Z. Dann

Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (10)2.59 Total impact

  • Zoe Dann · Alison Bettley
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    ABSTRACT: Tacit knowledge – subjective and often largely uncodifiable – represents a critical asset for many organisations. Its effective management is crucial to ensure successful organisational improvement, innovation and change. Yet it is considered to be one of the most difficult areas to manage not least because it depends on myriad planned and unplanned inter-personal interactions. Tacit knowledge transfer is typically not proactively managed by organisations – it is either not recognized as important, or left to chance, a serendipitous by-product of more formally managed activities. Thereby a critical resource with huge untapped potential to improve, even transform, a business is neglected. While the knowledge management literature contains frequent reference to tacit knowledge transfer practices and their importance, there has to date been little attempt to collate these findings and provide theoretically-based guidance to oganizations seeking to design effective relevant tacit knowledge processes into their innovation and improvement activities. This paper first discusses the process of tacit knowledge transfer and the range of mechanisms used to support it. The theoretical framework adopts a model that distinguishes four types of development project based on the application of complexity theory: linear, recursive, CAS and chaotic. These are related to the level of innovation and uncertainty in the environment. The NPD process is considered in terms of three stages: concept, development, and post development review. Tacit knowledge transfer emphasis is mapped onto each of the four models and the interplay with explicit codified processes explored. There are significant implications for managers and organisations. Further research work is proposed to validate and refine the model.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2007
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    ABSTRACT: This article uses e-business-based SME clusters as a model to explore the issues of collaboration in virtual organisations. It discusses the key issues of e-business for SMEs and how they approach working in partnerships and networks. The role of core competence knowledge equivalency across the partnership is assessed and examined. The influences of knowledge, power and trust on virtual organisations are examined both theoretically and via a major case study with 25 SMEs. Lessons for promoting SME virtual organisations are drawn together with specific recommendations for successful e-business-based partnerships.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations
  • P. Otterson · Z. Dann · I. Barclay · P. Bond
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    ABSTRACT: New Product Development (NPD) is one of the most complex organisational environments that exist. The NPD process ranges from the simple repositioning of products in new markets through to the development of products that are entirely new to the world. In the latter case, the degree and level of complexity and innovation can be extreme because we are introducing a new component into a complex adaptive system. In this case, not only is the NPD process inherently difficult, the problem of complexity is extended by the nature of the product being developed and the market into which it is to be launched. It is the role of management that must bring together the product's development process and launch it into the market successfully. In the last few years, the science of complexity theory has been developed and various attempts have been made to relate this to the NPD environment. This paper describes our work in this area and shows how we have developed a NPD Complexity Application Model (CAM) that represents the management processes encompassing the three dimensions of NPD: ?? Activity and process management ?? Knowledge management, development and dissemination ?? Learning development and application The paper then goes on to show how the use of systems thinking may be used to address the details of the CAM to allow practitioners to better understand the knowledge requirements of the NPD process. It shows how the use of soft systems thinking may be used to aid the practitioners' understanding of the root definitions of NPD knowledge and to define customer requirements and educate customers.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2006
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    Zoë Dann · Ian Barclay
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    ABSTRACT: This article traces the development of complexity theories and proposes a Complexity Representation Model (CRM) for management processes. The purpose here was to translate key elements of complexities theories (e.g. self organisation, adaption, co-evolution, chaos) into a recognisable form and relate these to management practice (particularly knowledge management and learning). A further model Complexity Application Model (CAM) is offered that shows the relationship between the formal and informal aspects of the management environment. It models an active environment that should learn and adapt to minor perturbations and major schisms. It is a conceptual guide as to the "ideal" management system, one that self-organises, learns, adapts and evolves with its environment. Example application to product innovation and product development is given.
    Preview · Conference Paper · Jan 2005
  • H Sharifi · G Colquhoun · I Barclay · Z Dann
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    ABSTRACT: Manufacturing companies are now operating in fast-moving commercial environments where unanticipated threats and opportunities are the order of the day. Agile manufacturing in such environments means understanding the environment and being flexible, cost effective and productive with consistent high quality. Each company will respond in a different way to deploy its own agile characteristics. This paper describes research that tackles the problem of identifying what characteristics constitute agile manufacture and proposes a framework for evaluating and developing agile manufacturing. Manufacturing enterprises involve people, organization, technology, processes and information, and no commonly accepted practical reference framework exists to investigate, analyse and evaluate the ability to deal with change. The research is based on a wide-ranging review of agile manufacture and manufacturing architectures. From this review, a conceptual agile manufacturing model was developed and used in a study of 18 manufacturing companies. Subsequently, a framework for analysing and developing a company's agile characteristics is described. The paper concludes by discussing three case studies in detail and proposing the key characteristics of agile manufacturing.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2001 · Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part B Journal of Engineering Manufacture
  • Ian Barclay · Zoe Dann · Philip Holroyd

    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2000
  • Ian Barclay · Zoe Dann
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    ABSTRACT: The desire to improve the performance of their new product development activities and process is firmly established within companies. This paper describes an attempt to produce an evaluation taxonomy and framework to enable comparisons to assess their NPD performance and the factors leading to success. This framework is based on a product's complexities (structural and functional) and related factors and commercial constraints. In particular, it looks at the management and organisational factors involved in NPD and how these may be enhanced to increase NPD success rates. These factors were investigated during a three-year Engineering and Physi cal Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) funded research programme. The outcome of this research programme is the Assessment Tool and Methodology (ATM) which evaluates a company's NPD activities and process performance. The various ways in which the ATM may be used are explained.Significant findings relating to success in product development are shown from the initial results comparing successful product devel opments from a variety of companies. Also described are the results of a survey of company based NPD performance improvement ap proaches and the related NPD performance measurement systems and metrics being used. The results from the use of the ATM with Japanese companies within Japan are also included as a comparison.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2000 · Concurrent Engineering Research and Applications
  • I. Barclay · Z. Dann
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    ABSTRACT: Companies are constantly striving to improve the performance of their new product development activities and process. One approach adopted is that of comparing current practice with that of another company. A major problem with this is finding similar products which are not direct competitors. The paper describes an attempt to produce an evaluation taxonomy and framework to enable comparisons to be made between apparently dissimilar products. This framework is based on a product's complexities (structural and market), its newness (to the company and the market) and related commercial constraints. By adopting this approach, it is hoped that `like with like' comparisons may be made between products which are dissimilar in form. This would then avoid the problems of competitive rivalry excluding comparative evaluation and assessment. The theoretical and practical development of various measures of product complexity, newness, commercial constraints and other influencing factors is described. An assessment tool and methodology (ATM) is described which uses these measures to evaluate the product development activities and process performance of a company. The various ways in which the ATM may be used are explained. Significant findings relating to success in product development are shown from the initial results comparing successful product developments from a variety of companies
    No preview · Article · Apr 2000 · IEE Proceedings - Science Measurement and Technology
  • H. Sharifi · Z. Dann
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    ABSTRACT: Not Available
    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 1998
  • I. Barclay · J. Poolton · Z. Dann
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    ABSTRACT: The changing nature of the global competitive environment is bringing with it significant changes to both the internal and external activities of companies. One of the key competitiveness drivers of the new environment is a company's degree of “agility” or responsiveness. The need to retain and concentrate on core competencies means that many needed activities have to be resourced externally, in dispersed locations. The way in which these internal and external resources are accessed and managed is a key component in defining a company's responsiveness capability. This paper addresses the concept of an organisation's responsiveness capability, how it can be modelled for practical purposes and addresses the roles the virtual enterprise and IT in improving overall responsiveness
    No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 1996