[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD133 has been suggested as a broad-spectrum marker for cancer stem cells(CSCs). The present study investigated the expression of CD133 in biopsy tissues of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), NPC cell lines and the immortalized cell line NP69 by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and qRT-PCR. CD133+ cancer cells were isolated using magnetic-activated cell sorting technology. The study demonstrated that CD133+ cells are rare in NPC tissues and cell lines and that their self-renewal and proliferation abilities are stronger than those of CD133- cells and suggested that CD133+ NPC cells have characteristics of cancer stem cells. We further observed CD133+ cancer cells using a light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Generally, CD133+ cells are small, regular and round with small microvilli. On the other hand, CD133- cells are more polymorphic and larger with long micromicrovilli. Additionally, in some fields, several giant cancer cells (GCCs) in the CD133+ cell group were identified under the light microscope. Most of them were polynuclear cells. Under the scanning electron microscope, we found indefinite regular small bodies on the surface of or surrounding the giant cancer cells, some of which appeared to be creeping out the parental cells. This phenomenon was not observed in the CD133- cell groups. Through comparison with descriptions of apoptotic bodies in the literature and from the results of the acridine orange test, we propose that some of the small bodies are daughter cells of the GCCs. This phenomenon is a mode of division of cancer cells called neosis, or budding, which is a form of reproduction for simple organisms. Budding is satisfied with the rapid speed of tumor development. GCCs could be isolated by CD133 beads because the daughter cells have stem-cell characteristics and express stem-cell markers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) is a member of cyclin-dependent kinase family which regulates G1 to S cell cycle transition. CDK4 activity is increased in many tumor types. Here, we report a negative automodulatory feedback loop between CDK4 and miR-16 that regulates cell cycle progression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). By miRNA array and real-time PCR, we identified upregulation of tumor suppressor miR-16a, which inhibited cell cycle progression and sensitized NPC cells to chemotherapy. CDK4 knockdown reduced the expression of c-Myc, the latter of which directly suppresses the miR-16 expression by directly binding to the miR-16 promoter. Moreover, we found that miR-16 upregulation could reduce CDK4 expression by repressing CCND1 and thus forms a feedback loop via the CDK4/c-Myc/miR-16/CCND1 pathway. Finally, miR-16 was negatively correlated with CDK4 expression in NPC biopsies. In summary, our results define a double-negative feedback loop involving CDK4 and miR-16 mediated by c-Myc that modulates NPC cell growth and chemotherapy sensitivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ENO1 plays a paradoxical role in driving the pathogenesis of tumors. However, the clinical significance of ENO1 expression remains unclear and its function and modulatory mechanisms have never been reported in endometrial carcinoma (EC). In this study, ENO1 silencing significantly reduced cell glycolysis, proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro, as well as tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo by modulating p85 suppression. This in turn mediated inactivation of PI3K/AKT signaling and its downstream signals including glycolysis, cell cycle progression, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated genes. These effects on glycolysis and cell growth were not observed after ENO1 suppression in normal human endometrial epithelial cells (HEEC). Knocking down ENO1 could significantly enhance the sensitivity of EC cells to cisplatin (DDP) and markedly inhibited the growth of EC xenografts in vivo. In clinical samples, EC tissues exhibited higher expression levels of ENO1 mRNA and protein compared with normal endometrium tissues. Patients with higher ENO1 expression had a markedly shorter overall survival than patients with low ENO1 expression. We conclude that ENO1 favors carcinogenesis, representing a potential target for gene-based therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During tumor formation and expansion, increasing glucose metabolism is necessary for unrestricted growth of tumor cells. Expression of key glycolytic enzyme alpha-enolase (ENO1) is controversial and its modulatory mechanisms are still unclear in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
The expression of ENO1 was examined in NSCLC and non-cancerous lung tissues, NSCLC cell lines, and immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell (HBE) by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and Western blot, respectively. The effects and modulatory mechanisms of ENO1 on cell glycolysis, growth, migration, invasion, and in vivo tumorigenesis and metastasis in nude mice were also analyzed.
ENO1 expression was increased in NSCLC tissues in comparison to non-cancerous lung tissues. Similarly, NSCLC cell lines A549 and SPCA-1 also express higher ENO1 than HBE cell line in both mRNA and protein levels. Overexpressed ENO1 significantly elevated NSCLC cell glycolysis, proliferation, clone formation, migration, and invasion in vitro, as well as tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo by regulating the expression of glycolysis, cell cycle, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated genes. Conversely, ENO1 knockdown reversed these effects. More importantly, our further study revealed that stably upregulated ENO1 activated FAK/PI3K/AKT and its downstream signals to regulate the glycolysis, cell cycle, and EMT-associated genes.
This study showed that ENO1 is responsible for NSCLC proliferation and metastasis; thus, ENO1 might serve as a potential molecular therapeutic target for NSCLC treatment.
Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Hematology & Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) involves in metastasis, causing loss of epithelial polarity. Metastasis is the major cause of carcinoma-induced death, but mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we identify differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung-1 (DAL-1), a protein belongs to the membrane-associated cytoskeleton protein 4.1 family, as an efficient suppressor of EMT in lung cancer.Methods
The relationship between DAL-1 and EMT markers were analyzed by using immunohistochemistry in the clinical lung cancer tissues. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were used to characterize the expression of the EMT indicator mRNAs and proteins in DAL-1 overexpressed or knockdown cells. DAL-1 combined proteins were assessed by co-immunoprecipitation.ResultsDAL-1 levels were strongly reduced even lost in lymph node metastasis and advanced pathological stage of human lung carcinomas. Overexpression of DAL-1 altered the expression of numerous EMT markers, such as E-cadherin, ß-catenin Vimentin and N-cadherin expression, meanwhile changed the morphological shape of lung cancer cells, and whereas silencing DAL-1 had an opposite effect. DAL-1 directly combined with E-cadherin promoter and regulated its expression that could be the reason for impairing EMT and decreasing cell migration and invasion. Strikingly, HSPA5 was found as DAL-1 direct binding protein.Conclusions
These results suggest that tumor suppressor DAL-1 could also attenuate EMT and be important for tumor metastasis in the early transformation process in lung cancer.
Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research: CR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HDGF is overexpressed in gliomas as compared to normal brain. We therefore analyzed the molecular mechanisms of HDGF action in gliomas. HDGF was downregulated in normal brain tissue as compared to glioma specimens at both the mRNA and the protein levels. In glioma samples, increased HDGF expression was associated with disease progression. Knocking down HDGF expression not only significantly decreased cellular proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis, but also markedly enhanced TMZ-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in glioma cells. Mechanistic analyses revealed that CCND1, c-myc, and TGF-β were downregulated after stable HDGF knockdown in the U251 and U87 glioma cells. HDGF knockdown restored E-cadherin expression and suppressed mesenchymal cell markers such as vimentin, β-catenin, and N-cadherin. The expression of cleaved caspase-3 increased, while Bcl-2 decreased in each cell line following treatment with shHDGF and TMZ, as compared to TMZ alone. Furthermore, RNAi-based knockdown study revealed that HDGF is probably involved in the activation of both the PI3K/Akt and the TGF-β signaling pathways. Together, our data suggested that HDGF regulates glioma cell growth, apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) probably through the Akt and the TGF-β signaling pathways. These results provide evidence that targeting HDGF or its downstream targets may lead to novel therapies for gliomas.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported and revised the nasopharyngeal epithelium specific protein CCDC19 and identified it as a potential tumour suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of CCDC19 in the pathogenesis of human non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Down-regulated CCDC19 expression was observed in NSCLC tissues and cells compared to normal tissues. However, reduced protein expression did not correlate with the status of NSCLC progression. Instead, we observed that patients with lower CCDC19 expression had a shorter overall survival than did patients with higher CCDC19 expression. Lentiviral-mediated CCDC19 overexpression significantly suppressed cell proliferation and cell cycle transition from G1 to S and G2 phases in NSCLC cells. Knocking down CCDC19 expression significantly restored the ability of cell growth in CCDC19 overexpressing NSCLC cells. Mechanistically CCDC19 functions as a potential tumour suppressor by stimulating miR-184 suppression of C-Myc thus blocking cell growth mediated by the PI3K/AKT/C-Jun pathway. Our studies are the first to demonstrate that reduced expression of CCDC19 is an unfavourable factor in NSCLC.
Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CDK4 is a protein kinase in the CDK family important for G1/S phase cell cycle progression. However, the roles and molecular mechanisms of CDK4 triggering nasopharynx carcinogenesis are still unclear.
Lentiviral-vector mediated shRNA was used to suppress CDK4 expression and examine its molecular mechanisms. Using immunohistochemistry, we analyzed CDK4 protein expression in clinicopathologically characterized nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cases and nasopharyngeal tissues (NPs). Survival curves were plotted by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test.
In this investigation, we knocked down CDK4 expression and observed that NPC cell growth and cell cycle progression were significantly blocked by suppressing expression of CCND1, CDK6, and E2F1 as well as elevated p21 expression. Further, we found that reduced CDK4 expression elevated the expression of let-7c, a tumor-suppressive miRNA modulated by E2F1. We found that let-7c was markedly downregulated in NPC tissues compared to NPs and suppressed cell growth and cell cycle progression by modulating p15/p16/CDK4/E2F1 pathway. Finally, CDK4 protein was observed to be overexpressed in NPC tissues and could be considered an unfavorable prognosis factor for NPC patients although its independent prognostic value did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.087).
Our results demonstrated that overexpressed CDK4 is an unfavorable prognostic factor which suppresses the expression of tumor suppressive-factor let-7c through p21/CCND1/CDK6/E2F1 signaling, and inhibits cell proliferation by p15/p16/CDK4/E2F1 feedback signaling in NPC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The success of using glycolytic inhibitors for cancer treatment relies on better understanding the roles of each frequently deregulated glycolytic genes in cancer. This report analyzed the involvement of a key glycolytic enzyme, alpha-enolase (ENO1), in tumor progression and prognosis of human glioma.
ENO1 expression levels were examined in glioma tissues and normal brain (NB) tissues. The molecular mechanisms of ENO1 expression and its effects on cell growth, migration and invasion were also explored by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Transwell chamber assay, Boyden chamber assay, Western blot and in vivo tumorigenesis in nude mice.
ENO1 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in glioma tissues compared to NB. In addition, increased ENO1 was associated disease progression in glioma samples. Knocking down ENO1 expression not only significantly decreased cell proliferation, but also markedly inhibited cell migration and invasion as well as in vivo tumorigenesis. Mechanistic analyses revealed that Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, pRb, and NF-kappaB were downregulated after stable ENO1 knockdown in glioma U251 and U87 cells. Conversely, knockdown of ENO1 resulted in restoration of E-cadherin expression and suppression of mesenchymal cell markers, such as Vimentin, Snail, N-Cadherin, beta-Catenin and Slug. Furthermore, ENO1 suppression inactivated PI3K/Akt pathway regulating the cell growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression.
Overexpression of ENO1 is associated with glioma progression. Knockdown of ENO1 expression led to suppressed cell growth, migration and invasion progression by inactivating the PI3K/Akt pathway in glioma cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study is to explore the correlation between nuclear expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27) and clinicopathologic features in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), including patient survival.
Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of p27 in 130 primary NPC tissues. The relationship between the levels of p27 expression and clinicopathologic characteristics was analyzed. Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. The significance of various survival variables was analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards model.
p27 was expressed in both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. Nuclear expression of p27 was inversely correlated with T classification and clinical stage. Patients with nuclear p27 expression had better overall survival rates than those without nuclear expression of p27. Further, we observed that nuclear expression of p27 was positively associated with survival time of NPC patients not only in N0-1 and M0 classifications but also in radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment groups. Finally, we found that nuclear expression of p27 was not an independent prognostic factor for patients with NPC.
Our findings hint that nuclear expression of p27 is a potentially favorable factor in the progression and prognosis of NPC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the correlation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27) expression with clinicopathologic features in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), including patient prognosis.
Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to examine the mRNA and protein expressions of p27 in NPC and nasopharyngeal tissues. The relationship of p27 expression levels with clinical features and prognosis of NPC patients was analyzed.
The expression level of p27 mRNA was markedly lower in NPC tissues than that in the nasopharyngeal tissues (P = 0.0006). Specific p27 protein staining by immunohistochemistry was found in the nuclei and cytoplasm of nasopharyngeal and malignant epithelial cells but decreased expression was observed in NPC samples compared to normal epithelium samples (P = 0.002). In addition, low levels of p27 protein were inversely correlated with the status of T classification (p = 0.002) and clinical stage (p = 0.019) of NPC patients. Patients with lower p27 expression had a significantly shorter overall survival time than did patients with high p27 expression. Multivariate analysis suggested that the level of p27 expression was not an independent prognostic indicator (p = 0.682) for NPC survival.
Low level of p27 expression is a potential unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with NPC.Virtual slides: The virtual slide (s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1915282782109343.
Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Diagnostic Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between nuclear expression of Cyclin-dependent kinase 4(CDK4) and clinicopathologic data in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), including patient survival.
Using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, the expression of CDK4 was examined in NPC and nasopharyngeal(NP) tissues. We observed that mRNA expression of CDK4 was significantly elevated in NPC tissues compared to NP tissues. Further, we found that CDK4 protein was expressed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Nuclear expression of CDK4 was positively correlated with clinical stage (p=0.048), but not associated with other clinical features. Patients with nuclear expression of CDK4 had poorer overall survival rates than those without nuclear expression of CDK4. Further, we also found that nuclear expression of CDK4 was inversely associated with survival time of NPC patients not only in T1-2 classification, N2-3 classification, and clinical stage III-IV but also in the treatment of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Finally, we discovered that nuclear expression of CDK4 was an independent and unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with NPC.
Our findings suggest that nuclear expression of CDK4 is a potential unfavorable factor for the progression and poor prognosis of NPC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a novel tumor suppressor, inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion as well as promotes cell apoptosis in tumors. However, the molecular mechanism of its tumor-suppressive function remains largely unknown in tumors including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, downregulated PDCD4 expression was significantly associated with the status of NPC progression and poor prognosis. PDCD4 markedly suppressed the ability of cell proliferation and cell survival by modulating C-MYC-controlled cell cycle and BCL-2-mediated mitochondrion apoptosis resistance signals, and oncogenic transcription factor C-JUN in NPC. Furthermore, miR-184, a tumor-suppressive miRNA modulated by PDCD4 directly targeting BCL2 and C-MYC, participated in PDCD4-mediated suppression of cell proliferation and survival in NPC. Further, we found that PDCD4 decreased the binding of C-Jun to the AP-1 element on the miR-184 promoter regions by PI3K/AKT/JNK/C-Jun pathway and stimulated miR-184 expression. In clinical fresh specimens, reduced PDCD4 mRNA level was positively correlated with miR-184 expression in NPC. Our studies are the first to demonstrate that PDCD4 as tumor suppressor regulated miR-184-mediated direct targeting of BCL2 and C-MYC via PI3K/AKT and JNK/C-Jun pathway attenuating cell proliferation and survival in NPC.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Cell Death & Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of CTGF varies in different types of cancer. The purpose of this study is to investigate the involvement of CTGF in tumor progression and prognosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
CTGF expression levels were examined in NPC tissues and cells, nasopharynx (NP) tissues, and NP69 cells. The effects and molecular mechanisms of CTGF expression on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and cell cycle were also explored.
NPC cells exhibited decreased mRNA expression of CTGF compared to immortalized human nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line NP69. Similarly, CTGF was observed to be downregulated in NPC compared to normal tissues at mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, reduced CTGF was negatively associated with the progression of NPC. Knocking down CTGF expression enhanced the colony formation, cell migration, invasion, and G1/S cell cycle transition. Mechanistic analysis revealed that CTGF suppression activated FAK/PI3K/AKT and its downstream signals regulating the cell cycle, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and MMPs. Finally, DNA methylation microarray revealed a lack of hypermethylation at the CTGF promoter, suggesting other mechanisms are associated with suppression of CTGF in NPC.
Our study demonstrates that reduced expression of CTGF promoted cell proliferation, migration, invasion and cell cycle progression through FAK/PI3K/AKT, EMT and MMP pathways in NPC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine, in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the correlation of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) expression with clinicopathological features including patient prognosis.
Using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, expression of KLF4 mRNA and protein was examined in NPC and nasopharyngeal tissues. The relationship of KLF4 expression levels with clinical features and prognosis of NPC patients was analysed. mRNA expression was markedly lower in NPC than in the nasopharyngeal tissues. Using immunohistochemistry, staining for KLF4 protein was found in the nuclei and cytoplasm of nasopharyngeal and malignant epithelial cells, but decreased cytoplasmic expression was observed in atypical hyperplasia and NPC samples compared to normal and squamous epithelium samples (P < 0.001). In addition, levels of cytoplasmic KLF4 protein were correlated inversely with the nodal (N) status (TNM classification; P = 0.002) and overall clinical stage (P < 0.001) of NPC patients. Patients with NPC showing lower cytoplasmic KLF4 expression had a significantly shorter overall survival time than those with high NPC KLF4 expression. Multivariate analysis suggested that the level of KLF4 expression was an independent prognostic indicator (P = 0.008) for NPC survival.
Low levels of cytoplasmic KLF4 expression are a potentially unfavourable prognostic factor for patients with NPC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously defined the recently revised NESG1 gene as a potential tumor suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, we further used proteomics technology to globally examine NESG1-controlled proteins in NPC cells. Twenty-six proteins were found to be deregulated by NESG1 using proteomics analysis while enolase 1 (alpha) (ENO1), heat shock protein 90 kDa beta (Grp94), member 1 (HSP90B1), and cathepsin D (CTSD) proteins were differentially expressed by Western blot. Interestingly, a-enolase (ENO1), an overexpressed gene in NPC, was confirmed as a NESG1-regulated protein in NPC cells. Overexpressed ENO1 not only restored cell proliferation and cell-cycle progression, but also antagonized the regulation of NESG1 to cell-cycle regulators p21 and CCNA1 expression as well as induced the expression of C-Myc, pRB, and E2F1 in NESG1-ovexpressed NPC cells. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that NESG1 expression is negatively correlated with ENO1 expression in NPC tissues. Our observations suggest that ENO1 downregulation plays an important role in NESG1-induced growth inhibition of NPC cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the correlation of CDK4 protein expression in the cytoplasm with the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of lung cancer.
Immunohistochemistry was employed to examine CDK4 protein expression in the cytoplasm of lung cancer samples, using normal lung tissue samples as control. The correlation of cytoplasmic CDK4 protein expression with the clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis of lung cancer patients was analyzed.
No significant difference was found in cytoplasmic CDK4 protein expression levels between lung cancer and normal lung tissues (P=1.000). In the lung cancer tissues, however, an increased cytoplasmic expression of CDK4 was positively correlated with the clinical stages and lymph node metastasis. Prognostic analysis showed that the patients with an increased cytoplasmic CDK4 expression had a markedly shorter overall survival than those with a low cytoplasmic CDK4 expression. Multivariate analysis suggested that the level of cytoplasmic CDK4 expression was an independent prognostic indicator for the survival of patients with lung cancer (P<0.001).
Overexpression of CDK4 protein in the cytoplasm may promote the carcinogenesis of lung cancer and can be an unfavorable prognostic factor for the survival of lung cancer patients.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To screen the proteins under regulation by the candidate tumor suppressor gene CCDC19 using proteomics technology in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
The cellular proteins were extracted from 3D8 NPC cells with CCDC19 overexpression and the control C6 NPC cells. Two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis was employed to compare the protein expression profiles between these two cells, and the differential proteins were identified using peptide mass fingerprinting and database searching. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to validate the expression levels of the differential proteins.
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/time of flight showed that 3 differential proteins, namely FASN, CTSD and PGK1, were down-regulated by -3.28, -1.64, and -6.97 folds, respectively, which were confirmed by real-time PCR and Western blotting.
FASN, CTSD and PGK1 are probably the target proteins regulated by CCDC19 in NPC.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the expression of CASP8 and its clinical significance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
The differentially expressed genes between pooled NPC tissues and non-cancerous nasopharyngeal (NP) tissues were screened using 8 microarrays. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to validate the detection results of CASP8 expression in NPC, and the correlation of CASP8 expression to the clinical characteristics was analyzed in the NPC cases.
Real-time PCR confirmed a reduced expression of CASP8 mRNA level in NPC tissues (P<0.0001), which was consistent with the microarray data. Immunohistochemistry indicated that CASP8 protein expression was also significantly down-regulated in NPC tissue compared to that in the non-cancerous nasopharyngeal tissues (P=0.02). The reduction of CASP8 expression was inversely correlated to lymph node metastasis (P=0.002) and the clinical stages (P=0.026) of NPC.
Decreased CASP8 expression is an unfavorable factor that promotes the development and progression of NPC.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of Zinc finger E-box Binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) in glioma and to explore the molecular mechanisms of ZEB2 that regulate cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis.
Expression of ZEB2 in 90 clinicopathologically characterized glioma patients was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, siRNA targeting ZEB2 was transfected into U251 and U87 glioma cell lines in vitro and proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were examined separately by MTT assay, Transwell chamber assay, flow cytometry, and western blot.
The expression level of ZEB2 protein was significantly increased in glioma tissues compared to normal brain tissues (P<0.001). In addition, high levels of ZEB2 protein were positively correlated with pathology grade classification (P = 0.024) of glioma patients. Knockdown of ZEB2 by siRNA suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion, as well as induced cell apoptosis in glioma cells. Furthermore, ZEB2 downregulation was accompanied by decreased expression of CDK4/6, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, E2F1, and c-myc, while p15 and p21 were upregulated. Lowered expression of ZEB2 enhanced E-cadherin levels but also inhibited β-Catenin, Vimentin, N-cadherin, and Snail expression. Several apoptosis-related regulators such as Caspase-3, Caspase-6, Caspase-9, and Cleaved-PARP were activated while PARP was inhibited after ZEB2 siRNA treatment.
Overexpression of ZEB2 is an unfavorable factor that may facilitate glioma progression. Knockdown ZEB2 expression by siRNA suppressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion and promoted cell apoptosis in glioma cells.