[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESC) are regulated by a variety of cytokines/growth factors with some species differences. We reported previously that rabbit ESC (rESC) are more similar to primate ESC than to mouse ESC. However, the signaling pathways that regulate rESC self-renewal had not been identified. Here we show that inhibition of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and canonical Wnt/beta-catenin (Wnt) pathways results in enhanced differentiation of rESC accompanied by down-regulation of Smad2/3 phosphorylation and beta-catenin expression and up-regulation of phosphorylation of Smad1 and beta-catenin. These results imply that the TGFbeta, FGF, and Wnt pathways are required for rESC self-renewal. Inhibition of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways, which lie downstream of the FGF pathway, led to differentiation of rESC accompanied by down-regulation of phosphorylation of ERK1/2 or AKT, respectively. Long-term self-renewal of rESC could be achieved by adding a mixture of TGFbeta ligands (activin A, Nodal, or TGFbeta1) plus basic FGF (bFGF) and Noggin in the absence of serum and feeder cells. Our findings also suggest that there is a regulatory network consisting of the FGF, Wnt, and TGFbeta pathways that controls rESC pluripotency and self-renewal. We conclude that bFGF controls the stem cell properties of rESC both directly and indirectly through TGFbeta or other pathways, whereas the effect of Wnt on rESC might be mediated by the TGFbeta pathway.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An anti-CD146 monoclonal antibody, AA98, has been identified as an inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis. To overcome the inherent immunogenicity of murine antibody as well as to facilitate immunotoxin construction, a single chain AA98 V(H)/L with three-domain fragments was constructed and expressed in mammalian cells.
The genes of the AA98 heavy chain variable region and the light chain were linked with a modified 12 amino acid sequence that was derived from the heavy chain C(H)1 region, thus constituting the three-domain antibody V(H)/L. Soluble AA98 V(H)/L was produced by mammalian cells and purified by affinity chromatography. The specificity of AA98 V(H)/L for the CD146 molecule was detected by ELISA, immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry.
AA98 V(H)/L alone showed anti-angiogenic properties in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay as the parent mAb AA98 did.
This newly generated AA98 V(H)/L antibody displays a therapeutic potential for tumor and other angiogenesis disorders, as well as providing a new strategy for antibody engineering for clinical applications.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The monoclonal antibody T2-2 was originally raised against the colorectal carcinoma cell line LS174T and was found to bind to several other human carcinomas, including hepatoma and ovarian cancer. The goal of this study was to investigate the antitumor activity of mAb T2-2 in human tumor models and further characterize the antigen. mAb T2-2 inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular cell line SMMC 7721 in vivo and in vitro. Western blot analysis revealed that this mAb recognizes an unique Mr 45,000 band from tissue extracts of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which localizes to the cell periphery. In vitro cell assays indicate that T2-2 decreases cell adhesion to laminin, implying the functional role of T2-2 antigen in cell-matrix interaction and cell migration.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · Cancer Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the expression of melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM/CD146), like most other endothelial adhesion molecules, is reduced in the pregnancy disorder pre-eclampsia, and whether it is associated with the invasiveness of trophoblast. We used immunohistochemical approaches and analyzed 42 placentas from control and pre-eclamptic patients using an anti-CD146 monoclonal antibody. Our data show that in normal placentas, CD146 staining was specifically detected in intermediate trophoblasts that are most invasive and migratory, but not detected in noninvasive cytotrophoblasts or syncytiotrophoblasts. However in pre-eclampsia, CD146 was no longer present in the intermediate trophoblasts, although it was detectable in the blood vessels. At the same time, we tested CD31/PECAM-1, another endothelial adhesion molecule, and found its negative staining for all kinds of trophoblasts in both normal and pre-eclamptic placentas. The different staining patterns of CD146 in the normal and pre-eclamptic placentas provide the first evidence that in pre-eclampsia, intermediate trophoblasts fail to express CD146, implicating that CD146 plays an important role in trophoblast invasion.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2004 · Laboratory Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of our study was to raise monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against endothelial cell-surface proteins specific for tumor vasculature. Here, we describe the generation and intensive characterization of mAb AA98, including its functional properties and its antigen identification. In our study, an enhanced mAb AA98 immunoreactivity was observed on stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In addition, mAb AA98 showed remarkably restricted immunoreactivity against intratumoral neovasculature compared with blood vessels of normal tissues. We identified the AA98 antigen as human CD146, an adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Data from in vitro experiments imply structural and signaling functions for endothelial CD146; however, the role of CD146 in vivo is largely unknown. Here, we show that mAb AA98 displays antiangiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. Proliferation and migration of HUVECs were inhibited by mAb AA98 as was angiogenesis in chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays and tumor growth in 3 xenografted human tumor models in mice. Our data provide new insights into the function of CD146 on endothelial cells, validate CD146 as a novel target for antiangiogenic agents, and demonstrate that mAb AA98 has potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic agent in vascular and cancer biology.