[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disease affecting children. Even if remission is successfully induced, about half of the patients experience a relapse after stopping anti-inflammatory therapy. The present study investigated whether patients with JIA at risk of relapse can be identified by biomarkers even if clinical signs of disease activity are absent.
METHODS: Patients fulfilling the criteria of inactive disease on medication were included at the time when all medication was withdrawn. The phagocyte activation markers S100A12 and myeloid-related proteins 8/14 (MRP8/14) were compared as well as the acute phase reactant high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) as predictive biomarkers for the risk of a flare within a time frame of 6 months.
RESULTS: 35 of 188 enrolled patients experienced a flare within 6 months. Clinical or standard laboratory parameters could not differentiate between patients at risk of relapse and those not at risk. S100A12 and MRP8/14 levels were significantly higher in patients who subsequently developed flares than in patients with stable remission. The best single biomarker for the prediction of flare was S100A12 (HR 2.81). The predictive performance may be improved if a combination with hsCRP is used.
CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical disease activity may result in unstable remission (ie, a status of clinical but not immunological remission). Biomarkers such as S100A12 and MRP8/14 inform about the activation status of innate immunity at the molecular level and thereby identify patients with unstable remission and an increased risk of relapse.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Annals of the rheumatic diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereby, we report the case of a 12-year-old girl developing oligoarthritis and progressing into a polyarticular form. Rheumatoid factor was positive, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) was diagnosed. After a poor response to DMARDs, an anti-TNF agent (infliximab) was initiated, but to be discontinued due to an allergic reaction. The same complication was observed with the fully human derivative, adalimumab. At the age of 22, the patient presented septicemia with severe anemia and subsequent development of leukopenia, myocarditis with heart failure, and ANA, aSm, aSS-A, aCL positives, and nephrotic syndrome. These new clinical manifestations fulfilled the classification criteria for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Due to the poor therapeutic responses for both diseases, alternative medical options have to be considered, such as targeted therapy with anti-CD20 or interleukin-6 receptor antagonist monoclonal antibodies. This patient may also be a candidate for autologous hemopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Rheumatology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the efficacy and safety of TNF-α inhibitors (etanercept and adalimumab) in a cohort of patients with JIA treated in a single paediatric rheumatological centre.
Patients with JIA under the age of 18 years, treated with TNF-α blockers at the Paediatric Rheumatologic Centre of the National Institute of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy (Budapest, Hungary) from 2002, were enrolled in an open, observational study. At baseline, patient and disease characteristics were registered. Disease activity was evaluated (before the start of the treatment and after every 3 months) according to the JIA core set of the ACR paediatric definition of improvement (ACR Pedi). Adverse events (AEs) were documented.
In all, 72 patients were evaluated. Mean (S.D.) age at onset was 5.5 (3.8) years, mean disease duration was 7.4 (3.9) years. All disease activity parameters improved significantly in the first 3 months of treatment. After 3 and 12 months of treatment, 88 and 76% of patients, respectively, achieved the criteria of the ACR Pedi 30. AEs were uncommon. After 12 months, >85% of patients continued the therapy.
Anti-TNF-α agents (etanercept and adalimumab) are effective, safe and well tolerated in JIA patients. Extension of this study for a longer follow-up period and to the patients with JIA after the age of 18 years (with validated and comparable disease activity parameters) is needed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of the TNF-α inhibitors.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Rheumatology (Oxford, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop a provisional definition for the evaluation of response to therapy in juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) based on the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation juvenile DM core set of variables.
Thirty-seven experienced pediatric rheumatologists from 27 countries achieved consensus on 128 difficult patient profiles as clinically improved or not improved using a stepwise approach (patient's rating, statistical analysis, definition selection). Using the physicians' consensus ratings as the "gold standard measure," chi-square, sensitivity, specificity, false-positive and-negative rates, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and kappa agreement for candidate definitions of improvement were calculated. Definitions with kappa values >0.8 were multiplied by the face validity score to select the top definitions.
The top definition of improvement was at least 20% improvement from baseline in 3 of 6 core set variables with no more than 1 of the remaining worsening by more than 30%, which cannot be muscle strength. The second-highest scoring definition was at least 20% improvement from baseline in 3 of 6 core set variables with no more than 2 of the remaining worsening by more than 25%, which cannot be muscle strength (definition P1 selected by the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies group). The third is similar to the second with the maximum amount of worsening set to 30%. This indicates convergent validity of the process.
We propose a provisional data-driven definition of improvement that reflects well the consensus rating of experienced clinicians, which incorporates clinically meaningful change in core set variables in a composite end point for the evaluation of global response to therapy in juvenile DM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the long-term efficacy and safety of infliximab plus methotrexate in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA).
Patients eligible for the open-label extension (OLE, weeks 52-204) received infliximab 3-6 mg/kg every 8 weeks plus methotrexate.
Of the 78/122 (64%) children entering the OLE, 42 discontinued infliximab, most commonly due to consent withdrawal (11 patients), lack of efficacy (eight patients) or patient/physician/sponsor requirement (eight patients). Infliximab (mean dose 4.4 mg/kg per infusion) was generally well tolerated. Infusion reactions occurred in 32% (25/78) of patients, with a higher incidence in patients positive for antibodies to infliximab (58%, 15/26). At week 204, the proportions of patients achieving ACR-Pedi-30/50/70/90 response criteria and inactive disease status were 44%, 40%, 33%, 24% and 13%, respectively.
In the limited population of JRA patients remaining in the study at 4 years, infliximab was safe and effective but associated with a high patient discontinuation rate.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Annals of the rheumatic diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present report the authors describe four cases with megacolon and arthritis. The etiology of these unique associations is known in only one case. The musculoskeletal pictures belong to the group of seronegative spondyloarthritis. A huge resistance with great scibalas was detected in the left iliac region by physical examination in all cases. Surgical procedures of the colon resulted in complete remission of arthritis in one case, in the others, chronic obstipation with intermittent relapse of arthritis persisted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Assess long-term efficacy and safety of infliximab plus methotrexate (MTX) in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). METHODS: Patients eligible for the open-label extension (OLE, weeks 52-204) received infliximab 3-6 mg/kg q8wks plus MTX. RESULTS: Of the 78/122 (64%) children entering the OLE, 42 discontinued infliximab, most commonly due to consent withdrawal (11 patients), lack of efficacy (8 patients) or patient/physician/sponsor requirement (8 patients). Infliximab (mean dose=4.4 mg/kg/infusion) was generally well tolerated. Infusion reactions occurred in 32% (25/78) of patients, with a higher incidence in patients positive for antibodies to infliximab (58%, 15/26). At week 204, the proportions of patients achieving ACR-Pedi-30/50/70/90 response criteria and inactive disease status were 44%, 40%, 33%, 24%, and 13%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In the limited population of JRA patients remaining in the study through 4 years, infliximab was safe and effective but associated with a high patient discontinuation rate.
No preview · Article · May 2009 · Annals of the rheumatic diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the possible association between polymorphisms of the mannose-binding lectin gene (MBL2) and susceptibility to juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).
We performed a case-control association study including 118 Hungarian patients with JIA and 118 sex-matched healthy controls. MBL genotyping for the 3 mutant structural alleles at codons 54 (B), 57 (C), and 52 (D) in exon 1 and the promoter polymorphisms at position -550 (HL) and -221 (YX) were carried out by real-time PCR allelic discrimination. Serum level of MBL was determined by ELISA.
Variant allele frequencies of both codon 52 and 57 polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene were significantly overrepresented in JIA (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively). The frequency of low MBL genotypes (XA/XA, YA/YO, XA/YO, and YO/YO) in JIA was higher than that in healthy controls (p=0.001). Serum MBL concentrations were found to be significantly lower in JIA patients versus control subjects (p=0.001). The 2 promoter polymorphisms and codon 54 SNP of the MBL2 gene were not associated with JIA.
Our findings suggest that genetically determined low MBL levels may predispose children to JIA in a Hungarian population. These data warrant further research to investigate the role of the lectin-dependent complement system in the pathogenesis of JIA.
No preview · Article · May 2009 · The Journal of Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a complex immune-mediated disease characterized by environmental influences along with several predisposing genes in the pathogenesis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association of polymorphisms in two candidate genes for autoimmunity, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB1 and protein tyrosine phosphatase N22 (PTPN22) with JIA in Hungarian patients.
A case-control study including 150 Hungarian JIA patients and 200 sex and ethnically matched healthy controls was conducted. Genotyping for HLA-DRB1 and PTPN22 C1858T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs2476601) was carried out by group-specific PCR amplification and by real-time PCR allelic discrimination, respectively.
In Hungarian patients JIA was associated with HLA-DRB1*01, DRB1*08, DRB1*13 (p=0.048, p=0.002, p=0.019, respectively) with marked differences between the disease subtypes classified according to the ILAR criteria. There was no association of the PTPN22 C1858T SNP with JIA (p=0.66). No correlation was found between the presence of this PTPN22 SNP and HLA-DRB1 alleles.
Our results confirm that certain HLA-DRB1 alleles reported previously as susceptibility factors are strongly associated with JIA in a Hungarian population. However, C1858T polymorphism of PTPN22, another candidate gene of autoimmunity seems to be independent of JIA in Hungarian patients. Our data taken together with various findings in different populations suggest that associations related to PTPN22 seem to be more ethnicity-specific in contrast to the general and less population-dependent role of HLA-DRB1 in JIA.
No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Clinical and experimental rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are systemic autoimmune diseases characterized by chronic muscle inflammation resulting progressive weakness and frequent involvement of internal organs, mainly the pulmonary, gastrointestinal and cardiac systems.
To present clinical characteristics, disease course, frequency of relapses and survival of 79 patients with juvenile or adult dermatomyositis.
A national registry of patients with juvenile dermatomyositis was elaborated by the authors in Hungary. The authors summarize data of the register such as signs and symptoms, disease course, frequency of relapses and survival of patients with juvenile dermatomyositis. Analysis was performed using data of 44 patients diagnosed between 1976 and 2004 according to Bohan and Peter's criteria. Survival probability was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Data of patients with juvenile dermatomyositis were compared with data of 35 patients with adult dermatomyositis.
In view of the disease course, the authors found that more than the half of patients have monophasic disease, while one third of them suffered from polycyclic disease. The risk of the relapse was found to be higher during the first year after the remission. None of the juvenile patients died. Among adult patients, 4 disease-specific deaths occurred.
There was no correlation between relapse free survival and initial therapeutic regimen. Many of the patients had polycyclic or chronic disease. As relapses can occur after a prolonged disease-free interval, patients should be followed up for at least 2 years. Despite favourable survival probability, further investigations are needed to assess functional outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of infliximab in the treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA).
This was an international, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. One hundred twenty-two children with persistent polyarticular JRA despite prior methotrexate (MTX) therapy were randomized to receive infliximab or placebo for 14 weeks, after which all children received infliximab through week 44. Patients received MTX plus infliximab 3 mg/kg through week 44, or MTX plus placebo for 14 weeks followed by MTX plus infliximab 6 mg/kg through week 44.
Although a higher proportion of patients in the 3 mg/kg infliximab group than in the placebo group had achieved responses according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Pediatric 30 (Pedi 30) criteria for improvement at week 14 (63.8% and 49.2%, respectively), the between-group difference in this primary efficacy end point was not statistically significant (P = 0.12). By week 16, after the crossover from placebo to infliximab 6 mg/kg when all patients were receiving infliximab, an ACR Pedi 30 response was achieved in 73.2% of all patients. By week 52, ACR Pedi 50 and ACR Pedi 70 responses had been reached in 69.6% and 51.8%, respectively, of patients. Infliximab was generally well tolerated, but the safety profile of infliximab 3 mg/kg appeared less favorable than that of infliximab 6 mg/kg, with more frequent occurrences of serious adverse events, infusion reactions, antibodies to infliximab, and newly induced antinuclear antibodies and antibodies to double-stranded DNA observed with the 3 mg/kg dose.
While infliximab at 3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg showed durable efficacy at 1 year, achievement of the primary efficacy end point at 3 months did not differ significantly between infliximab-treated and placebo-treated patients. Safety data indicated that the 6-mg/kg dose may provide a more favorable risk/benefit profile. These results warrant further investigation in children with JRA.
No preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare health-related quality of life (HRQL) and to identify clinical determinants for poor HRQL of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) coming from three geographic areas.
The HRQL was assessed through the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ). A total of 30 countries were included grouped in three geographic areas: 16 countries in Western Europe; 10 in Eastern Europe; and four in Latin America. Potential determinants of poor HRQL included demographic data, physician's and parent's global assessments, measures of joint inflammation, disability as measured by Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Poor HRQL was defined as a CHQ physical summary score (PhS) or psychosocial summary score (PsS) <2 S.D. from that of healthy children.
A total of 3167 patients with JIA, younger than 18 yrs, were included in this study. The most affected health concepts (<2 S.D. from healthy children) that differentiate the three geographic areas include physical functioning, bodily pain/discomfort, global health, general health perception, change in health with respect to the previous year, self-esteem and family cohesion. Determinants for poor HRQL were similar across geographic areas with physical well-being mostly affected by the level of disability while the psychosocial well-being by the intensity of pain.
We found that patients with JIA have a significant impairment of their HRQL compared with healthy peers, particularly in the physical domain. Disability and pain are the most important determinants of physical and psychosocial well-being irrespective of the geographic area of origin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical use patterns, clinical effect and safety of cyclosporine A (CSA) in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in the setting of routine clinical care.
An open-ended, phase IV post marketing surveillance study was conducted among members of the Pediatric Rheumatology Collaborative Study Group (PRCSG) and of the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO) to identify patients with polyarticular course JIA who had received CSA during the course of their disease.
A total of 329 patients, half of whom had systemic JIA, were collected in 21 countries. Data were collected during 1240 routine clinic visits. CSA was started at a mean of 5.8 years after disease onset and was given at a mean dose of 3.4 mg/kg/day. The drug was administered in combination with MTX in 61% and along with prednisone in 65% of the patients who were still receiving CSA. Among patients who were still receiving CSA therapy at the last reported visit, remission was documented in 9% of the patients, whereas in 61% of the patients the disease activity was rated as moderate or severe. The most frequent reason for discontinuation of CSA was insufficient therapeutic effect (61% of the patients); only 10% of the patients stopped CSA because of remission. In 17% of the patients, side effects of therapy was given as the primary reason for discontinuation.
This survey suggests that CSA may have a less favourable efficacy profile than MTX and etanercept, whereas the frequency of side effects may be similar. The exact place of CSA in the treatment of JIA can only be established via controlled clinical trial.
No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Clinical and experimental rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are systemic autoimmune diseases characterized by chronic muscle inflammation resulting in progressive weakness and frequent involvement of internal organs, mainly the pulmonary, gastrointestinal and cardiac systems which considerably contribute to the morbidity and mortality of the IIMs. Aim of this study was to present clinical characteristics, disease course, frequency of relapses and survival in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (DM). A national registry of patients with juvenile IIMs was elaborated by the authors in Hungary. We have summarized data of the register according to signs and symptoms, disease course, frequency of relapses and survival of patients with juvenile IIM. Analysis was performed using data of 44 patients with juvenile DM diagnosed between 1976 and 2004 according to Bohan and Peter's criteria. Survival probability was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Data of patients with juvenile DM were compared with data of 66 patients with adult DM. The most frequent cutaneous features were facial erythema and heliotrope rash. Extramuscular and extraskeletal manifestations of the disease were more frequent in adult patients. The most common extramuscular feature was arthralgia in both groups of patients with juvenile or adult DM. Cardiac manifestation of the disease was not observed in juvenile patients. Respiratory muscle involvement and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were more frequent among adult DM patients than cardiac manifestation of the myositis. In view of the disease course, the authors found that frequency of polycyclic and monophasic subtypes of the disease were mainly similar. The hazard of relapse was found higher during the first year after the remission. None of the juvenile patients died. Among adult patients four disease-specific deaths occurred. There was no correlation between relapse free survival and initial therapeutic regimen. Many of our patients had polycyclic or chronic disease. As relapses can occur after a prolonged disease-free interval, patients should be followed up for at least 2 years. Although we found favourable survival probability, further investigations are needed to assess functional outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prepare a website for families and health professionals containing up to date information about paediatric rheumatic diseases (PRD).
Firstly, paediatric rheumatology centres and family self help associations were surveyed to characterise current clinical practice of physicians providing care for children with PRD, research activities, and training facilities of each centre. Secondly, international consensus was reached on the content of the website. Finally, the website was developed and the texts translated.
The web page contains three main sections: (a) description for families of the characteristics of 15 PRD; (b) list of paediatric rheumatology centres; (c) contact information for family self help associations. A version for 45 countries in 52 languages (with another three in progress) is now available on the web. 291 surveys from 171 centres and 102 family associations were received from 42 countries. The median proportion of time spent in paediatric practice in the centres examined was 100%, with 70% of this time dedicated to paediatric rheumatology. 90% of the centres were willing to perform clinical trials in the future.
The PRINTO/PRES website provides a well defined and competent set of information about PRD, with appropriate multiple translated versions and easy web navigational direction.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2005 · Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim is to present the disease course, frequency of relapses and survival of juvenile and adult dermatomyositis (JDM/DM) patients.
Analysis was performed using data on 73 patients. The median follow-up for 38 JDM patients was 32 months and 78 months for 35 adult DM patients.
23/38 JDM patients (60%) had monophasic, 12/38 (31.6%) had polycyclic and 3/38 (7.9%) had chronic disease. Among children treated only with glucocorticoids, 12/20 (60%) had monophasic and 8/20 (40%) had polycyclic disease. 10/17 (58.8%) children, who required second-line immunosuppressive agents, had monophasic and 4/17 (23.5%) had polycyclic disease. 18/35 DM (51.4%) patients had monophasic, 13/35 (37.1%) had polycyclic, 1/35 (2.9%) had chronic disease and 3/35 (8.6%) had fulminant myositis. Among DM patients requiring only glucocorticoids, 12/20 (60%) were monophasic and 8/20 (40%) were polycyclic. In patients requiring second-line immunosuppressive agents, 6/15 patients (40%) had monophasic and 5/15 (33.3%) had polycyclic disease. Among patients with polycyclic disease, the risk of relapse was higher during first year than later in the disease course. None of the JDM patients have died, while 4 disease-specific deaths occurred in adult patients. There was no significant difference between the survival of JDM and DM patients.
There was no correlation between relapse-free survival and the initial therapeutic regimen. Many of our patients had polycyclic or chronic disease. As relapses can occur after a prolonged disease-free interval, patients should be followed for at least 2 years. Although we found a favourable survival rate, further investigations are needed to assess functional outcome.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · Clinical and experimental rheumatology