSOs in the region, leaving some doubt on the association. This is the first X-ray flare from a YSO recognised as a candidate ClassI YSO via the analysis of its complete SED. This work shows how the analysis of the whole SED is fundamental for the classification of YSOs, and how the X-ray source detection techniques we developed can open a new era in time-resolved analysis of the X-ray emission from stars.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present a comprehensive X-ray study of the population of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the LMC. Using primarily XMM-Newton, we conduct a systematic spectral analysis of LMC SNRs to gain new insights on their evolution and the interplay with their host galaxy. We combine all the archival XMM observations of the LMC with those of our Very Large Programme survey. We produce X-ray images and spectra of 51 SNRs, out of a list of 59. Using a careful modeling of the background, we consistently analyse all the X-ray spectra and measure temperatures, luminosities, and chemical compositions. We investigate the spatial distribution of SNRs in the LMC and the connection with their environment, characterised by various SFHs. We tentatively type all LMC SNRs to constrain the ratio of core-collapse to type Ia SN rates in the LMC. We compare the X-ray-derived column densities to HI maps to probing the 3D structure of the LMC. This work provides the first homogeneous catalogue of X-ray spectral properties of LMC SNRs. It offers a complete census of LMC SNRs exhibiting Fe K lines (13% of the sample), or revealing contribution from hot SN ejecta (39%). Abundances in the LMC ISM are found to be 0.2-0.5 solar, with a lower [$\alpha$/Fe] than in the Milky Way. The ratio of CC/type Ia SN in the LMC is $N_{\mathrm{CC}}/N_{\mathrm{Ia}} = 1.35(_{-0.24}^{+0.11})$, lower than in local SN surveys and galaxy clusters. Comparison of X-ray luminosity functions of SNRs in Local Group galaxies reveals an intriguing excess of bright objects in the LMC. We confirm that 30 Doradus and the LMC Bar are offset from the main disc of the LMC, to the far and near sides, respectively. (abridged)
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of the supernova remnant MCSNR J0512-6707 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We used new data from XMM-Newton to characterise the X-ray emission and data from the Australian Telescope Compact Array, the Magellanic Cloud Emission Line Survey, and Spitzer to gain a picture of the environment into which the remnant is expanding. We performed a morphological study, determined radio polarisation and magnetic field orientation, and performed an X-ray spectral analysis. We estimated the its size to be 24.9 (\pm1.5) x 21.9 (\pm1.5) pc, with the major axis rotated ~29 deg east of north. Radio polarisation at 3 cm and 6 cm indicate a higher degree of polarisation in the NW and SE tangentially oriented to the SNR shock front, indicative of an SNR compressing the magnetic field threading the interstellar medium. The X-ray spectrum is unusual as it requires a soft (~0.2 keV) CIE thermal plasma of interstellar medium abundance, in addition to a harder component. Using our results and the Sedov dynamical model, we showed that this emission is not consistent with a Sedov remnant. We suggested that the thermal X-rays can be explained by MCSNR J0512-6707 having initially evolved into a wind-blown cavity and is now interacting with the surrounding dense shell. The origin of the hard component remains unclear. We could not determine the supernova type from the X-ray spectrum. Indirect evidence was found in the study of the local stellar population and star formation history in the literature, which suggests a core-collapse origin. MCSNR J0512-6707 likely resulted from the core-collapse of high mass progenitor which carved a low density cavity into its surrounding medium, with the soft X-rays resulting from the impact of the blast wave with the surrounding shell. The unusual hard X-ray component requires deeper and higher spatial resolution radio and X-ray observations to confirm its origin.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The deepest XMM-Newton mosaic map of the central 1.5 • of the Galaxy is presented, including a total of about 1.5 Ms of EPIC-pn cleaned exposures in the central 15 " and about 200 ks outside. This compendium presents broad-band X-ray continuum maps, soft X-ray intensity maps, a decomposition into spectral components and a comparison of the X-ray maps with emission at other wavelengths. Newly-discovered extended features, such as supernova remnants (SNRs), superbubbles and X-ray filaments are reported. We provide an atlas of extended features within ±1 degree of Sgr A ⋆. We discover the presence of a coherent X-ray emitting region peaking around G0.1-0.1 and surrounded by the ring of cold, mid-IR-emitting material known from previous work as the " Radio Arc Bubble " and with the addition of the X-ray data now appears to be a candidate superbubble. Sgr A's bipolar lobes show sharp edges, suggesting that they could be the remnant, collimated by the circumnuclear disc, of a SN explosion that created the recently discovered magnetar, SGR J1745-2900. Soft X-ray features, most probably from SNRs, are observed to fill holes in the dust distribution, and to indicate a direct interaction between SN explosions and Galactic center (GC) molecular clouds. We also discover warm plasma at high Galactic latitude, showing a sharp edge to its distribution that correlates with the location of known radio/mid-IR features such as the " GC Lobe ". These features might be associated with an inhomogeneous hot " atmosphere " over the GC, perhaps fed by continuous or episodic outflows of mass and energy from the GC region.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: IKT 16 is an X-ray and radio-faint supernova remnant (SNR) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). A detailed X-ray study of this SNR with XMM-Newton confirmed the presence of a hard X-ray source near its centre, indicating the detection of the first composite SNR in the SMC. With a dedicated Chandra observation we aim to resolve the point source and confirm its nature. We also acquire new ATCA observations of the source at 2.1 GHz with improved flux density estimates and resolution. Methods: We perform detailed spatial and spectral analysis of the source. With the highest resolution X-ray and radio image of the centre of the SNR available today, we resolve the source and confirm its pulsar wind nebula (PWN) nature. Further, we constrain the geometrical parameters of the PWN and perform spectral analysis for the point source and the PWN separately. We also test for the radial variations of the PWN spectrum and its possible east west asymmetry. Results: The X-ray source at the centre of IKT 16 can be resolved into a symmetrical elongated feature centering a point source, the putative pulsar. Spatial modeling indicates an extent of 5.2 arcsec of the feature with its axis inclined at 82 degree east from north, aligned with a larger radio feature consisting of two lobes almost symmetrical about the X-ray source. The picture is consistent with a PWN which has not yet collided with the reverse shock. The point source is about three times brighter than the PWN and has a hard spectrum of spectral index 1.1 compared to a value 2.2 for the PWN. This points to the presence of a pulsar dominated by non-thermal emission. The expected E_{dot} is ~ 10^37 erg s^-1 and spin period < 100 ms. However, the presence of a compact nebula unresolved by Chandra at the distance of the SMC cannot completely be ruled out.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. We present an X-ray study of the supernova remnant SNR J0533-7202 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and determine its physical characteristics based on its X-ray emission. Methods. We observed SNR J0533-7202 with XMM-Newton (flare-filtered exposure times of 18 ks EPIC-pn and 31 ks EPIC-MOS1/MOS2). We produced X-ray images of the SNR, performed an X-ray spectral analysis, and compared the results to multi-wavelength studies. Results. The distribution of X-ray emission is highly non-uniform, with the south-west region brighter than the north-east. The X-ray emission is correlated with the radio emission from the remnant. We determine that this morphology is likely due to the SNR expanding into a non-uniform ambient medium and not an absorption effect. We estimate the size to be 53.9 (\pm 3.4) x 43.6 (\pm 3.4) pc, with the major axis rotated ~64 degrees east of north. We find no spectral signatures of ejecta and infer that the X-ray plasma is dominated by swept-up interstellar medium. Using the spectral fit results and the Sedov self-similar solution, we estimate an age of ~17-27 kyr, with an initial explosion energy of (0.09-0.83) x 10^51 erg. We detected an X-ray source located near the centre of the remnant, namely XMMU J053348.2-720233. The source type could not be conclusively determined due to the lack of a multi-wavelength counterpart and low X-ray counts. We find that it is likely either a background active galactic nucleus or a low-mass X-ray binary in the LMC. Conclusions. We detected bright thermal X-ray emission from SNR J0533-7202 and determined that the remnant is in the Sedov phase of its evolution. The lack of ejecta emission prohibits us from typing the remnant with the X-ray data. Therefore, the likely Type Ia classification based on the local stellar population and star formation history reported in the literature cannot be improved upon.