Yoshihiro Oka

Osaka City University, Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (167)680.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) is an essential factor for protein synthesis. Previous studies have shown that the eEF2 gene was overexpressed and plays an oncogenic role in various types of cancers and that eEF2 gene product elicited both humoral immune responses to produce eEF2-specific IgG autoantibody in cancer-bearing individuals and cellular immune responses to induce eEF2 peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to induce eEF2-specific, antitumor CTL responses in vivo by vaccination with MHC class I-binding eEF2-derived peptide. First, two mouse MHC class I-restricted eEF2‑derived, 9-mer peptides, EF17 (17-25 aa, ANIRNMSVI) and EF180 (180-188 aa, RIVENVNVI) were identified as eEF2-specific CTL peptides, and mice were vaccinated intradermally eight times with either EF17 or EF180 peptide emulsified with Montanide ISA51 adjuvant. Cytotoxicity assay showed that eEF2-specific CTLs were induced in both EF17‑and EF180‑vaccinated mice, and histological study showed no detectable damage in the organs of these mice. Next, to examine in vivo antitumor effects of eEF2 peptide vaccination in a therapeutic model, mice were vaccinated four times with one each of the two eEF2 peptides at weekly intervals after implantation of eEF2-expressing leukemia cells. The vaccination with eEF2 peptides induced eEF2-specific CTLs and suppressed tumor growth, and disease-free survival was significantly longer in EF180-vaccinated mice compared to control mice. The survival was associated with the robustness of eEF2-specific CTL induction. These results indicate that vaccination with MHC class I-binding eEF2 peptide induced eEF2-targeting, antitumor CTL responses in vivo without damage to normal organs, which provided us a rationale for eEF2 peptide-based cancer immunotherapy.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Oncology Reports
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    ABSTRACT: In our previous study, we showed that miR-125a directly targeted a WT1 oncogene, which was overexpressed in leukemia and various kinds of solid tumors including lung, breast, gastric, and colon cancers, and brain tumors and was deeply involved in leukemogenesis and tumorigenesis and that miR-125a knockout mice overexpressed WT1 and developed myeloproliferative disease. It had been also reported that miR-125a is downregulated in leukemia and various types of solid tumors such as lung cancers, suggesting its tumor suppressor function. Therefore, it is important to elucidate what is target(s) of miR-125a for understandings of such functions although few target genes for it are known. In the present study, Zbtb7a oncogene was identified as a potential target for miR-125a by gene expression profiling in miR-125a knockout mice combined with bioinformatics target prediction. EGFP-3'UTR reporter assay showed that miR-125a suppressed Zbtb7a expression through its direct binding to the Zbtb7a-3'UTR. Zbtb7a knockdown by siRNA suppressed cell proliferation and induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, miR-125a expression showed a negative correlation with Zbtb7a expression in non-small cell lung cancer tissues. The present study showed for the first time that Zbtb7a was a direct target for miR-125a and was involved in cell cycle progression and apoptosis of lung cancer cells. These results also demonstrated that deregulation of miR-125a-Zbtb7a signaling was associated with the development and progression of lung cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Molecular Carcinogenesis
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    ABSTRACT: Leukemia differs substantially with respect to stromal milieu from tumors that progress locally as solid masses, and the physiological importance of immunosurveillance in leukemia remains unclear. However, currently available mouse leukemia models have critical limitations in the context of analyzing immunological regulation of leukemia development. In this study, we transferred mouse MLL/AF9 leukemia-initiating cells into immunocompetent recipient mice without any pre-conditioning such as irradiation, and then analyzed the spontaneous T cell response to an immunogenic antigen expressed in leukemia cells. When the minimum numbers of leukemia-initiating cells for engraftment were transferred, leukemia cells were eradicated by the adaptive immune response in most, if not all, wild-type mice, but not in Rag2-/- recipient mice, which lack adaptive immunity. By contrast, mice transplanted with larger numbers of leukemia cells always developed leukemia. In mice with advanced leukemia, antigen-specific CTLs were also expanded, but were unresponsive to antigen stimulation and expressed high levels of PD-1 and LAG-3. These results provide the first clear demonstration that the spontaneous CTL response to a tumor-cell antigen has the potential to eradicate leukemia, whereas antigen-specific CTLs are exhausted in animals with advanced leukemia. This immunocompetent mouse leukemia model provides a useful platform for developing effective immunotherapies against leukemia.