Tony Kay

Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (4)6.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Tinnitus is the perception of sound when there is no external source of the acoustic stimuli. Tinnitus is often usually accompanied with hearing loss and hyperacusis. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a neuroimaging technique that can allow quantifying Cerebral Blood Flow (CSF) of the brain, which has been utilized widely to investigate many neurological and psychological diseases such as dementia, schizophrenia and epilepsy. To the best of our knowledge, no previous ASL perfusion MRI has been conducted in tinnitus research. The aim of this study is to investigate the resting-brain perfusion MRI in tinnitus population. Methods and materials: 26 tinnitus and 18 healthy participants were recruited in this study and routine clinical audiometry was performed. Tinnitus subjects completed the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Pulsed ASL Perfusion-raw data were conducted on 3T MRI scanner (Trio) with a standard 8-channel radiofrequency head coil. Results: Unbiased whole brain analysis demonstrated that the tinnitus group showed a significant hypoperfusion in three non-auditory brain regions: left prefrontal cortex, left visual cortex and right parahippocampus. Regions of interests (ROIs) analysis showed three significant hypoperfusion areas as well in tinnitus group including left insula and bilaterial thalamus comparing to normal controls. Correlation analysis revealed that the changes of cerebral blood flow are negative correlated to tinnitus assessment inventories’ scores (TFI and THI) in right amygdala, hippocampus, inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus. Conclusion: These results suggest the involvement of limbic, memory and attention networks in tinnitus perception that expand upon previous findings in other MRI techniques. ASL perfusion MRI technique could be a reliable clinical tool to diagnose tinnitus as it provides quantitative measures of cerebral perfusion of the brain. Keywords: Perfusion, ASL, MRI, Tinnitus, Brain, THI and TFI.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Tinnitus is a poorly understood auditory perception of sound in the absence of external stimuli. Convergent evidence proposes that tinnitus perception involves brain structural alterations as part of its pathophysiology. The aim of this study is to investigate the structural brain changes that might be associated with tinnitus-related stress and negative emotions. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging, we investigated grey matter and white matter (WM) alterations by estimating cortical thickness measures, fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in 14 tinnitus subjects and 14 age- and sex-matched non-tinnitus subjects. Significant cortical thickness reductions were found in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), temporal lobe and limbic system in tinnitus subjects compared to non-tinnitus subjects. Tinnitus sufferers were found to have disrupted WM integrity in tracts involving connectivity of the PFC, temporal lobe, thalamus and limbic system. Our results suggest that such neural changes may represent neural origins for tinnitus or consequences of tinnitus and its associations.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Neuroradiology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the brain circuitry involved in the processing of both positive and negative emotions in normal healthy subjects. Method: we have recruited 15 healthy volunteers (9 males and 6 females, age range 30-60). In this block-design fMRI study, we compared the blood oxygen level dependant (BOLD) signal change as response to pleasant and unpleasant IAPS pictures, each compared to a neutral condition. Results: Pleasant pictures versus neutral condition contrast demonstrated significant activation (p(FDRcorrected) <0.05) in bilateral pre-frontal cortex (PFC), anterior and posterior cingulate gyri and temporal lobe. Unpleasant pictures relative to neutral condition exhibit significant activation (p(FDRcorrected) <0.05) in amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyri, temporal lobe, visual cortex, fusiform gyri, PFC and anterior cingulate gyrus. Conclusion: Amygdala is mainly involved in the processing of negative emotions. Although an overlap in regions involved in the processing of pleasant and unpleasant IAPS pictures exists, the neural network for each is unique.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Neuroscience Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the brain circuitry involved in the processing of both positive and negative emotions in normal healthy subjects. Method: we have recruited 15 healthy volunteers (9 males and 6 females, age range 30-60). In this block-design fMRI study, we compared the blood oxygen level dependant (BOLD) signal change as response to pleasant and unpleasant IAPS pictures, each compared to a neutral condition. Results: Pleasant pictures versus neutral condition contrast demonstrated significant activation (p(FDRcorrected) <0.05) in bilateral pre-frontal cortex (PFC), anterior and posterior cingulate gyri and temporal lobe. Unpleasant pictures relative to neutral condition exhibit significant activation (p(FDRcorrected) <0.05) in amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyri, temporal lobe, visual cortex, fusiform gyri, PFC and anterior cingulate gyrus. Conclusion: Amygdala is mainly involved in the processing of negative emotions. Although an overlap in regions involved in the processing of pleasant and unpleasant IAPS pictures exists, the neural network for each is unique.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Neuroscience Letters