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We have obtained a deep 8-field XMM-Newton mosaic of M33 covering the galaxy out to the D$_{25}$ isophote and beyond to a limiting 0.2--4.5 keV unabsorbed flux of 5$\times$10$^{-16}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ (L${>}$4$\times$10$^{34}$ erg s$^{-1}$ at the distance of M33). These data allow complete coverage of the galaxy with high sensitivity to soft sources such as diffuse hot gas and supernova remnants. Here we describe the methods we used to identify and characterize 1296 point sources in the 8 fields. We compare our resulting source catalog to the literature, note variable sources, construct hardness ratios, classify soft sources, analyze the source density profile, and measure the X-ray luminosity function. As a result of the large effective area of XMM-Newton below 1 keV, the survey contains many new soft X-ray sources. The radial source density profile and X-ray luminosity function for the sources suggests that only $\sim$15% of the 391 bright sources with L${>}$3.6$\times$10$^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$ are likely to be associated with M33, and more than a third of these are known supernova remnants. The log(N)--log(S) distribution, when corrected for background contamination, is a relatively flat power-law with a differential index of 1.5, which suggests many of the other M33 sources may be high-mass X-ray binaries. Finally, we note the discovery of an interesting new transient X-ray source, which we are unable to classify.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    ABSTRACT: The EXTraS project (Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky) will harvest the hitherto unexplored temporal domain information buried in the serendipitous data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument onboard the ESA XMM-Newton X-ray observatory since its launch. This will include a search for fast transients, as well as a search and characterization of variability (both periodic and aperiodic) in hundreds of thousands of sources spanning more than nine orders of magnitude in time scale and six orders of magnitude in flux. X-ray results will be complemented by multiwavelength characterization of new discoveries. Phenomenological classification of variable sources will also be performed. All our results will be made available to the community. A didactic program in selected High Schools in Italy, Germany and the UK will also be implemented. The EXTraS project (2014-2016), funded within the EU/FP7 framework, is carried out by a collaboration including INAF (Italy), IUSS (Italy), CNR/IMATI (Italy), University of Leicester (UK), MPE (Germany) and ECAP (Germany).
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: On MJD 56590-1 (2013 Oct 25–26), observations of the Magellanic Clouds by the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observatory discovered a previously unreported bright, flaring X-ray source. This source was initially given the identification IGR J00569-7226. Subsequent multiwavelength observations identified the system as new Be/X-ray binary system in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Follow-up X-ray observations by Swift and XMM–Newton revealed an X-ray pulse period of 5.05 s and that the system underwent regular occultation/eclipse behaviour every 17 d. This is the first reported eclipsing Be/X-ray binary system in the SMC, and only the second such system known to date. Furthermore, the nature of the occultation makes it possible to use the neutron star to ‘X-ray’ the circumstellar disc, thereby, for the first time, revealing direct observational evidence for its size and clumpy structure. Swift timing measurements allowed for the binary solution to be calculated from the Doppler-shifted X-ray pulsations. This solution suggests this is a low-eccentricity binary relative to others measured in the SMC. Finally, it is interesting to note that the mass determined from this dynamical method for the Be star (∼13.0 M⊙) is significantly different from that inferred from the spectroscopic classification of B0.2Ve (∼16.0 M⊙) – an effect that has been noted for some other high mass X-ray binary systems.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Recent X-ray emission events in the Galactic center would be expected to generate an X-ray reflection response within the surrounding clouds of the central molecular zone, in the Galactic disk and even, if powerful enough, in clouds outside our Galaxy. We review here the current constraints on Sgr A*'s past activity obtained through this method, with particular emphasis on the strong evidence that has been gathered for multiple X-ray flashes during the past few hundred years.