[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Homozygotes for the thermolabile mutation (TT genotype) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; EC 126.96.36.199) enzyme have elevated plasma concentrations of the cardiovascular disease risk factor homocysteine, particularly if folate depleted.
We examined the relations between thermolabile MTHFR, plasma homocysteine, plasma folate, and vascular disease risk.
This was a case-control comparison in 711 vascular disease cases and 747 controls from 9 European countries.
The TT genotype was associated with higher homocysteine and lower plasma folate than the CC and CT genotypes in both cases and controls and a nonsignificant increase in vascular disease risk (1.26; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.81; P = 0.20). The frequency of the TT genotype in cases was not significantly different from that in controls (12.8% compared with 10.8%). After adjustment for traditional risk factors, the TT genotype was associated with an odds ratio of 1.48 (1.0, 2.20) for risk of vascular disease. This risk was attenuated after further adjustment for homocysteine. In subgroups with homocysteine concentrations >or= 9 micro mol/L, risk tended to be higher in CC than in TT subjects. However, CC subjects were characterized by a higher prevalence of the conventional risk factors associated with both elevated plasma homocysteine and serum creatinine. After adjustment, the risk of vascular disease associated with each genotype was not significantly different.
There was a strong graded association between homocysteine and vascular risk in all genotypes. MTHFR genotype is a key determinant of plasma total homocysteine concentrations. The initially nonsignificant risk estimate associated with the TT genotype was strengthened after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors but was attenuated after adjustment for plasma folate and total homocysteine. The modest risk increase conferred by the TT genotype is mediated mainly by increased total homocysteine and low plasma folate concentrations.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Homozygotes (TT genotype) for the C677T mutation in the gene of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T/MTHFR mutation) constitute about 12% of the Caucasian population. They have mild hyperhomocysteinemia which is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. If the mutation is associated with premature death its prevalence is expected to be lower in the elderly than in the young. To test this we determined the C677T/MTHFR genotypes in 220 newborn and 222 elderly 80-108-year-old Swedes. In the newborn and elderly, the allele frequency, of the C677T/MTHFR mutation was 29.1 and 27.0% and the mutant homozygote frequency was 10.0 and 9.5%, respectively. In a meta analysis of the present and three previous studies including a total of 1388 elderly and 1415 younger subjects, the odds ratio (OR) representing the likelihood of the TT genotype to attain old age relative to the CC genotype was 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69-1.11) and relative to both the CC and CT genotypes was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.66-1.04). This finding does not suggest that the C677T/MTHFR mutation is a strong risk factor for diseases frequently leading to premature death.