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Neuro-Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Advances in cancer immunotherapy in the pediatric field are needed in order to improve the prognosis of children with malignancies. We conducted a prospective phase I/II study of WT1 peptide vaccination for children with relapsed or refractory malignancies. Methods: The main eligibility criteria were affected tissues or leukemic cells expressing the WT1 gene, and patients (and donors for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) having HLA-A*24:02. Vaccination using the WT1 peptide (CYTWNQMNL), which was modified for higher affinity to this HLA-type molecule with the adjuvant Montanide ISA51, was performed weekly 12 times. Results: Twenty-six patients were enrolled and 13 (50.0%) completed the vaccination 12 times. Evidence for the induction of WT1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses without severe systemic side effects was obtained. Two out of 12 patients with bulky disease exhibited a transient clinical effect (one mixed response and one stable disease), three out of six patients with minimal residual disease achieved transient molecular remission, and five out of eight patients without a detectable level of the molecular marker, but with a high risk of relapse, had the best outcome of long-term continuous complete remission. Conclusions: WT1 vaccination is a safe immunotherapy and induced WT1-specific CTL responses in children; however, as a single agent, vaccination only provided patients in remission, but with a high risk of relapse, with "long-term benefits" in the context of its use for relapse prevention. WT1 peptide-based treatments in combination with other modalities, such as anti-tumor drugs or immunomodulating agents, need to be planned.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 consists of 10 exons and encodes a zinc finger transcription factor. There are four major WT1 isoforms resulting from alternative splicing at two sites, exon 5 (17AA) and exon 9 (KTS). All major WT1 isoforms are overexpressed in leukemia and solid tumors and play oncogenic roles such as inhibition of apoptosis, and promotion of cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In the present study, a novel alternatively spliced WT1 isoform that had an extended exon 4 (designated as exon 4a) with an additional 153 bp (designated as 4a sequence) at the 3' end was identified and designated as an Ex4a(+)WT1 isoform. The insertion of exon 4a resulted in the introduction of premature translational stop codons in the reading frame in exon 4a and production of C-terminal truncated WT1 proteins lacking zinc finger DNA-binding domain. Overexpression of the truncated Ex4a(+)WT1 isoform inhibited the major WT1-mediated transcriptional activation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL gene promoter and induced mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Conversely, suppression of the Ex4a(+)WT1 isoform by Ex4a-specific siRNA attenuated apoptosis. These results indicated that the Ex4a(+)WT1 isoform exerted dominant negative effects on anti-apoptotic function of major WT1 isoforms. Ex4a(+)WT1 isoform was endogenously expressed as a minor isoform in myeloid leukemia and solid tumor cells and increased regardless of decrease in major WT1 isoforms during apoptosis, suggesting the dominant negative effects on anti-apoptotic function of major WT1 isoforms. These results indicated that Ex4a(+)WT1 isoform had an important physiological function that regulated oncogenic function of major WT1 isoforms.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · PLoS ONE

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is overexpressed in leukemia and solid tumors and has an oncogenic role in leukemogenesis and tumorigenesis. However, precise regulatory mechanisms of WT1 overexpression remain undetermined. In the present study, microRNA-125a (miR-125a) was identified as a miRNA that suppressed WT1 expression via binding to the WT1-3'UTR. MiR-125a knockout mice overexpressed WT1, developed myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) characterized by expansion of myeloid cells in bone marrow (BM), spleen and peripheral blood, and displayed urogenital abnormalities. Silencing of WT1 expression in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells of miR-125a knockout MPD mice by short-hairpin RNA inhibited myeloid colony formation in vitro. Furthermore, the incidence and severity of MPD were lower in miR-125a (-/-) mice than in miR-125a (+/-) mice, indicating the operation of compensatory mechanisms for the complete loss of miR-125a. To elucidate the compensatory mechanisms, miRNA array was performed. MiR-486 was occasionally induced in compete loss of miR-125a and inhibited WT1 expression instead of miR-125a, resulting in the cancellation of MPD occurrence. These results showed for the first time the post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of WT1 by both miR-125a and miR-486 and should contribute to the elucidation of mechanisms of normal hematopoiesis and kidney development.Oncogene advance online publication, 11 May 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.154.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Oncogene