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: We present a study of the superbubble (SB) 30 Dor C and the newly identified MCSNR J0536-6913 in the LMC. Methods: All available XMM-Newton data (exposure times of 420 ks EPIC-pn, 556 ks EPIC-MOS1, 614 ks EPIC-MOS2) were used to characterise the thermal X-ray emission in the region. An analysis of the non-thermal X-rays is also presented and discussed in the context of emission mechanisms previously suggested in the literature. These data are supplemented by X-ray data from Chandra, optical data from the MCELS, and radio data from ATCA and MOST. Results: The brightest thermal emission was found to be associated with a new supernova remnant, MCSNR J0536-6913. X-ray spectral analysis of MCSNR J0536-6913 suggested an ejecta-dominated remnant with lines of O, Ne, Mg, and Si, and a total 0.3-10 keV luminosity of ~8E+34 erg/s. Based on derived ejecta abundance ratios, we determined the mass of the stellar progenitor to be either ~18 M_sun or as high as >40 M_sun, though the spectral fits were subject to assumptions (e.g., uniform temperature and well-mixed ejecta). The thermal emission from the SB exhibited enrichment by alpha-process elements, evidence for a recent core-collapse SNR interaction with the SB shell. We detected non-thermal X-ray emission throughout 30 Dor C, with the brightest regions being highly correlated with the H-alpha and radio shells. We created a non-thermal spectral energy distribution for the north-eastern shell of 30 Dor C which was best-fit with an exponentially cut-off synchrotron model. Conclusions: Thermal X-ray emission from 30 Dor C is very complex, consisting of a large scale SB emission at the eastern shell wall with the brightest emission due to MCSNR J0536-6913. The fact that the non-thermal spectral energy distribution of the SB shell was observed to roll-off is further evidence that the non-thermal X-rays from 30 Dor C are synchrotron in origin.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We identify a new candidate for a Be/X-ray binary in the XMM–Newton slew survey and archival Swift observations that is located in the transition region of the Wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud and the Magellanic Bridge. We investigated and classified this source with follow-up XMM–Newton and optical observations. We model the X-ray spectra and search for periodicities and variability in the X-ray observations and the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment I-band light curve. The optical counterpart has been classified spectroscopically, with data obtained at the South African Astronomical Observatory 1.9 m telescope, and photometrically, with data obtained using the Gamma-ray Burst Optical Near-ir Detector at the MPG 2.2 m telescope. The X-ray spectrum is typical of a high-mass X-ray binary with an accreting neutron star. We detect X-ray pulsations, which reveal a neutron-star spin period of Ps = (264.516 ± 0.014) s. The source likely shows a persistent X-ray luminosity of a few 1035 erg s−1 and in addition type-I outbursts that indicate an orbital period of ∼146 d. A periodicity of 0.867 d, found in the optical light curve, can be explained by non-radial pulsations of the Be star. We identify the optical counterpart and classify it as a B1-2II-IVe star. This confirms SXP 265 as a new Be/X-ray binary pulsar originating in the tidal structure between the Magellanic Clouds.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We observed RX J0520.5-6932 in the X-rays and studied the optical light curve of its counterpart to verify it as a Be/X-ray binary. We performed an XMM-Newton anticipated target of opportunity observation in January 2013 during an X-ray outburst of the source in order to search for pulsations and derive its spectral properties. We monitored the source with Swift to follow the evolution of the outburst and to look for further outbursts to verify the regular pattern seen in the optical light curve with a period of ~24.4 d. The XMM-Newton EPIC light curves show coherent X-ray pulsations with a period of 8.035331(15) s (1 sigma). The X-ray spectrum can be modelled by an absorbed power law with photon index of ~0.8, an additional black-body component with temperature of ~0.25 keV and an Fe K line. Phase-resolved X-ray spectroscopy reveals that the spectrum varies with pulse phase. We confirm the identification of the optical counterpart within the error circle of XMM-Newton at an angular distance of ~0.8 arcsec, which is an O9Ve star with known Halpha emission. By analyzing the combined data from three OGLE phases we derived an optical period of 24.43 d.The X-ray pulsations and long-term variability, as well as the properties of the optical counterpart, confirm that RX J0520.5-6932 is a Be/X-ray binary pulsar in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Based on the X-ray monitoring of the source we conclude that the event in January 2013 was a moderately bright type-I X-ray outburst, with a peak luminosity of 1.79e36 erg/s.