C. N. A. Willmer

The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States

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Publications (197)814.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We employ a blindly selected sample of low-redshift C IV absorption systems identified in spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), combined with galaxy data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), to study the metal-enriched circumgalactic medium (CGM) with ~100% completeness for galaxy luminosities L > 0.01 L* at z < 0.015. We find that galaxies are typically found at the C IV absorber redshifts within impact parameters rho < 200 kpc, with the nearest galaxy having L < 0.1 L* for 78% of the absorbers. The ubiquity of faint dwarfs in close proximity to the absorbers suggests that these galaxies affect the enrichment and physical conditions of massive-galaxy halos. However, a fraction of our sample (33%) arise well outside the virial radius of any nearby galaxy brighter than 0.01 L*. The detection rate for C IV absorption within the virial radius is mass dependent and is considerably higher for L >~0.1 L* galaxies (7/8) than for less luminous galaxies (1/10). We also find that the occurrence of C IV absorbers depends strongly on the broader environment: 67% (8/12) of galaxies with rho < 150 kpc in regions of low galaxy density (regions with fewer than ten 0.1 L* galaxies within 1 Mpc) have affiliated C IV absorption while none (0/9) of the galaxies in denser regions show C IV within rho < 150 kpc. The reduced detection rate of C IV in denser environments persists for massive group dark matter halos. In contrast, H I is pervasive in the CGM without regard to mass or environment, although some of these Ly-alpha absorbers could arise in unrelated intergalactic gas.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the evolution of metal-enriched gas over recent cosmic epochs as well as to characterize the diffuse, ionized, metal-enriched circumgalactic medium (CGM), we have conducted a blind survey for C IV absorption systems in 89 QSO sightlines observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). We have identified 42 absorbers at z < 0.16, comprising the largest uniform blind sample size to date in this redshift range. Our measurements indicate an increasing C IV absorber number density per comoving path length (dN/dX = 7.5 +/- 1.1) and modestly increasing mass density relative to the critical density of the Universe (Omega(C IV) = 10.0 +/- 1.5 x 10^-8 ) from z ~ 1.5 to the present epoch, consistent with predictions from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Furthermore, the data support a functional form for the column density distribution function that deviates from a single power-law, also consistent with independent theoretical predictions. As the data also probe heavy element ions in addition to C IV at the same redshifts, we identify, measure, and search for correlations between column densities of these species where components appear aligned in velocity. Among these ion-ion correlations, we find evidence for tight correlations between C II and Si II, C II and Si III, and C IV and Si IV, suggesting that these pairs of species arise in similar ionization conditions. However, the evidence for correlations decreases as the difference in ionization potential increases. Finally, when controlling for observational bias, we find only marginal evidence for a correlation (86.8% likelihood) between the Doppler line width b(C IV) and column density N(C IV).
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    José M. Pérez · Carlos Hoyos · Ángeles I. Díaz · David C. Koo · Christopher N. A Willmer
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    ABSTRACT: We present a sample of 22 blue [(B − V)AB < 0.45], luminous (MB,AB < −18.9), metal-poor galaxies in the 0.69 < z < 0.88 redshift range, selected from the DEEP2 galaxy redshift survey. Their spectra contain the [O iii] λ4363 auroral line, the [O ii] λλ3726, 3729 doublet and the strong nebular [O iii] λλ4959, 5007 emission lines. The ionized gas-phase oxygen abundances of these galaxies lie between 7.62 < 12 + log O/H < 8.19, i.e., between 1/10 Z⊙ and 1/3 Z⊙. We find that galaxies in our sample have comparable metallicities to other intermediate-redshift samples, but are more metal poor than local systems of similar B-band luminosities and star formation activity. The galaxies here show similar properties to the green peas discovered at z ≃ 0.2–0.3, though our galaxies tend to be slightly less luminous.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Using data from the DEEP2 galaxy redshift survey and the All Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey we obtain stacked X-ray maps of galaxies at 0.7 < z < 1.0 as a function of stellar mass. We compute the total X-ray counts of these galaxies and show that in the soft band (0.5--2,kev) there exists a significant correlation between galaxy X-ray counts and stellar mass at these redshifts. The best-fit relation between X-ray counts and stellar mass can be characterized by a power law with a slope of 0.58 +/- 0.1. We do not find any correlation between stellar mass and X-ray luminosities in the hard (2--7,kev) and ultra-hard (4--7,kev) bands. The derived hardness ratios of our galaxies suggest that the X-ray emission is degenerate between two spectral models, namely point-like power-law emission and extended plasma emission in the interstellar medium. This is similar to what has been observed in low redshift galaxies. Using a simple spectral model where half of the emission comes from power-law sources and the other half from the extended hot halo we derive the X-ray luminosities of our galaxies. The soft X-ray luminosities of our galaxies lie in the range 10^39-8x10^40, ergs/s. Dividing our galaxy sample by the criteria U-B > 1, we find no evidence that our results for X-ray scaling relations depend on optical color.