Y. Tomioka

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

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Publications (376)1222.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction causes increased oxidative stress and depletion of ATP, which are involved in the etiology of a variety of renal diseases, such as CKD, AKI, and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Antioxidant therapies are being investigated, but clinical outcomes have yet to be determined. Recently, we reported that a newly synthesized indole derivative, mitochonic acid 5 (MA-5), increases cellular ATP level and survival of fibroblasts from patients with mitochondrial disease. MA-5 modulates mitochondrial ATP synthesis independently of oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain. Here, we further investigated the mechanism of action for MA-5. Administration of MA-5 to an ischemia-reperfusion injury model and a cisplatin-induced nephropathy model improved renal function. In in vitro bioenergetic studies, MA-5 facilitated ATP production and reduced the level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) without affecting activity of mitochondrial complexes I-IV. Additional assays revealed that MA-5 targets the mitochondrial protein mitofilin at the crista junction of the inner membrane. In Hep3B cells, overexpression of mitofilin increased the basal ATP level, and treatment with MA-5 amplified this effect. In a unique mitochondrial disease model (Mitomice with mitochondrial DNA deletion that mimics typical human mitochondrial disease phenotype), MA-5 improved the reduced cardiac and renal mitochondrial respiration and seemed to prolong survival, although statistical analysis of survival times could not be conducted. These results suggest that MA-5 functions in a manner differing from that of antioxidant therapy and could be a novel therapeutic drug for the treatment of cardiac and renal diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: The biological roles of RNA modifications are still largely not understood. Thus, developing a method for detecting RNA modifications is important for further clarification. We developed a method for detecting RNA modifications called immuno-northern blotting (INB) analysis and herein introduce its various capabilities. This method involves the separation of RNAs using either polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a nylon membrane and subsequent immunoblotting using antibodies against modified nucleosides for the detection of specific modifications. We confirmed that INB with the antibodies for 1-methyladenosine (m1A), N6-methyladenosine (m6A), pseudouridine, and 5-methylcytidine (m5C) showed different modifications in a variety of RNAs from various species and organelles. INB with the anti-m5C antibody revealed that the antibody cross-reacted with another modification on DNA, suggesting the application of this method for characterization of the antibody for modified nucleosides. Additionally, using INB with the antibody for m1A, which is a highly specific modification in eukaryotic tRNA, we detected tRNA-derived fragments known as tiRNAs under the cellular stress response, suggesting the application for tracking target RNA containing specific modifications. INB with the anti-m6A antibody confirmed the demethylation of m6A by the specific demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and ALKBH5, suggesting its application for quantifying target modifications in separated RNAs. Furthermore, INB demonstrated that the knockdown of FTO and ALKBH5 increased the m6A modification in small RNAs as well as in mRNA. The INB method has high specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capability, and it can be employed with conventional experimental apparatus. Therefore, this method would be useful for research on RNA modifications and metabolism.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/MD-2 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes septic shock. We previously produced an inhibitory antibody, HT52, against LPS-induced human TLR4 activation independently of LPS binding of MD-2. Consistent with the hypothesis that HT52 recognizes the epitopes inherent to inhibitory antibodies, we generated an HT52-crossblockable antibody and revealed the relationship between its inhibitory activity and the anti-TLR4 antibody epitope. Leucine-rich repeat 2 was identified as an inhibitory epitope, and Phe(75), Ser(76) and Pro(79) as antigenic determinants. These findings provide a way to design therapeutic antibodies targeted to TLR4 that are distinct from LPS analog antagonists targeting MD-2.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · FEBS letters
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    ABSTRACT: The coexistence of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases and their role in the photoinduced insulator-to-metal transition in Pr1-xCaxMnO3 are revealed via ultrafast resonant x-ray diffraction and broadband optical reflectivity measurements. The antiferromagnetic scattering signal and ferromagnetically sensitive reflectivity measurements show similar, strongly temperature dependent time scales. We attribute the common dynamics to an activation barrier between the equilibrium insulating phase and the photoinduced metallic phase related to interactions between the phase-separated ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic insulating phases.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Physical Review B