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present new optical spectroscopy of 20 candidate counterparts of 17 X-ray sources in the direction of the M31 disc. By comparing the X-ray catalogue from the XMM–Newton survey of M31 with star catalogues from the Local Group Galaxy Survey, we chose counterpart candidates based on optical colour and X-ray hardness. We have discovered 17 counterpart candidates with spectra containing stellar features. Eight of these are early-type stars of O or B type in M31, with hard X-ray spectra, making them good high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) candidates. Three of these eight exhibit emission lines, which we consider to be the strongest HMXB candidates. In addition, our spectra reveal two likely Galactic cataclysmic variables, one foreground M star, two probable low-mass X-ray binaries related to M31 globular clusters, one emission-line region with an embedded Wolf–Rayet star and one newly discovered supernova remnant. Finally, two of the sources have stellar spectra with no features indicative of association with an X-ray source.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We will present new soft and hard X-ray mosaics, including over 100 XMM-Newton observations pointed within 1degree of SgrA*. Both soft X-ray continuum and emission lines (Sixiii, Sxv, Arxvii and Caxix) maps will be described. We will discuss the nature of several extended features in the vicinity of SgrA*. This includes the 20-pc scale bipolar lobes, a super bubble candidate and the soft emission peaking around G0.11-0.11. The data reveal several features having considerable extents in Galactic latitude, suggesting the presence of hot plasma overlying the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). We will discuss the spatial relationship of this plasma to known radio/mid-IR features as well as the question of whether this hot gas is an inhomogeneous "atmosphere" over the CMZ or whether it is a reservoir for much larger-scale-features that represent continuous/episodic outflows of mass and energy from the Galactic center. We will also present the FeKalpha, Fexxv and hard X-ray continuum maps. By examining X-ray reflecting clouds of the CMZ and their fluorescent FeKalpha emission, we can place constraints on SgrA*'s X-ray activity during the past millennium. The comparison between surveys performed between 2000 and 2012 shows a general decay of the reflected emission over the past decade.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We present new Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) radio-continuum and XMM-Newton/Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) observations of the unusual supernova remnant HFPK 334 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The remnant follows a shell type morphology in the radio-continuum and has a size of $\sim$20~pc at the SMC distance. The X-ray morphology is similar, however, we detect a prominent point source close to the center of the SNR exhibiting a spectrum with a best fit powerlaw with a photon index of $\Gamma = 2.7 \pm 0.5$. This central point source is most likely a background object and cannot be directly associated with the remnant. The high temperature, nonequilibrium conditions in the diffuse region suggest that this gas has been recently shocked and point toward a younger SNR with an age of $\lesssim 1800$ years. With an average radio spectral index of $\alpha=-0.59\pm0.09$ we find that an equipartition magnetic field for the remnant is $\sim$90~$\mu$G, a value typical of younger SNRs in low-density environments. Also, we report detection of scattered radio polarisation across the remnant at 20~cm, with a peak fractional polarisation level of 25$\pm$5\%.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · The Astronomical Journal

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,044.67 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994-2015
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2012
    • Western Sydney University
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1994-2011
    • University of Strasbourg
      Strasburg, Alsace, France
  • 2009
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Crete
      • Department of Physics
      Retimo, Crete, Greece
  • 2000
    • Max Planck Institute of Physics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1989
    • NASA
      • Goddard Space Flight Centre
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
  • 1988-1989
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1987
    • Los Alamos National Laboratory
      Лос-Аламос, California, United States