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of deep \chandra\ imaging of the central region of the Extended Groth Strip, the AEGIS-X Deep (AEGIS-XD) survey. When combined with previous \chandra\ observations of a wider area of the strip, AEGIS-X Wide (AEGIS-XW; Laird et~al. 2009), these provide data to a nominal exposure depth of 800ks in the three central ACIS-I fields, a region of approximately $0.29$~deg$^{2}$. This is currently the third deepest X-ray survey in existence, a factor $\sim 2-3$ shallower than the Chandra Deep Fields (CDFs) but over an area $\sim 3$ times greater than each CDF. We present a catalogue of 937 point sources detected in the deep \chandra\ observations. We present identifications of our X-ray sources from deep ground-based, Spitzer, GALEX and HST imaging. Using a likelihood ratio analysis, we associate multi band counterparts for 929/937 of our X-ray sources, with an estimated 95~\% reliability, making the identification completeness approximately 94~\% in a statistical sense. Reliable spectroscopic redshifts for 353 of our X-ray sources are provided predominantly from Keck (DEEP2/3) and MMT Hectospec, so the current spectroscopic completeness is $\sim 38$~per cent. For the remainder of the X-ray sources, we compute photometric redshifts based on multi-band photometry in up to 35 bands from the UV to mid-IR. Particular attention is given to the fact that the vast majority the X-ray sources are AGN and require hybrid templates. Our photometric redshifts have mean accuracy of $\sigma=0.04$ and an outlier fraction of approximately 5\%, reaching $\sigma=0.03$ with less than 4\% outliers in the area covered by CANDELS . The X-ray, multi-wavelength photometry and redshift catalogues are made publicly available.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    ABSTRACT: We provide a catalog of 391 mid-infrared-selected (MIR, 24$\mu$m) broad-emission-line (BEL, type 1) quasars in the 22 deg$^2$ SWIRE Lockman Hole field. This quasar sample is selected in the MIR from Spitzer MIPS with $S_{\rm 24} > 400\mu$Jy, jointly with an optical magnitude limit of r (AB) $<$ 22.5 for broad line identification. The catalog is based on MMT and SDSS spectroscopy to select BEL quasars, extends the SDSS coverage to fainter magnitudes and lower redshifts, and recovers a more complete quasar population. The MIR-selected quasar sample peaks at $z\sim$1.4, and recovers a significant and constant (20\%) fraction of extended objects with SDSS photometry across magnitudes, which was not included in the SDSS quasar survey dominated by point sources. This sample also recovers a significant population of $z < 3$ quasars at $i > 19.1$. We then investigate the continuum luminosity and line profiles of these MIR quasars, and estimate their virial black hole masses and the Eddington ratios. The SMBH mass shows evidence of downsizing, though the Eddington ratios remain constant at $1 < z < 4$. Compared to point sources in the same redshift range, extended sources at $z < 1$ show systematically lower Eddington ratios. The catalog and spectra are publicly available online.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Using data from the All Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) we statistically detect the extended X-ray emission in the interstellar medium (ISM) in both active and normal galaxies at 0.3 < z < 1.3. For both active galactic nuclei (AGN) host galaxy and normal galaxy samples that are matched in restframe color, luminosity, and redshift distribution, we detect excess X-ray emission at scales of 40--60 kpc at (1--4 \sigma) significance. We study the effect of feedback from AGN on the diffuse ISM gas by comparing the stacked X-ray surface brightness profiles of active and normal galaxies. In accordance with theoretical studies we detect a slight deficit (< 1.5 \sigma) of X-ray photons when averaged over a scale of 0--30 kpc in the profile of AGN host galaxies at 0.3 < z < 0.7. The equivalent flux deficit is (1.25 +/- 0.75)x 10^{-19} ergs/s/cm^{-2}. When averaged over a scale of 30--60 kpc, beyond the PSF scales of our AGN sources, we observe a (~ 2 \sigma) photon excess in the profile of the AGN host galaxies with an equivalent flux excess of (1.1 +/- 0.5)x 10^{-19}ergs/s/cm^{-2}. Such deficits and excess in flux at similar scales have been theoretically predicted and could be a potential signature of AGN-ISM interaction. We propose that AGN that are intrinsically under luminous in X-rays, but have equivalent bolometric luminosities to our sources will be the ideal sample to study more robustly the effect of AGN feedback on the diffuse ISM gas.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
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    ABSTRACT: Most of the targets for the spectroscopic observation were selected from the optical to mid-infrared band-merged photometry catalog over the NEP-Wide field (Kim et al. 2012, Cat. J/A+A/548/A29). The observations, with the MMT/Hectospec spectrograph, were executed in queue mode: a total of five configurations were observed between 2008 May and November, with each configuration covering an area within a 1deg diameter circle. The observations used the 270 line/mm grating covering ~3700Å to ~8500Å, with a spectral resolution of about 6.2Å. We obtained optical spectra using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on WIYN, the 3.5m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, on the nights of 2008 June 27-30. The covered wavelength range is 4500-9000Å, yet the spectrum quality is very poor beyond 8000Å. We used 98 red fibers feeding the bench spectrograph with a 316 lines/mm grating, yielding a spectral resolution of 5.7Å. (2 data files).