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are key organelles implicated in a variety of processes related to energy and free radical generation, the regulation of apoptosis, and various signaling pathways. Mitochondrial dysfunction increases cellular oxidative stress and depletes ATP in a variety of inherited mitochondrial diseases and also in many other metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial diseases are characterized by the dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, caused by mutations in the genes encoded by either nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. We have hypothesized that chemicals that increase the cellular ATP levels may ameliorate the mitochondrial dysfunction seen in mitochondrial diseases. To search for the potential drugs for mitochondrial diseases, we screened an in-house chemical library of indole-3-acetic-acid analogs by measuring the cellular ATP levels in Hep3B human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. We have thus identified mitochonic acid 5 (MA-5), 4-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-4-oxobutanoic acid, as a potential drug for enhancing ATP production. MA-5 is a newly synthesized derivative of the plant hormone, indole-3-acetic acid. Importantly, MA-5 improved the survival of fibroblasts established from patients with mitochondrial diseases under the stress-induced condition, including Leigh syndrome, MELAS (myopathy encephalopathy lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes), Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, and Kearns-Sayre syndrome. The improved survival was associated with the increased cellular ATP levels. Moreover, MA-5 increased the survival of mitochondrial disease fibroblasts even under the inhibition of the oxidative phosphorylation or the electron transport chain. These data suggest that MA-5 could be a therapeutic drug for mitochondrial diseases that exerts its effect in a manner different from anti-oxidant therapy.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The protein amount of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), that is the rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of dopamine (DA), should be tightly regulated, whereas its degradation pathway is largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed how the TH protein is chemically modified and subsequently degraded under deficiencies of DA and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor for TH, by using pharmacological agents in PC12D cells and cultured mesencephalic neurons. When inhibition of DA- or BH4-synthesizing enzymes greatly reduced the DA contents in PC12D cells, a marked and persistent increase in phosphorylation of TH at (40)Ser (p40-TH) was concomitantly observed. This phosphorylation was mediated by D2 dopamine auto-receptor and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Our immunoprecipitation experiments showed that the increase in the p40-TH level was accompanied with its poly-ubiquitination. Treatment of PC12D cells with cycloheximide showed that total-TH protein level was reduced by the DA- or BH4-depletion. Notably, this reduction in the total-TH protein level was sensitive not only to a 26S proteasomal inhibitor, MG-132, but also to a PKA inhibitor, H-89. These data demonstrated that DA deficiency should induce compensatory activation of TH via phosphorylation at (40)Ser through D2-autoreceptor and PKA-mediated pathways, which in turn give a rise to its degradation through an ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, resulting in a negative spiral of DA production when DA deficiency persists. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a thermoelectric investigation of the stripe and superconducting phases of the cuprate La$_{2-x}$Ba$_{x}$CuO$_{4}$ near the $x=1/8$ doping known to host stable stripes. We use the doping and magnetic field dependence of field-symmetric Nernst effect features to delineate the phenomenology of these phases. Our measurements are consistent with prior reports of time-reversal symmetry breaking signatures above the superconducting $T_{{\rm c}}$, and crucially detect a sharp, robust, field-invariant peak at the stripe charge order temperature, $T_{{\rm {\scriptscriptstyle CO}}}$. Our observations suggest the onset of a nontrivial charge ordered phase at $T_{{\rm {\scriptscriptstyle CO}}}$, and the subsequent presence of spontaneously generated vortices over a broad temperature range before the emergence of bulk superconductivity in LBCO.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to determine whether a long-term case review (LTCR) program helped pharmacy students develop their abilities as pharmacists, and how their level of satisfaction changed. LTCRs were comprised of four elements: self-learning, one-on-one bedside training with advising pharmacists, daily group sessions including three members, and weekly plenary sessions (case conferences). This program conducted on-site training in a hospital for 21 fifth-year students. The students were divided into 7 groups. One member of each group was assigned to a ward for bedside training for three weeks, while other member(s) of the central pharmacy provided support through daily group sessions. Each week, students training in the wards delivered case presentations in the case conference. All students, advising pharmacists, and teachers participated in these weekly case conferences. Upon conclusion of the on-site training, a survey was conducted on the program's efficacy. Through information sharing during group discussions, and in case conferences, continuous patient follow up was possible regardless of students' training schedules in wards or in the central pharmacy. After introducing the LTCR, the mean satisfaction level for case conferences (as scored using a 5-point Likert-type scale) increased from 3.4 to 4.3. Students' levels of understanding also improved. Statistically significant increases in students' self-evaluation scores on professional awareness, presentation skills, and logical thinking were also observed. We concluded that the program helped students to gain practical experience, made them more aware of clinical issues, and improved their presentation skills. Through this program, the students gained clinical competency through a deep understanding of the clinical courses of diseases and patient-oriented pharmaceutical care.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · YAKUGAKU ZASSHI
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    ABSTRACT: We present neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the low-energy phonons in single crystal BiFeO3. The dispersions of the three acoustic phonon modes (LA along [100], TA1 along [010] and TA2 along [110]) and two low energy optic phonon modes (LO and TO1) have been mapped out between 300 K and 700 K. Elastic constants are extracted from the phonon measurements. The energy linewidths of both TA phonons at the zone boundary clearly broaden when the system is warmed toward the magnetic ordering temperature TN = 640 K. This suggests that the magnetic and low-energy lattice dynamics in this multiferroic material are coupled.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Physical Review B
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic variations in cytochrome P450 4A11 (CYP4A11) contributes to inter-individual variability in the metabolism of fatty acids such as arachidonic acid. CYP4A11 metabolizes arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), which is important for the regulation of blood pressure. Polymorphisms in CYP4A11 are associated with susceptibility to hypertension. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro ω-hydroxylation of arachidonic acid by 10 CYP4A11 allelic variants, which cause amino acid substitutions in the encoded proteins. CYP4A11 variants were heterologously expressed in COS-7 cells and the kinetic parameters of arachidonic acid ω-hydroxylation were estimated. Among 10 CYP4A11 variants, 5 (CYP4A11-v1, CYP4A11-v2, CYP4A11-v3, CYP4A11-v4, and CYP4A11-v7) showed no or markedly lower activity compared to wild-type CYP4A11. This functional analysis of CYP4A11 variants could provide useful information for the effective prevention and treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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    ABSTRACT: The accumulation of uremic toxins is involved in the progression of CKD. Various uremic toxins are derived from gut microbiota, and an imbalance of gut microbiota or dysbiosis is related to renal failure. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the relationship between the gut microbiota and renal failure are still obscure. Using an adenine-induced renal failure mouse model, we evaluated the effects of the ClC-2 chloride channel activator lubiprostone (commonly used for the treatment of constipation) on CKD. Oral administration of lubiprostone (500 µg/kg per day) changed the fecal and intestinal properties in mice with renal failure. Additionally, lubiprostone treatment reduced the elevated BUN and protected against tubulointerstitial damage, renal fibrosis, and inflammation. Gut microbiome analysis of 16S rRNA genes in the renal failure mice showed that lubiprostone treatment altered their microbial composition, especially the recovery of the levels of the Lactobacillaceae family and Prevotella genus, which were significantly reduced in the renal failure mice. Furthermore, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis showed that lubiprostone treatment decreased the plasma level of uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate and hippurate, which are derived from gut microbiota, and a more recently discovered uremic toxin, trans-aconitate. These results suggest that lubiprostone ameliorates the progression of CKD and the accumulation of uremic toxins by improving the gut microbiota and intestinal environment. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: We report peculiar momentum-dependent anisotropy in the superconducting gap observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 (x = 0.30, Tc = 30 K). Strongly anisotropic gap has been found only in the electron Fermi surface while the gap on the entire hole Fermi surfaces are nearly isotropic. These results are inconsistent with horizontal nodes but are consistent with modified s± gap with nodal loops. We have shown that the complicated gap modulation can be theoretically reproduced by considering both spin and orbital fluctuations.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Lysophospholipids (LPLs) serve as lipid mediators and precursors for synthesis of diacyl phospholipids (PLs). LPLs detected in cells have various acyl chains attached at either the sn-1 or sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In general, acyl chains at the sn-2 position of 2-acyl-1-LPLs readily move to the sn-1 position, generating 1-acyl-2-lyso isomers by a non-enzymatic reaction called intra-molecular acyl migration, which has hampered the detection of 2-acyl-1-LPLs in biological samples. In this study, we developed a simple and versatile method to separate and quantify 2-acyl-1- and 1-acyl-2-LPLs. The main point of the method was to extract LPLs at pH 4 and 4 degree, conditions that was found to completely eliminate the intra-molecular acyl migration. Under the present conditions, the relative amounts of 2-acyl-1-LPLs and 1-acyl-2-LPLs did not change at least for 1 week. Further, in LPLs extracted from cells and tissues under the present conditions, most of the saturated fatty acids (16:0 and 18:0) were found in the sn-1 position of LPLs, while most of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2, 20:4, 22:6) were found in the sn-2 position. Thus the method can be used to elucidate the in vivo role of 2-acyl-1-LPLs.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · The Journal of Lipid Research
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue damage by oxidative stress is a key pathogenic mechanism in various diseases, including AKI and CKD. Thus, early detection of oxidative tissue damage is important. Using a tRNA-specific modified nucleoside 1-methyladenosine (m1A) antibody, we show that oxidative stress induces a direct conformational change in tRNA structure that promotes subsequent tRNA fragmentation and occurs much earlier than DNA damage. In various models of tissue damage (ischemic reperfusion, toxic injury, and irradiation), the levels of circulating tRNA derivatives increased rapidly. In humans, the levels of circulating tRNA derivatives also increased under conditions of acute renal ischemia, even before levels of other known tissue damage markers increased. Notably, the level of circulating free m1A correlated with mortality in the general population (n=1033) over a mean follow-up of 6.7 years. Compared with healthy controls, patients with CKD had higher levels of circulating free m1A, which were reduced by treatment with pitavastatin (2 mg/d; n=29). Therefore, tRNA damage reflects early oxidative stress damage, and detection of tRNA damage may be a useful tool for identifying organ damage and forming a clinical prognosis.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied the microscopic magnetic state of a double perovskite Sr2FeMoO6 by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). An Fe L3,2-edge XMCD reveals that the formal Fe3+ ions have an appreciable orbital moment (morb) parallel to their large spin moment (mspin), showing the charge-transfer-induced, minority-spin (↓) Fe t2g electrons. A weak but undoubted O K-edge XMCD was successfully detected, showing an O 2p-hole morb induced by 2p-3d hybridization. Along with information obtained from the observed Mo M3,2-edge XMCD, our findings verify the partially filled Fe 3d t2g↓-O 2pπ↓-Mo 4d t2g↓ hybridized bands at the Fermi level, which mediates ferrimagnetism.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Physics Conference Series
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    ABSTRACT: Electronic orderings of charges, orbitals and spins are observed in many strongly correlated electron materials, and revealing their dynamics is a critical step toward undertsanding the underlying physics of important emergent phenomena. Here we use time-resolved resonant soft x-ray scattering spectroscopy to probe the dynamics of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in the manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 following ultrafast photo-exitation. Our studies reveal a glass-like recovery of the spin ordering and a crossover in the dimensionality of the restoring interaction from quasi-1D at low pump fluence to 3D at high pump fluence. This behavior arises from the metastable state created by photo-excitation, a state characterized by spin disordered metallic droplets within the larger charge- and spin-ordered insulating domains. Comparison with time-resolved resistivity measurements suggests that the collapse of spin ordering is correlated with the insulator-to-metal transition, but the recovery of the insulating phase does not depend on the re-establishment of the spin ordering.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and 5-methylcytosine (5mC) represent important epigenetic modifications to DNA, and a sensitive analytical method is required to determine the levels of 5hmC in the genomic DNA of tumor cells or cultured cell lines because 5hmC is present at particular low levels in these cells. We have developed a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometric method for quantifying 5-hydroxymethyldeoxycytidine (5hmdC), 5-methyldeoxycytidine (5mdC), and deoxyguanosine (dG) levels using stable isotope labeled internal standards, and used this method to estimate the global level of 2 modified cytosines in genomic DNA prepared from small number of cells. The quantification limits for 5hmdC, 5mdC and dG were 20pM, 2nM and 10nM, respectively. MRM transitions for isotopologue (isotopologue-MRM) were used to quantify the 5mdC and dG levels because of the abundance of these nucleosides relative to 5hmdC. The use of isotopologue-MRM for the abundant nucleosides could also avoid the saturation of the detector, and allow for all three nucleosides to be analyzed simultaneously without the need for the dilution and re-injection of samples into the instrument. The global ratios of modified cytosine nucleosides to dG were estimated following the quantification of each nucleoside in the hydrolysate of genomic DNA. The limit of estimation for the global 5hmC level was less than 0.001% using 200ng of DNA. Using this method, we found that MLL-TET1, which a fusion protein in acute myelogenous leukemia, did not produce 5hmC, but interfered with TET1 activity to produce 5hmC in cells. Our analytical method is therefore a valuable tool for further studies aiming at a deeper understanding of the role of modified cytosine in the epigenetic regulation of cells.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
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    ABSTRACT: We have performed an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) study of BaNi$_2$P$_2$ which shows a superconducting transition at $T_c$ $\sim$ 2.5 K. We observed hole and electron Fermi surfaces (FSs) around the Brillouin zone center and corner, respectively, and the shapes of the hole FSs dramatically changed with photon energy, indicating strong three-dimensionality. The observed FSs are consistent with band-structure calculation and de Haas-van Alphen measurements. The mass enhancement factors estimated in the normal state were $m^*$/$m_b$ $\leq$ 2, indicating weak electron correlation compared to typical iron-pnictide superconductors. An electron-like Fermi surface around the Z point was observed in contrast with BaNi$_2$As$_2$ and may be related to the higher $T_c$ of BaNi$_2$P$_2$.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Physical Review B
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    ABSTRACT: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are second-generation lysophospholipid mediators that exert multiple biological functions through their own cognate receptors. They are both present in the blood stream, activate receptors with similar structures (endothelial differentiation gene receptors), have similar roles in the vasculature and are vasoactive. However, it is unclear whether these lysophospholipid mediators cross-talk downstream of each receptor. Here, we provide in vivo evidence that LPA signaling counteracted S1P signaling. When autotaxin (Atx), an LPA-producing enzyme, was overexpressed in zebrafish embryos by injecting atx mRNA, the embryos showed cardia bifida, a phenotype induced by down-regulation of S1P signaling. A similar cardiac phenotype was not induced when catalytically inactive Atx was introduced. The cardiac phenotype was synergistically enhanced when antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) against S1P receptor (s1pr2/mil) or S1P transporter (spns2) was introduced together with atx mRNA. The Atx-induced cardia bifida was prominently suppressed when embryos were treated with an lpar1 receptor antagonist, Ki16425, or with MO against lpar1. These results provide the first in vivo evidence of cross-talk between LPA and S1P signaling.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Biochemistry
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    T Hatano · Y Ogimoto · N Ogawa · M Nakano · S Ono · Y Tomioka · K Miyano · Y Iwasa · Y Tokura
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    ABSTRACT: Electron correlation often produces a variety of electrically insulating states caused by self-organization of electrons, which are particularly stable at commensurate fillings. Although collapsing such ordered states by minute external stimuli has been a key strategy toward device applications, it is difficult to access their true electronic phase boundaries due to the necessity of fine-tuning of material parameters. Here, we demonstrate the ambipolar resistance switching in Pr1-xSrxMnO3 thin films (x = 0.5; an effectively 1/4-filled state) by quasi-continuous control of the doping level x and band-width W using gate-voltage and magnetic field, enabled by the extreme electric-field formed at the nanoscale interface generated in an electrolyte-gated transistor. An electroresistance peak with unprecedented steepness emerges on approaching a critical point in the x-W phase diagram. The technique opens a new route to Mott-insulator based transistors and to discovering singularities hitherto unnoticed in conventional bulk studies of strongly correlated electron systems.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Scientific Reports

Publication Stats

15k Citations
1,222.09 Total Impact Points


  • 2002-2015
    • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
      • Nanoelectronics Research Institute
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
      • Solid State Division
      Oak Ridge, Florida, United States
  • 1991-2015
    • Tohoku University
      • • Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • • Division of Physiological Sciences
      • • Department of Life and Pharmaceutical Science
      Miyagi, Japan
  • 2014
    • University of Shizuoka
      • Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Genetics
      Sizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan
  • 1994-2014
    • Tohoku Pharmaceutical University
      Miyagi, Japan
  • 2012
    • Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2009
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      • Materials Sciences Division
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2006-2007
    • Josai International University
    • Tokai University
      Hiratuka, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2003
    • University of Groningen
      • Materials Science Group
      Groningen, Province of Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1995-2002
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Institute for Solid State Physics
      • • Department of Applied Physics
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2001
    • Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences
      Kievo, Kyiv City, Ukraine
    • Keio University
      • Department of Physics
      Edo, Tokyo, Japan
  • 2000
    • Kookmin University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea