[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 3D scanning using laser scanners has been recognized as one of the most efficient and accurate way to record and reconstruct digitally large-scale cultural heritages. The authors report on 3D scanning survey of Roman monuments and remains in Tyre, Lebanon, which was conducted in September 2002, and on succeeded digital reconstruction and visualization of those monuments. During limited period of time for the survey, many Roman monuments and remains were scanned including the memorial gate on the paved road aligned by columns, a sarcophagus, and a stepped stand of the Hippodrome in Albaas area, as well as the whole excavation field in Ramali area and the interior space of underground tomb within the field, resulted in many sets of point cloud data. For 3D scanning, the authors combined two different types of laser scanners, one with coarser resolution with faster scanning speed and coverage, and the other with finer resolution with slower scanning speed. The former was mainly used to determine the location of individual remains or structures, while the latter was used to record the details of the monuments. By combining both scanners, larger areas were covered efficiently, while recording the details of important monuments. Then the data were automatically aligned and merged with a software, and the resulted polygon data were mapped with textures using digital photos obtained at the time of laser scanning. Finally, CG animation of those remains has been produced for providing photo-realistic spatial image of the remains to those who have never visited the place.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using the recently developed D GIS (Geographic Information System) and related visualisation technologies, we have created a digital diorama of an entire historical city, which can be used to virtually travel through different realistic landscapes at different times in the history. The digital diorama called Virtual Kyoto is the virtual geographic environment of the past, present, and future of the historical urban spaces in Kyoto City by constructing geotemporal-referenced 3D models of cityscape elements at different eras. In order to promote digital humanities studies on the arts and culture of traditional Kyoto, Virtual Kyoto is used as a digital platform for constructing a web-based digital museum interface with geographic data-linkages to numerous historical and cultural digital contents. We also explore the possibility of using Virtual Kyoto as an information environment to discuss the future of the historical city of Kyoto with the effects of city planning activities such as landscape policies or the possible damage due to disasters on historical landscapes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Virtual Kyoto is a virtual time-space created on a computer for the purpose of investigating the past, present and future of the historical city of Kyoto. Using the cutting-edge technologies in GIS and VR, we built Virtual Kyoto which is 4DGIS that comprise a series of 3DGIS at different points in time. Our 3D city modeling begins with the present Kyoto and then goes back to the past, including those soon after and before the World War II, the Taisho and Meiji eras, pre-modern Edo era and finally back to Heian era when the city of Kyoto was founded in late 8th century. Creating Virtual Kyoto includes the following projects: a) Archiving geo-referenced materials such as current digital maps, old topographic maps, cadastral maps, aerial photos, picture maps, street photos, landscape paintings, archaeological sites data, and historical documents; b) Creating a database of all existing buildings including machiyas (traditional town houses), early modern buildings, shrines and temples including historical and cultural heritages; c) Creating 3D VR models of the above buildings; and d) Estimating and simulating land use and landscape changes over the study periods using aforementioned materials. Virtual Kyoto is an infrastructure to place various digitally archived materials associated with the city, and to disseminate Kyoto's subtle and sophisticated forms of cultures and arts to the world over the Internet. The web-based system provides user-friendly interface to explore historical materials of cultures and arts in the geographical context of Kyoto with its historical landscapes. Virtual Kyoto should play a valuable role in the assistance for urban landscape planning of Kyoto as well as sending rich information about Kyoto to the world through the Internet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This research integrates Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Virtual Reality (VR) technologies to develop a 4D-GIS, ‘Kyoto Virtual Time-Space,’ in which we can virtually travel over space and time in the Japanese historical city of Kyoto. ‘Kyoto Virtual Time Space’ is an infrastructure to place various digitally archived materials associated with the city, and to disseminate Kyoto’s subtle and sophisticated forms of cultural and artistic expressions to the world over the internet. For this purpose, a database of elements that comprise urban landscapes in Kyoto is created; their locations are identified on a 2D-GIS; 3D-VR technique is employed to visualize the urban landscapes; and finally the above 3D-GIS is created for several time slices to form the 4D-GIS. The ‘Kyoto Virtual Time Space’ will be made public as a WebGIS on the internet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Commission V, WG V/4 ABSTRACT: A scanning device generally referred to as a "laser scanner", used to obtain 3D data of objects by irradiating laser beams, is used in the field of cultural properties, and is starting to achieve significant results. The technique to record complex 3D data with high accuracy and speed, without touching or destructing an object, makes it an essential tool in the field of cultural properties, as well as arousing interest in the displaying of such data on a computer, and in the various possible usage of the obtained 3D images. The authors have implemented this laser scanning technique to obtain data for such various fields as architecture, fine arts, monuments, and historic sites, with good results. This paper is written to consider application of this technique for efficient conservation of cultural properties, referring to the 3D laser scanning activities performed by authors up to the present. The 3D digital archive making with laser scanner requires two steps, which are actual measurement works and digital processing of the data acquired. The acquired point clouds in three dimensions can be displayed on a computer by using the exclusive software and we have to process (align, merge and so on) these data considering subsequent works also. Up to the present, the authors have performed many practical applications using 3D digital archives of cultural properties measured by laser scanner. These are valuable records for various purposes: handing over to future generations, creating 2D information, investigating inclinations, preparing basic data for examination of a restoration plan, visualizing CG animations and others. In this paper, the authors wish to introduce the method of measurement using laser scanner, and the subsequent processing of the obtained data, in order to clarify the validity and possibility of application for creating efficient and valuable digital archives.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our project restores the historical city of Kyoto in a virtual reality space. Our goal is to be able to 'walk through' the streets of Kyoto of the olden days on a computer display. The project involves 3D modelling of the present day Kyoto, and then restoring the city back to the pre-war period and to the Edo era. GIS are used throughout the project; (a) to store location and attributes of current buildings; (b) to archive and geo-reference materials such as cadastral maps, street photos, aerial photos, excavation findings, boring data, pollen analysis results and historical documents; and (c) to estimate and simulate land use changes over the periods using aforementioned materials. With the time dimension added, our end product will be a 4D GIS database of Kyoto that becomes a container of digitally archived materials, such as drawings and performing arts that are being digitally archived recently. The database is a "real time" interactive system, so that users have the capability of navigating freely in the 4D space. The virtual city acts as an intuitively comprehensible interface to the database, and we are planning an on-line access to the virtual city and the database over the internet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The needs for 3D city models are growing rapidly and the applications of those models on computer graphics and virtual reality are appearing in a variety of fields in recent years. In parallel, the speed of the internet communication is being greatly improved by the fast and wide spread of broadband infrastructure. Today, those web3D applications are waited eagerly that make possible interactive fly-through and walk-through manipulations in detailed 3D city models on the internet. For the recent few years the authors have developed techniques for automatic generation of 3D city model using LIDAR data, 2D digital map and aerial photography, as well as a virtual reality (VR) viewer software with high-speed graphic engine which can deal with large areas of 3D city models on VR. The newly developed 3D urban information system on web can provide transmission and reception of a great amount of urban information with interactive manipulation of detailed 3D city models linked with geographic information system (GIS), on ordinary internet infrastructure such as DSL. New techniques have been developed for the system, including; (a) reduction of data, (b) level of detail (LOD) and streaming, and (c) linkage between 3D city model and geographic information system (GIS). Based on those techniques the authors have developed a prototype system that includes the design and construction of a client-server system as well as the development of the client software. After those basic developments the authors conducted an experiment of communication in a local area network (LAN) environment, which resulted in a great success.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For the recent years the authors have developed techniques for automatic generation of 3D city models using LIDAR data, 2D digital map and aerial photograph, as well as a virtual reality (VR) viewer software with high-speed graphic engine which can deal with a large area of 3D city models on VR. The authors also have developed Web3D-GIS system which can provide transmission and reception of a great amount of urban information with interactive manipulation of detailed 3D city models linked with geographic information systems (GIS), on ordinary internet infrastructure such as DSL. Using those techniques and systems the authors have been conducting a research project called ?Kyoto Virtual Time-Space? which aims at reconstruction and visualization of Kyoto at different eras on VR and on the internet, starting from the present and finally up to Heian era.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paper Abstract This research integrates GIS and virtual reality (VR) technologies to develop a 4D GIS, "Kyoto Virtual Time-Space," in which we can virtually travel over space and time in the Japanese historical city of Kyoto. For this purpose, a database of elements that comprise urban landscapes in Kyoto is created starting from the present going back to the past through the 20th to 17th centuries, and finally to the Heian period (12th to 8th centuries, when Kyoto was founded) based on available historical documents, maps and other information. Locations are identified on a 2D GIS and a 3D VR technique is employed to visualize the urban landscapes. Finally, the 3D GIS is created for several time slices to form the 4D GIS. The "Kyoto Virtual Time Space" will be made public as a Web GIS on the Internet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A scanning device generally referred to as a "laser scanner", used to obtain 3D data of the objects by irradiating laser beams, is enjoying a steady rise in the number of users in the field of cultural heritages, as well as in other fields. This paper is based on an investigation and research to verify the effectiveness of the use of 3D laser scanners in order to obtain 3D information of historic buildings, taking up the case of Prasat Suor Prat N1 tower, Angkor, Cambodia. By using 3D laser scanners, it is possible to quickly preserve cultural properties with complicated shapes as highly precise 3D data, as well as to recreate the 3D image whenever desired, permanently, on the computer displays This is how expectations for the performance of D laser scanner have grown over the years, especially in the fields of cultural properties such as historic buildings, where accurate recording is the main concern.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes a suitable 3 dimensional measurement method and simplified data handling for relatively large scale of cultural heritage (Tyre, Lebanon) using the measurement instruments of the laser. Typically the raw data from the laser is outputted on relative coordinates, and it is difficult to determine where the behind object area cannot measure from single scanning station (referred as occlusion area). Therefore, methods of data acquisition and managing from various scanning stations and efficient method of determining the occlusion area are discussed. Scanning from various stations create large data files, and they make processing and analysis go slow in the field; thus efficient way to manage large measurement data set is also studied. At last, simplified way of visualizing target objects in 3 dimensions to depict its shape is studied as well.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The needs for 3D city models are growing and expanding rapidly in a variety of fields. In a steady shift from traditional 2D-GIS toward 3D-GIS, a great amount of accurate 3D city models have become necessary to be produced in a short period of time and provided widely on the market. The authors have developed a system for automatic generation of 3D city models, using laser profiler data, 2D digital map, and aerial image, which are processed by the software newly developed. MapCube, the 3D city models generated by the system, has already covered all major cities of Japan at the end of 2002. Applications for virtual reality (VR) that deal with accurate and photo-realistic 3D city models are becoming indispensable in many fields. However, there had been no VR viewer that can appropriately deal with a great amount of 3D city data in real time. In order to solve the problem the authors have developed a new VR viewer called UrbanViewer that can make best use of 3D city models, especially MapCube. VR applications used on display devices should provide easy interactive operation. The authors have developed a new type of VR display device with optical sensors called NEXTRAX, which users can operate as easily as touch-panel display, with more accuracy of operation and much more durability. NEXTRAX also provides simultaneous display of co-related information including 3D city model, 2D digital map and varieties of multi-media information.