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectra of 1796 sources selected in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Wide Survey field, obtained with MMT/Hectospec and WIYN/Hydra, for which we measure 1645 redshifts. We complemented the generic flux-limited spectroscopic surveys at 11 μm and 15 μm, with additional sources selected based on the MIR and optical colors. In MMT/Hectospec observations, the redshift identification rates are ~80% for objects with R < 21.5 mag. On the other hand, in WIYN/Hydra observations, the redshift identification rates are ~80% at R magnitudes brighter than 19 mag. The observed spectra were classified through the visual inspection or from the line diagnostics. We identified 1128 star-forming or absorption-line-dominated galaxies, 198 Type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 8 Type-2 AGNs, 121 Galactic stars, and 190 spectra in unknown category due to low signal-to-noise ratio. The spectra were flux-calibrated but to an accuracy of 0.1-0.18 dex for most of the targets and worse for the remainder. We derive star formation rates (SFRs) from the mid-infrared fluxes or from the optical emission lines, showing that our sample spans an SFR range of 0.1 to a few hundred M ☉ yr–1. We find that the extinction inferred from the difference between the IR and optical SFR increases as the IR luminosity increases but with a large scatter.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Arizona CDFS Environment Survey (ACES), a recently completed spectroscopic redshift survey of the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS) conducted using the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph on the Magellan-Baade telescope. In total, the survey targeted 7277 unique sources down to a limiting magnitude of RAB=24.1, yielding 5080 secure redshifts across the ~30'x30' extended CDFS region. The ACES data set delivers a significant increase to both the spatial coverage and the sampling density of the spectroscopic observations in the field. Combined with previously published spectroscopic redshifts, ACES now creates a highly complete survey of the galaxy population at R<23, enabling the local galaxy density (or environment) on relatively small scales (~1Mpc) to be measured at z<1 in one of the most heavily studied and data-rich fields in the sky. Here, we describe the motivation, design and implementation of the survey and present a preliminary redshift and environment catalogue. In addition, we utilize the ACES spectroscopic redshift catalogue to assess the quality of photometric redshifts from both the COMBO-17 and Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile imaging surveys of the CDFS. (3 data files).
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a search for extended X-ray sources and their corresponding galaxy groups from 800 ks Chandra coverage of the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS). This yields one of the largest X-ray-selected galaxy group catalogs from a blind survey to date. The red-sequence technique and spectroscopic redshifts allow us to identify 100% of reliable sources, leading to a catalog of 52 galaxy groups. These groups span the redshift range z ~ 0.066-1.544 and virial mass range M 200 ~ 1.34 × 1013-1.33 × 1014M ☉. For the 49 extended sources that lie within DEEP2 and DEEP3 Galaxy Redshift Survey coverage, we identify spectroscopic counterparts and determine velocity dispersions. We select member galaxies by applying different cuts along the line of sight or in projected spatial coordinates. A constant cut along the line of sight can cause a large scatter in scaling relations in low-mass or high-mass systems depending on the size of the cut. A velocity-dispersion-based virial radius can cause a larger overestimation of velocity dispersion in comparison to an X-ray-based virial radius for low-mass systems. There is no significant difference between these two radial cuts for more massive systems. Independent of radial cut, an overestimation of velocity dispersion can be created in the case of the existence of significant substructure and compactness in X-ray emission, which mostly occur in low-mass systems. We also present a comparison between X-ray galaxy groups and optical galaxy groups detected using the Voronoi-Delaunay method for DEEP2 data in this field.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present a multi-wavelength study of a 3.6 $\mu$m-selected galaxy sample in the Extended Groth strip. The sample is complete for galaxies with stellar mass $>10^{9.5}$ \Msun and redshift $0.4<z<1.2$. In this redshift range, the IRAC 3.6 $\mu$m band measures the rest-frame near-infrared band, permitting nearly unbiased selection with respect to both quiescent and star-forming galaxies. The numerous spectroscopic redshifts available in the EGS are used to train an Artificial Neural Network to estimate photometric redshifts. The distribution of photometric redshift errors is Gaussian with standard deviation ${\sim}0.025(1+z)$, and the fraction of redshift failures (${>}3\sigma$ errors) is about 3.5%. A new method of validation based on pair statistics confirms the estimate of standard deviation even for galaxies lacking spectroscopic redshifts. Basic galaxy properties measured include rest-frame $U-B$ colors, $B$- and $K$-band absolute magnitudes, and stellar masses. We divide the sample into quiescent and star-forming galaxies according to their rest-frame $U-B$ colors and 24 to 3.6 \micron\ flux density ratios and derive rest $K$-band luminosity functions and stellar mass functions for quiescent, star forming, and all galaxies. The results show that massive, quiescent galaxies were in place by $z\approx1$, but lower mass galaxies generally ceased their star formation at later epochs.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We characterize the incidence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is 0.3 < z < 1 star-forming galaxies by applying multi-wavelength AGN diagnostics (X-ray, optical, mid-infrared, radio) to a sample of galaxies selected at 70-micron from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy survey (FIDEL). Given the depth of FIDEL, we detect "normal" galaxies on the specific star formation rate (sSFR) sequence as well as starbursting systems with elevated sSFR. We find an overall high occurrence of AGN of 37+/-3%, more than twice as high as in previous studies of galaxies with comparable infrared luminosities and redshifts but in good agreement with the AGN fraction of nearby (0.05 < z < 0.1) galaxies of similar infrared luminosities. The more complete census of AGNs comes from using the recently developed Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagram. This optical diagnostic is also sensitive to X-ray weak AGNs and X-ray absorbed AGNs, and reveals that absorbed active nuclei reside almost exclusively in infrared-luminous hosts. The fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN appears to be independent of sSFR and remains elevated both on the sSFR sequence and above. In contrast, the fraction of AGNs that are X-ray absorbed increases substantially with increasing sSFR, possibly due to an increased gas fraction and/or gas density in the host galaxies.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Measuring the two-point correlation function of the galaxies in the Universe gives access to the underlying dark matter distribution, which is related to cosmological parameters and to the physics of the primordial Universe. The estimation of the correlation function for current galaxy surveys makes use of the Landy-Szalay estimator, which is supposed to reach minimal variance. This is only true, however, for a vanishing correlation function. We study the Landy-Szalay estimator when these conditions are not fulfilled and propose a new estimator that provides the smallest variance for a given survey geometry. Our estimator is a linear combination of ratios between paircounts of data and/or random catalogues (DD, RR and DR). The optimal combination for a given geometry is determined by using lognormal mock catalogues. The resulting estimator is biased in a model-dependent way, but we propose a simple iterative procedure for obtaining an unbiased model- independent estimator.Our method can be easily applied to any dataset and requires few extra mock catalogues compared to the standard Landy-Szalay analysis. Using various sets of simulated data (lognormal, second-order LPT and N-Body), we obtain a 20-25% gain on the error bars on the two-point correlation function for the SDSS geometry and $\Lambda$CDM correlation function. When applied to SDSS data (DR7 and DR9), we achieve a similar gain on the correlation functions, which translates into a 10-15% improvement over the estimation of the densities of matter $\Omega_m$ and dark energy $\Omega_\Lambda$ in an open $\Lambda$CDM model. The constraints derived from DR7 data with our estimator are similar to those obtained with the DR9 data and the Landy-Szalay estimator, which covers a volume twice as large and has a density that is three times higher.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The shutdown of star formation in galaxies is generally termed "quenching." Quenching may occur through a variety of processes, e.g., active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, stellar feedback, or the shock heating of gas in the dark matter halo. However, which mechanism(s) is, in fact, responsible for quenching is still in question. This paper addresses quenching by searching for traces of possible quenching processes through their effects on galaxy structural parameters such as stellar mass (M *), M */r e, surface stellar mass density (~M */r 2e), and Sérsic index (n). We analyze the rest-frame U – B color correlations versus these structural parameters using a sample of galaxies in the redshift range 0.5 ≤ z < 0.8 from the DEEP2/AEGIS survey. In addition to global radii, stellar masses, and Sérsic parameters, we also use "bulge" and "disk" photometric measurements from GIM2D fits to HST/ACS V and I images. We assess the tightness of the color relationships by measuring their "overlap regions," defined as the area in color-parameter space in which red and blue galaxies overlap; the parameter that minimizes these overlap regions is considered to be the most effective color discriminator. We find that Sérsic index (n) has the smallest overlap region among all tested parameters and resembles a step function with a threshold value of n = 2.3. There exists, however, a significant population of outliers with blue colors yet high n values that seem to contradict this behavior; they make up ≈40% of n > 2.3 galaxies. We hypothesize that their Sérsic values may be distorted by bursts of star formation, AGNs, and/or poor fits, leading us to consider central surface stellar mass density, Σ*1 kpc, as an alternative to Sérsic index. Not only does Σ*1 kpc correct the outliers, but it also forms a tight relationship with color, suggesting that the innermost structure of galaxies is most physically linked with quenching. Furthermore, at z ~ 0.65, the majority of the blue cloud galaxies cannot simply fade onto the red sequence since their GIM2D bulge masses are only half as large on average as the bulge masses of similar red sequence galaxies, thus demonstrating that stellar mass must absolutely increase at the centers of galaxies as they quench. We discuss a two-stage model for quenching in which galaxy star formation rates are controlled by their dark halos while they are still in the blue cloud and a second quenching process sets in later, associated with the central stellar mass buildup. The mass buildup is naturally explained by any non-axisymmetric features in the potential, such as those induced by mergers and/or disk instabilities. However, the identity of the second quenching agent is still unknown. We have placed our data catalog online.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present evidence from a sample of 544 galaxies from the DEEP2 Survey for evolution of the internal kinematics of blue galaxies with stellar masses ranging 8.0 < log M *(M ☉) < 10.7 over 0.2 < z < 1.2. DEEP2 provides galaxy spectra and Hubble imaging from which we measure emission-line kinematics and galaxy inclinations, respectively. Our large sample allows us to overcome scatter intrinsic to galaxy properties in order to examine trends in kinematics. We find that at a fixed stellar mass, galaxies systematically decrease in disordered motions and increase in rotation velocity and potential well depth with time. Massive galaxies are the most well ordered at all times examined, with higher rotation velocities and less disordered motions than less massive galaxies. We quantify disordered motions with an integrated gas velocity dispersion corrected for beam smearing (σg ). It is unlike the typical pressure-supported velocity dispersion measured for early type galaxies and galaxy bulges. Because both seeing and the width of our spectral slits comprise a significant fraction of the galaxy sizes, σg integrates over velocity gradients on large scales which can correspond to non-ordered gas kinematics. We compile measurements of galaxy kinematics from the literature over 1.2 < z < 3.8 and do not find any trends with redshift, likely for the most part, because these data sets are biased toward the most highly star-forming systems. In summary, over the last ~8 billion years since z = 1.2, blue galaxies evolve from disordered to ordered systems as they settle to become the rotation-dominated disk galaxies observed in the universe today, with the most massive galaxies being the most evolved at any time.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. JWST will be an infrared-optimized telescope, with an approximately 6.5 m diameter primary mirror, that is located at the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point. Three of JWST’s four science instruments use Teledyne HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG (H2RG) near infrared detector arrays. During 2010, the JWST Project noticed that a few of its 5 μm cutoff H2RG detectors were degrading during room temperature storage, and NASA chartered a “Detector Degradation Failure Review Board” (DD-FRB) to investigate. The DD-FRB determined that the root cause was a design flaw that allowed indium to interdiffuse with the gold contacts and migrate into the HgCdTe detector layer. Fortunately, Teledyne already had an improved design that eliminated this degradation mechanism. During early 2012, the improved H2RG design was qualified for flight and JWST began making additional H2RGs. In this article, we present the two public DD-FRB “Executive Summaries” that: (1) determined the root cause of the detector degradation and (2) defined tests to determine whether the existing detectors are qualified for flight. We supplement these with a brief introduction to H2RG detector arrays, some recent measurements showing that the performance of the improved design meets JWST requirements, and a discussion of how the JWST Project is using cryogenic storage to retard the degradation rate of the existing flight spare H2RGs.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · AIP Advances
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    ABSTRACT: We report Herschel SPIRE (250, 350, and 500 μm) detections of 32 quasars with redshifts 0.5 ≤z < 3.6 from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). These sources are from a MIPS 24 μm flux-limited sample of 326 quasars in the Lockman Hole Field. The extensive multi-wavelength data available in the field permit construction of the rest-frame spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from ultraviolet to the mid-infrared for all sources, and to the far-infrared (FIR) for the 32 objects. Most quasars with Herschel FIR detections show dust temperatures in the range of 25-60 K, with a mean of 34 K. The FIR luminosities range from 1011.3 to 1013.5 L ☉, qualifying most of their hosts as ultra- or hyper-luminous infrared galaxies. These FIR-detected quasars may represent a dust-rich population, but with lower redshifts and fainter luminosities than quasars observed at ~1 mm. However, their FIR properties cannot be predicted from shorter wavelengths (0.3-20 μm, rest frame), and the bolometric luminosities derived using the 5100 Å index may be underestimated for these FIR-detected quasars. Regardless of redshift, we observed a decline in the relative strength of FIR luminosities for quasars with higher near-infrared luminosities.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss the structural and morphological properties of galaxies in a z = 1.62 proto-cluster using near-IR imaging data from Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 data of the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). The cluster galaxies exhibit a clear color-morphology relation: galaxies with colors of quiescent stellar populations generally have morphologies consistent with spheroids, and galaxies with colors consistent with ongoing star formation have disk-like and irregular morphologies. The size distribution of the quiescent cluster galaxies shows a deficit of compact ( 1 kpc), massive galaxies compared to CANDELS field galaxies at z = 1.6. As a result, the cluster quiescent galaxies have larger average effective sizes compared to field galaxies at fixed mass at greater than 90% significance. Combined with data from the literature, the size evolution of quiescent cluster galaxies is relatively slow from z 1.6 to the present, growing as (1 + z)–0.6 ± 0.1. If this result is generalizable, then it implies that physical processes associated with the denser cluster region seem to have caused accelerated size growth in quiescent galaxies prior to z = 1.6 and slower subsequent growth at z < 1.6 compared to galaxies in the lower density field. The quiescent cluster galaxies at z = 1.6 have higher ellipticities compared to lower redshift samples at fixed mass, and their surface-brightness profiles suggest that they contain extended stellar disks. We argue that the cluster galaxies require dissipationless (i.e., gas-poor or "dry") mergers to reorganize the disk material and to match the relations for ellipticity, stellar mass, size, and color of early-type galaxies in z < 1 clusters.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present a public catalog of galaxy groups constructed from the spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the fourth data release from the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, including the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). The catalog contains 1165 groups with two or more members in the EGS over the redshift range 0<z<1.5 and 1295 groups at z>0.6 in the rest of DEEP2. 25% of EGS galaxies and 14% of high-z DEEP2 galaxies are assigned to galaxy groups. The groups were detected using the Voronoi-Delaunay Method, after it has been optimized on mock DEEP2 catalogs following similar methods to those employed in Gerke et al. (2005). In the optimization effort, we have taken particular care to ensure that the mock catalogs resemble the data as closely as possible, and we have fine-tuned our methods separately on mocks constructed for the EGS and the rest of DEEP2. We have also probed the effect of the assumed cosmology on our inferred group-finding efficiency by performing our optimization on three different mock catalogs with different background cosmologies, finding large differences in the group-finding success we can achieve for these different mocks. Using the mock catalog whose background cosmology is most consistent with current data, we estimate that the DEEP2 group catalog is 72% complete and 61% pure (74% and 67% for the EGS) and that the group-finder correctly classifies 70% of galaxies that truly belong to groups, with an additional 46% of interloper galaxies contaminating the catalog (66% and 43% for the EGS). (Abridged)
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

8k Citations
814.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006-2015
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2012
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Physics and Astronomy
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2009
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Physics
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2005-2008
    • University of California Observatories
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 1993-2008
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, CA, United States
    • South African Astronomical Observatory
      Kaapstad, Western Cape, South Africa
  • 2007
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2003
    • Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2002
    • European Southern Observatory
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1989-1997
    • Observatório Nacional
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil