Harry Halpin

World Wide Wheat, LLC, Scottsdale, Arizona, United States

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Publications (75)13.68 Total impact

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    Harry Halpin · James Cheney
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    ABSTRACT: While the Semantic Web currently can exhibit provenance information by using the W3C PROV standards, there is a "missing link" in connecting PROV to storing and querying for dynamic changes to RDF graphs using SPARQL. Solving this problem would be required for such clear use-cases as the creation of version control systems for RDF. While some provenance models and annotation techniques for storing and querying provenance data originally developed with databases or workflows in mind transfer readily to RDF and SPARQL, these techniques do not readily adapt to describing changes in dynamic RDF datasets over time. In this paper we explore how to adapt the dynamic copy-paste provenance model of Buneman et al. [2] to RDF datasets that change over time in response to SPARQL updates, how to represent the resulting provenance records themselves as RDF in a manner compatible with W3C PROV, and how the provenance information can be defined by reinterpreting SPARQL updates. The primary contribution of this paper is a semantic framework that enables the semantics of SPARQL Update to be used as the basis for a 'cut-and-paste' provenance model in a principled manner.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
  • Harry Halpin · James Cheney
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    ABSTRACT: While the (Semantic) Web currently does have a way to exhibit static provenance information in the W3C PROV standards, the Web does not have a way to describe dynamic changes to data. While some provenance models and annotation techniques originally developed with databases or workflows in mind transfer readily to RDF, RDFS and SPARQL, these techniques do not readily adapt to describing changes in dynamic RDF datasets over time. In this paper we explore how to adapt the dynamic copy-paste provenance model of Buneman et al. to RDF datasets that change over time in response to SPARQL updates, how to represent the resulting provenance records themselves as RDF using named graphs in a manner compatible with W3C PROV, and how the provenance information can be provided as a SPARQL query. The primary contribution is a semantic framework that enables the semantics of SPARQL Update to be used as the basis for a `cut-and-paste' provenance model in a principled manner.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Apr 2014
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    Alexandre Monnin · Harry Halpin
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    ABSTRACT: The advent of the Web is one of the defining technological events of the twentieth century, yet its impact on the fundamental questions of philosophy has not yet been explored, much less systematized. The Web, as today implemented on the foundations of the Internet, is broadly construed as the space of all items of interest identified by URIs. Originally a space of linked hypertext documents, today the Web is rapidly evolving as a universal platform for data and computation. Even swifter is the Web-driven transformation of many previously unquestioned philosophical concepts of privacy, belief, intelligence, cognition, and even embodiment in surprising ways. The ensuing essays in this collection hope to explore the philosophical foundation of the World Wide Web and open the debate on whether or not the changes caused by the Web to technology and society warrant the creation of a philosophy of the Web.
    Full-text · Chapter · Dec 2013
  • Harry Halpin · Alexandre Monnin

    No preview · Book · Dec 2013
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    Harry Halpin · Alexandre Monnin
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    ABSTRACT: This is the first interdisciplinary exploration of the philosophical foundations of the Web, a new area of inquiry that has important implications across a range of domains. Contains twelve essays that bridge the fields of philosophy, cognitive science, and phenomenology Tackles questions such as the impact of Google on intelligence and epistemology, the philosophical status of digital objects, ethics on the Web, semantic and ontological changes caused by the Web, and the potential of the Web to serve as a genuine cognitive extension Brings together insightful new scholarship from well-known analytic and continental philosophers, such as Andy Clark and Bernard Stiegler, as well as rising scholars in “digital native” philosophy and engineering Includes an interview with Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the Web
    Full-text · Book · Dec 2013
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    Harry Halpin · Alexandre Monnin

    Full-text · Chapter · Dec 2013
  • Harry Halpin · Fiona McNeill
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    ABSTRACT: The world is increasingly full of data. Organisations, governments and individuals are creating increasingly large data sources, and in many cases making them publicly available. This offers massive potential for interaction and mutual collaboration. But using this data often creates problems. Those creating the data will use their own terminology, structure and formats for the data, meaning that data from one source will be incompatible with data from another source. When presented with a large, unknown data source, it is very difficult to ascribe meaning to the terms of that data source, and to understand what is being conveyed. Much effort has been invested in data interpretation prior to run-time, with large data sources being matched against each other off-line. But data is often used dynamically, and so to maximise the value of the data it is necessary to extract meaning from it dynamically. We therefore postulate that an essential competent of utilising the world of data in which we increasingly live is the development of the ability to discover meaning on the go in large, heterogenous data.This paper provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art, reviewing the aims and achievements in different fields which can be applied to this problem. We take a brief look at cutting edge research in this field, summarising four papers published in the special issue of the AI Review on Discovering Meaning on the go in Large Heterogenous Data, and conclude with our thoughts about where research in this field is going, and what our priorities must be to enable us to move closer to achieving this goal.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Artificial Intelligence Review
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing amount of structured data on the Web has attracted industry attention and renewed research interest in what is collectively referred to as semantic search. These solutions exploit the explicit semantics captured in structured data such as RDF for enhancing document representation and retrieval, or for finding answers by directly searching over the data. These data have been used for different tasks and a wide range of corresponding semantic search solutions have been proposed in the past. However, it has been widely recognized that a standardized setting to evaluate and analyze the current state-of-the-art in semantic search is needed to monitor and stimulate further progress in the field. In this paper, we present an evaluation framework for semantic search, analyze the framework with regard to repeatability and reliability, and report on our experiences on applying it in the Semantic Search Challenge 2010 and 2011.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Web Semantics
  • Harry Halpin
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    ABSTRACT: Under what conditions does the Web count as a part of your own mind? We iterate the conditions upon which cognitive extension and integration can be upheld, and inspect these in light of the Web. We also argue that this ability to integrate the mind into media such as the Web is inherently social, insofar as it involves interaction. Also, there are many cases where external media like the Web are not actually cognitively integrated, but simply serve as a way to co-ordinate intelligent problem-solving via distributed cognition. Yet distributed cognition should not be underestimated, as it is precisely distributed cognition that can solve problems that an individual human may be unable to solve by themselves, and can serve as a stepping stone to a wider kind of cognitive integration: collective intelligence. Finally, we define collective intelligence as cognitive integration combined with distributed cognition.
    No preview · Conference Paper · May 2013
  • Yuk Hui · Harry Halpin
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    ABSTRACT: We are in the epoch of networks. The world is now rapidly being perceived as a vast space of interlocking networks of seemingly infinite variety: biological, productive, cy-bernetic, and – most important of all – social. The image of the network, with its obvious bias towards vision, has become the paradigmatic representation of understanding our present technological society as a holistic entity that would otherwise escape our cognitive grasp. Yet no image is ideologically neutral, for the image of the network is also a mediation between the subject and object that inscribes – or pre-programs – a certain conceptual apparatus onto the world, namely that of nodes and links (or in graph-theoretic terms, vertices and edges). This is not without consequences: due to its grasp over our imagination, the network constitutes the horizon of possible invention , as Simondon showed in Imagination et Invention. 1 Yet where did the concept of the network itself come from? Despite the hyperbole over the dominance of digital social networks like Facebook, the concept of the quantified social network pre-dates digital social networks, originating from the work of the psychologist Moreno in the late 1930s, and we argue that what the advent of the digital computer has done has primarily been the acceleration of the pre-digital conceptual apparatus of networks. Although no one can deny its now global influence, the fundamentally ontological presumptions of the social network have yet to be explored despite its present preponderance. To borrow some terms from Bernard Stiegler, how does the what of Facebook constitute our who? 2
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2013
  • Source
    Yuk Hui · Harry Halpin
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    ABSTRACT: We are in the epoch of networks. The world is now rapidly being perceived as a vast space of interlocking networks of seemingly infinite variety: biological, productive, cy-bernetic, and – most important of all – social. The image of the network, with its obvious bias towards vision, has become the paradigmatic representation of understanding our present technological society as a holistic entity that would otherwise escape our cognitive grasp. Yet no image is ideologically neutral, for the image of the network is also a mediation between the subject and object that inscribes – or pre-programs – a certain conceptual apparatus onto the world, namely that of nodes and links (or in graph-theoretic terms, vertices and edges). This is not without consequences: due to its grasp over our imagination, the network constitutes the horizon of possible invention , as Simondon showed in Imagination et Invention. 1 Yet where did the concept of the network itself come from? Despite the hyperbole over the dominance of digital social networks like Facebook, the concept of the quantified social network pre-dates digital social networks, originating from the work of the psychologist Moreno in the late 1930s, and we argue that what the advent of the digital computer has done has primarily been the acceleration of the pre-digital conceptual apparatus of networks. Although no one can deny its now global influence, the fundamentally ontological presumptions of the social network have yet to be explored despite its present preponderance. To borrow some terms from Bernard Stiegler, how does the what of Facebook constitute our who? 2
    Full-text · Chapter · Jan 2013

  • No preview · Book · Jan 2013
  • Alexandre Monnin · Harry Halpin
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The advent of the Web is one of the defining technological events of the twentieth century, yet its impact on the fundamental questions of philosophy has not yet been explored, much less systematized. The Web, as today implemented on the foundations of the Internet, is broadly construed as the space of all items of interest identified by URIs. Originally a space of linked hypertext documents, today the Web is rapidly evolving as a universal platform for data and computation. Even swifter is the Web-driven transformation of many previously unquestioned philosophical concepts of privacy, belief, intelligence, cognition, and even embodiment in surprising ways. The ensuing essays in this collection hope to explore the philosophical foundation of the World Wide Web and open the debate on whether or not the changes caused by the Web to technology and society warrant the creation of a philosophy of the Web.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Metaphilosophy
  • Harry Halpin · Alexandre Monnin

    No preview · Book · Jul 2012
  • Source
    Alexandre Monnin · Harry Halpin · Leslie Carr

    Full-text · Book · Jun 2012
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    Hugh GlaserSeme · Harry Halpin
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    ABSTRACT: The Web's promise for planet-scale data integration depends on solving the thorny problem of identity: given one or more possible identifiers, how can we determine whether they refer to the same or different things? Here, the authors discuss various ways to deal with the identity problem in the context of linked data.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · IEEE Internet Computing
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    Harry Halpin · Roi Blanco
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    ABSTRACT: Over a series of evaluation experiments conducted using naive judges recruited and managed via Amazon's Mechani-cal Turk facility using a task from information retrieval (IR), we show that a SVM shows itself to have a very high accu-racy when the machine-learner is trained and tested on a sin-gle task and that the method was portable from more complex tasks to simpler tasks, but not vice versa.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2012
  • Source
    Harry Halpin · Victor Lavrenko
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    ABSTRACT: Relevance feedback is one method for creating a 'virtuous cycle' -as put by Baeza-Yates -between semantics and search. Previ-ous approaches to search have generally considered the Semantic Web and hypertext Web search to be entirely disparate, indexing and searching over different domains. While relevance feedback have traditionally improved information retrieval performance, rel-evance feedback is normally used to improve rankings of a single data-set. Our novel approach is to use relevance feedback from hy-pertext Web search to improve the retrieval of Semantic Web data. We also inspect whether relevance feedback from Semantic Web data can improve hypertext Web search results. In both cases, an evaluation based on certain kinds of informational queries (abstract concepts, people, and places) selected from a query log and human judges show that relevance feedback works: relevance feedback from hypertext Web search can improve the retrieval of Semantic Web data, and vice versa. We evaluate our work over a wide range of algorithms, and show it improves baseline performance on these queries for deployed systems as well, such as the Semantic Search engine FALCON-S and the commercial Web search engine Yahoo! search.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Web Semantics
  • Source
    Harry Halpin
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    ABSTRACT: We examine a crucial question for the World Wide Web: What does a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) mean? Crucial for the next-generation Semantic Web, can it refer to things outside web-pages? The Web is a universal information space for naming and accessing information via URIs. However, the classical philosophical problems of meaning and reference that have been the source of debate within the philosophy of language return when the Web is given as the foundation for a knowledge representation with the Semantic Web. Debates on the Semantic Web about the meaning and referential status of a URI are explored as analogues to debates about the meaning and reference of names in the philosophy of language. Three main positions are inspected: the logical position, as exemplified by the descriptivist theory of reference, the direct reference position, as exemplified by Putnam and Kripke’s causal theory of reference, and a Wittgensteinian position that views URIs as a public language, as exemplified by Web search engines. These positions show that debates within the philosophy of language are alive and well on the Web, and so in the philosophy of computer science.
    Preview · Article · May 2011 · Minds and Machines
  • Harry Halpin · Valentina Presutti
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major events that has caused a resurgence in the use of formal ontologies is the advent of the Semantic Web, which seeks to do for knowledge representation what the Web did for hypertext. Yet while the field of formal ontologies is well-understood, the nature of the Web is rather surprisingly cloaked in mystery. Unlike formal computer science, the Web is constructed mostly out of informally and operationally defined terms built from various specifications, in particular IETF RFCs and W3C Recommendations. In order to better understand the nature of the ‘Web’ in the Semantic Web, we created a formal ontology called the ‘Identity of Resources on the Web’ (IRW) ontology. The primary goal of the Semantic Web is to use URIs as a universal space to name anything, expanding from using URIs for web-pages to URIs for “real objects and imaginary concepts”, as phrased by Berners-Lee. This distinction has often been tied to the distinction between information resources, such as web-pages and multimedia files, and other kinds of Semantic Web ‘non-information’ resources used in Linked Data. This issue of defining the relationship between URIs and resources is not a mandarin metaphysical matter, but has technical repercussions: the W3C has recommended not to use the same URI for information resources and the resources needed to denote ‘non-information resources’ for the Semantic Web. Basing our work on the normative specifications of the W3C and IETF, we model the relationship between resources and representations formally in an ontology called IRW (Identity and Reference on the Web). From our point of view, IRW is a beautiful ontology. In this paper we motivate why we consider it as such through the identification of a number of criteria on which we based our evaluation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Applied ontology