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    ABSTRACT: Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) protein is a promising tumor-associated antigen for cancer immunotherapy. We have been performing WT1 peptide vaccination with good clinical responses in over 750 patients with leukemia or solid cancers. In this study, we generated single-cell gene-expression profiles of the effector memory (EM) subset of WT1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in peripheral blood of nine acute myeloid leukemia patients treated with WT1 peptide vaccine, in order to discriminate responders (WT1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood decreased to undetectable levels, decreased but stayed at abnormal levels, were stable at undetectable levels, or remained unchanged from the initial abnormal levels more than 6 months after WT1 vaccination) from non-responders (leukemic blast cells and/or WT1 mRNA levels increased relative to the initial state within 6 months of WT1 vaccination) prior to WT1 vaccination. Cluster and principal component analyses performed using 83 genes did not discriminate between responders and non-responders prior to WT1 vaccination. However, these analyses revealed that EM subset of WT1-specific CTLs could be divided into two groups: the "activated" and "quiescent" states; in responders, EM subset of the CTLs shifted to the "quiescent" state, whereas in non-responders, those shifted to the "activated" state following WT1 vaccination. These results demonstrate for the first time the existence of two distinct EM states, each of which was characteristic of responders or non-responders, of WT1-specific CTLs in AML patients, and raises the possibility of using advanced gene-expression profile analysis to clearly discriminate between responders and non-responders prior to WT1 vaccination.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the safety of combined Wilms tumor 1 peptide vaccination and temozolomide treatment of glioblastoma, a phase I clinical trial was designed. Seven patients with histological diagnosis of glioblastoma underwent concurrent radiotherapy and temozolomide therapy. Patients first received Wilms tumor 1 peptide vaccination 1 week after the end of combined concurrent radio/temozolomide therapy, and administration was continued once per week for 7 weeks. Temozolomide maintenance was started and performed for up to 24 cycles, and the observation period for safety encompassed 6 weeks from the first administration of maintenance temozolomide. All patients showed good tolerability during the observation period. Skin disorders, such as grade 1/2 injection-site reactions, were observed in all seven patients. Although grade 3 lymphocytopenia potentially due to concurrent radio/temozolomide therapy was observed in five patients (71.4 %), no other grade 3/4 hematological or neurological toxicities were observed. No autoimmune reactions were observed. All patients are still alive, and six are on Wilms tumor 1 peptide vaccination without progression, yielding a progression-free survival from histological diagnosis of 5.2-49.1 months. Wilms tumor 1 peptide vaccination was stopped in one patient after 12 injections by the patient's request. The safety profile of the combined Wilms tumor 1 peptide vaccination and temozolomide therapy approach for treating glioblastoma was confirmed.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) product is a pan-tumor-associated antigen. We previously identified WT1 protein-derived promiscuous helper peptide, WT1332. Therefore, isolation and characterization of the WT1332-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) are useful to develop broadly applicable TCR gene-based adoptive immunotherapy. A novel HLA-DRB1*04:05-restricted WT1332-specific TCR gene was cloned and transduced into human CD4(+) T-cells by using a lentiviral vector. The WT1332-specific TCR-transduced CD4(+) T-cells showed strong proliferation and Th1-cytokine production in an HLA-DRB1*04:05-restricted, WT1332-specific manner. Furthermore, the WT1332-specific TCR-transduced CD4(+) T-cells could lyse HLA-DRB1*04:05-positive, WT1-expressing leukemia cells in vitro. The novel TCR gene cloned here should be a promising tool to develop adoptive immunotherapy of WT1332-specific TCR-transduced CD4(+) T-cells for the treatment of WT1-expressing cancer, such as leukemia. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Anticancer research
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    ABSTRACT: To induce and activate tumor-associated antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) for cancer immunity, it is important not only to select potent CTL epitopes but also to combine them with appropriate immunopotentiating agents. Wilms’ tumor gene W T1 is expressed at high levels in many kinds of hematological and solid malignancies. WT1 gene products have high immunogenicity and have been reported to serve as a promising cancer antigen for tumor-specific immunotherapy. We have started WT1 peptide vaccine clinical trials since 2001, and demonstrated that WT1 peptide can induce WT1-specific immunologic responses and the associated clinical responses. To enhance the WT1 peptide vaccine’s therapeutic efficacy, we investigated various immunopotentiating agents that co-administer with WT1 peptide vaccine, using mice models for WT1 peptide cancer immunotherapy. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin cell wall skeleton (BCG-CWS), which is well-known to activate dendritic cells (DCs), i.e., activate innate immunity, could induce and/or activate WT1-specific CTLs in combination with WT1 peptide vaccination. Interferon (IFN)-β is a type I IFN, and is known for its various anticancer properties. Co-administration of WT1 peptide and IFN-β enhanced tumor immunity mainly through the induction of WT1-specific CTLs, enhancement of natural killer (NK) activity, and promotion of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression on the tumor cells. WT1 peptide vaccination combined with BCG-CWS or IFN-β can thus be expected to enhance the clinical efficacy of WT1 immunotherapy.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Dec 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The Wilms’ tumor gene WT1 is overexpressed in leukemia and various types of solid tumors and plays an oncogenic role in these malignancies. Alternative splicing at two sites yields four major isoforms, 17AA(+)KTS(+), 17AA(+)KTS(−), 17AA(−)KTS(+), and 17AA(−)KTS(−), and all the isoforms are expressed in the malignancies. However, among the four isoforms, function of WT1[17AA(−)KTS(+)] isoform still remains undetermined. In the present study, we showed that forced expression of WT1[17AA(−)KTS(+)] isoform significantly inhibited apoptosis by DNA-damaging agents such as Doxorubicin, Mitomycin, Camptothesisn, and Bleomycin in immortalized fibroblast MRC5SV and cervical cancer HeLa cells. Knockdown of Rad51, an essential factor for homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair canceled the resistance to Doxorubicin induced by WT1[17AA(−)KTS(+)] isoform. GFP recombination assay showed that WT1[17AA(−)KTS(+)] isoform alone promoted HR, but that three other WT1 isoforms did not. WT1[17AA(−)KTS(+)] isoform significantly upregulated the expression of HR genes, XRCC2, Rad51D, and Rad54. Knockdown of XRCC2, Rad51D, and Rad54 inhibited the HR activity and canceled resistance to Doxorubicin in MRC5SV cells with forced expression of WT1[17AA(−)KTS(+)] isoform. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed the binding of WT1[17AA(−)KTS(+)] isoform protein to promoters of XRCC2 and Rad51D. Immunohistochemical study showed that Rad54 and XRCC2 proteins were highly expressed in the majority of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and gastric cancer, and that expression of these two proteins was significantly correlated with that of WT1 protein in NSCLCs. Our results presented here showed that WT1[17AA(−)KTS(+)] isoform had a function to promote HR-mediated DNA repair. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Molecular Carcinogenesis
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    ABSTRACT: We report the long-term outcome on phase I study of combined WT1 peptide vaccination/temozolomide against newly diagnosed glioblastomas. Immunological biomarker and response were investigated in trials targeting newly diagnosed and recurrent cases. The survival analysis was performed on 7 patients in the phase I study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 7 patients as well as 30 patients who had WT1 vaccination alone against the recurrent glioblastomas. FACS analyses were conduced on total of 37 samples; WT1-specific T cells were indentified using tetramer assay and sub-classified with CCR7 and CD45RA expression. The results were compared between responder and non-responder group. Median PFS of the 7 patients were 43.5 months and 5 patients showed OS longer than 3 years. In responder group, the frequencies of CD4 + central memory (p < 0.01), CD8 + effector memory (EM) (p < 0.01) and WT1-specific EM (p < 0.05) were higher statistically significantly before the vaccination, and those of CD4 + effector (E) (p < 0.01), CD8 + E (p < 0.05) and WT1-specific E (p < 0.01) were lower. The frequencies of WT1-specific T cell (p < 0.001) and WT1-specific EM (p < 0.001) significantly increased after vaccination. Biomarkers were identified, as well as possible immunological response that might present a proof of concept.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Neuro-Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has largely improved the prognosis of leukemia patients. However, relapse is still a major concern. One promising option for the prevention of relapse is vaccination therapy. The post allogeneic HSCT period provides a unique platform for vaccination, because tumor burden is minimal, lymphopenic condition allows for rapid expansion of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), donor-derived CTLs are not exhausted and inflammatory condition is caused by allo reactions. Tumor cells, dendritic cells and peptides have been used as vaccines targeting leukemia-associated antigens or minor histocompatibility antigens. Clinical trials with several types of vaccines for post-HSCT patients showed that the vaccination induced immunological response and might benefit patients with minimal residual disease, while their effect in patients with advanced disease were limited. To enhance the effect, vaccination in combination with other immune-modulatory drugs such as checkpoint antibodies is now being considered.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Expert Review of Hematology
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    ABSTRACT: We have been conducting clinical trials of peptide vaccination targeting WT1 gene product against malignant gliomas. Given the results of phase II trial for recurrent malignant gliomas (Izumoto, Hashimoto et al., J Neurosurg 2008), we performed recursive partitioning analyses (RPA) (Carson et al., J Clin Oncol, 2007). We have also completed phase I trial of combined temozolomide (TMZ) and WT1 vaccination for newly diagnosed glioblastomas (GBM).
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Neuro-Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that cancer immunotherapy could be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer. In the present study, to identify novel tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), the proteins expressed in a panel of cancer cells were serologically screened by immunoblot analysis and the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) was identified as an antigen that was recognized by IgG autoantibody in sera from a group of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) or colon cancer. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that serum eEF2 IgG Ab levels were significantly higher in colorectal and gastric cancer patients compared to healthy individuals. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed that the eEF2 protein was overexpressed in the majority of lung, esophageal, pancreatic, breast and prostate cancers, HNSCC, glioblastoma multiforme and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Knockdown of eEF2 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly inhibited the growth in four eEF2-expressing cell lines, PC14 lung cancer, PCI6 pancreatic cancer, HT1080 fibrosarcoma and A172 glioblastoma cells, but not in eEF2-undetectable MCF7 cells. Furthermore, eEF2-derived 9-mer peptides, EF786 (eEF2 786-794 aa) and EF292 (eEF2 292-300 aa), elicited cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from an HLA-A*24:02- and an HLA-A*02:01-positive healthy donor, respectively, in an HLA-A-restricted manner. These results indicated that the eEF2 gene is overexpressed in the majority of several types of cancers and plays an oncogenic role in cancer cell growth. Moreover, the eEF2 gene product is immunogenic and a promising target molecule of cancer immunotherapy for several types of cancers.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · International Journal of Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Wilms tumor gene (WT1) protein is an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of a combination therapy consisting of gemcitabine and WT1 peptide-based vaccine for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer and to make initial assessments of its clinical efficacy and immunologic response. Thirty-two HLA-A*24:02 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer were enrolled. Patients received HLA-A*24:02-restricted, modified 9-mer WT1 peptide (3 mg/body) emulsified with Montanide ISA51 adjuvant (WT1 vaccine) intradermally biweekly and gemcitabine (1000 mg/m) on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle. This combination therapy was well tolerated. The frequencies of grade 3-4 adverse events for this combination therapy were similar to those for gemcitabine alone. Objective response rate was 20.0% (6/30 evaluable patients). Median survival time and 1-year survival rate were 8.1 months and 29%, respectively. The association between longer survival and positive delayed-type hypersensitivity to WT1 peptide was statistically significant, and longer survivors featured a higher frequency of memory-phenotype WT1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes both before and after treatment. WT1 vaccine in combination with gemcitabine was well tolerated for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Delayed-type hypersensitivity-positivity to WT1 peptide and a higher frequency of memory-phenotype WT1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes could be useful prognostic markers for survival in the combination therapy with gemcitabine and WT1 vaccine. Further clinical investigation is warranted to determine the effectiveness of this combination therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md.: 1997)
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    ABSTRACT: It remains unclear how the immune system affects leukemia development. To clarify the significance of the presence of immune systems in leukemia development, we transferred MLL/ENL leukemia cells into immune-competent or immune-deficient mice without any pre-conditioning including irradiation. The wild-type mice did not develop leukemia, while all the Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) mice lacking both adaptive immune cells and NK cells developed leukemia, indicating that leukemia cells were immunologically rejected. Interestingly, leukemia cells were also rejected in 60% of the Rag2(-/-) mice that lacked adaptive immune cells but possessed NK cells, suggesting that NK cells play a substantial role in the rejection of leukemia. Moreover, engraftment of leukemia cells was enhanced by NK cell depletion in Rag2(-/-) recipients and inhibited by transfer of NK cells into Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) recipients. Up-regulation of NKG2D ligands in MLL/ENL leukemia cells caused elimination of leukemia cells by NK cells. Finally, we found that leukemia cells resistant to elimination by NK cells had been selected during leukemia development in Rag2(-/-) recipients. These results demonstrate that NK cells can eradicate MLL/ENL leukemia cells in vivo in the absence of adaptive immunity, thus suggesting that NK cells can play a potent role in immunosurveillance against leukemia.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 13 December 2013. doi:10.1038/leu.2013.374.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K

Publication Stats

5k Citations
680.07 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993-2015
    • Osaka City University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1992-2015
    • Osaka University
      • • Division of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases
      • • Department of Molecular Medicine
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2012
    • Osaka Prefectural Medical Center for Respiratory and Allergic Diseases
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2005
    • Hokkaido University
      • Institute for Genetic Medicine
      Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan