[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) P-glycoproteins were first recognized for their ability to catalyze ATP-dependent efflux of cytotoxic agents from tumor cells when overexpressed. Despite extensive study, little is known about the normal substrate(s) and normal cellular function of these proteins. In the accompanying manuscript (Metherall, J. E., Waugh, K., and Li, H. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 2627-2633), we demonstrate that progesterone inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis, causing the accumulation of a number of cholesterol precursors. In the current manuscript, we use several criteria to show that the progesterone receptor is not involved in this inhibition. Rather, we demonstrate that progesterone inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis by interfering with MDR activity. We show that a steroid hormone's ability to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis is correlated with: 1) its general hydrophobicity and 2) its ability to inhibit MDR activity. The only exception to this finding is beta-estradiol, which is a more potent inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis than expected based solely on hydrophobicity and MDR inhibition. We further demonstrate that nonsteroidal inhibitors of MDR also inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis. Since MDR activity is required for esterification of LDL-derived cholesterol (P. DeBry and J. E. Metherall, submitted for publication), we investigated the relationship between these phenomena and show that inhibition of cholesterol esterification does not cause inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis and that inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis does not cause inhibition of cholesterol esterification. We propose a model in which MDR is required for transport of sterols from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Inhibiting this transport prevents cholesterol esterification and cholesterol biosynthesis by preventing sterol substrates from reaching ER-resident enzymes.
Preview · Article · Mar 1996 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Cells acquire cholesterol through endogenous synthesis and through receptor-mediated uptake of cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein (LDL). Esterification of LDL-derived cholesterol is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Progesterone inhibits esterification, and, although the mechanism of inhibition is not completely understood, this inhibition results from progesterone's ability to inhibit the activity of multiple drug resistance (MDR) P-glycoproteins (P. DeBry and J. E. Metherall, submitted for publication). In the current manuscript, we demonstrate that progesterone inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis resulting in the accumulation of a number of sterol precursors. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, high concentrations (100 microM) of progesterone completely blocked cholesterol production, resulting in the accumulation of lanosterol and a lanosterol precursor. Lower concentrations (40 microM) of progesterone cause plasma membrane accumulation of several sterol products. The majority of these sterols are precursors of cholesterol since they were efficiently converted to cholesterol upon removal of progesterone from the culture medium. Although very high concentrations (> 200 microM) of progesterone killed CHO cells, their growth was restored by the addition of cholesterol to the growth medium, indicating that progesterone toxicity resulted from cholesterol auxotrophy. The effect of progesterone was not unique to CHO cells; progesterone also inhibited cholesterol biosynthesis in all human cell lines tested. These observations suggest that a common progesterone-sensitive pathway is involved in both cholesterol biosynthesis and the processing of LDL-derived cholesterol.
No preview · Article · Feb 1996 · Journal of Biological Chemistry