[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) plays a pivotal role in the remodeling of connective tissues. Emerging data indicate the distinctive role of PDGF receptor-alpha (PDGFR alpha) in this process. In the present study, the Pdgfra gene was systemically inactivated in adult mouse (alpha-KO mouse), and the role of PDGFR alpha was examined in the subcutaneously implanted sponge matrices. PDGFR alpha expressed in the fibroblasts of Pdgfra-preserving control mice (Flox mice), was significantly reduced in the sponges in alpha-KO mice. Neovascularized areas were largely suppressed in the alpha-KO mice than in the Flox mice, whereas the other parameters related to the blood vessels and endothelial cells were similar. The deposition of collagen and fibronectin and the expression of collagen 1a1 and 3a1 genes were significantly reduced in alpha-KO mice. There was a significantly decrease in the number and dividing fibroblasts in the alpha-KO mice, and those of macrophages were similar between the two genotypes. Hepatocyte growth factor (Hgf) gene expression was suppressed in Pdgfra-inactivated fibroblasts and connective tissue. The findings implicate the role of PDGFR alpha-dependent ECM and HGF production in fibroblasts that promotes the remodeling of connective tissue and suggest that PDGFR alpha may be a relevant target to regulate connective tissue remodeling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neuroprotective agents and induction of endogenous neurogenesis remain to be the urgent issues to be established for the care of cerebral stroke. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR-β) is mainly expressed in neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), neurons and vascular pericytes of the brain; however, the role in pathological neurogenesis remains elusive. To this end, we examined the role of PDGFR-β in the migration and proliferation of NSPCs after stroke. A transient middle cerebral-arterial occlusion (MCAO) was introduced into the mice with conditional Pdgfrb-gene inactivation, including N-PRβ-KO mice where the Pdgfrb-gene was mostly inactivated in the brain except that in vascular pericytes, and E-PRβ-KO mice with tamoxifen-induced systemic Pdgfrb-gene inactivation. The migration of the DCX(+) neuroblasts from the subventricular zone toward the ischemic core was highly increased in N-PRβ-KO, but not in E-PRβ-KO as compared to Pdgfrb-gene preserving control mice. We showed that CXCL12, a potent chemoattractant for CXCR4-expressing NSPCs, was upregulated in the ischemic lesion of N-PRβ-KO mice. Furthermore, integrin α3 intrinsically expressed in NSPCs that critically mediates extracellular matrix-dependent migration, was upregulated in N-PRβ-KO after MCAO. NSPCs isolated from N-PRβ-KO rapidly migrated on the surface coated with collagen type IV or fibronectin that are abundant in vascular niche and ischemic core. PDGFR-β was suggested to be critically involved in pathological neurogenesis through the regulation of lesion-derived chemoattractant as well as intrinsic signal of NSPCs, and we believe that a coordinated regulation of these molecular events may be able to improve neurogenesis in injured brain for further functional recovery. Stem Cells 2015; 00:000-000.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A decrease in serum estrogen levels in menopause is closely associated with the development of visceral obesity and the onset of type 2 diabetes in women. In the present study, we demonstrated the therapeutic effects of the novel DPP-4 inhibitor, teneligliptin, on the features of postmenopausal obesity in mice. In the control group, female C57BL/6 mice were sham-operated and maintained on a standard diet. In the postmenopausal obese group, ovariectomized (OVX) mice were maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD), and were referred to as OVX-HF. In the treated group, teneligliptin at 60 mg/kg/day was administrated to OVX-HF, and were referred to as Tene. After a 12-week food challenge, the metabolic phenotypes of these mice were analyzed. Body weight, fat accumulation, and glucose intolerance were greater in OVX-HF than in control, while these abnormalities were markedly improved without alterations in calorie intake in Tene. Teneligliptin effectively ameliorated the characteristics of metabolic abnormalities associated with postmenopausal obesity. Regarding chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue, the numbers of F4/80+CD11c+CD206- M1-macrophages in flow cytometry, crown-like structure formation in immunohistochemistry, and proinflammatory cytokine expression were significantly attenuated in Tene. Hepatic steatosis was also markedly improved. Furthermore, decreased energy consumption in the dark and light phases, reduced locomotor activity in the dark phase, and lowered core body temperature in OVX-HF were ameliorated in Tene. Since obesity and reduced energy metabolism are a common physiology of menopause, teneligliptin appears to be beneficial as a treatment for type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal obesity.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) is one of the most widely used experimental animal models. However, the mechanism responsible for the pathogenesis of the colitis is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to clarify the events occurring after administration of DSS to rats focusing on the relationship between the intestinal bacterial metabolism of DSS and the intestinal mucosal lesions in the model. Within 2 d after DSS administration, severe injury of the cecal mucosa was evident, together with bloody feces and blood in the cecum. However, these lesions were repressed by administration of antibiotics. On the other hand, DSS was found to be metabolized under anaerobic conditions upon incubation with cecal content in vitro, first being desulfated and then undergoing carbohydrate moiety degradation. However, no such metabolic process occurred when cecal content from rats that had been administered antibiotics was employed. These results indicate that the initial step of DSS-induced ulcerative colitis is lesioning of the cecal mucosa, which is related to metabolism of DSS by intestinal bacteria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cognitive deficits and negative symptoms are important therapeutic targets for schizophrenia and autism disorders. Although reduction of phase-locked gamma oscillation has been suggested to be a result of reduced parvalbumin-immunoreactive (putatively, GABAergic) neurons, no direct correlations between these have been established in these disorders. In the present study, we investigated such relationships during pharmacological treatment with a newly synthesized drug, T-817MA, which displays neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects. In this study, we used platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β gene knockout (PDGFR-β KO) mice as an animal model of schizophrenia and autism. These mutant mice display a reduction in social behaviors; deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI); reduced levels of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in the medical prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and superior colliculus; and a deficit in of auditory phase-locked gamma oscillations. We found that oral administration of T-817MA ameliorated all these symptoms in the PDGFR-β KO mice. Furthermore, phase-locked gamma oscillations were significantly correlated with the density of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons, which was, in turn, correlated with PPI and behavioral parameters. These findings suggest that recovery of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons by pharmacological intervention relieved the reduction of phase-locked gamma oscillations and, consequently, ameliorated PPI and social behavioral deficits. Thus, our findings suggest that phase-locked gamma oscillations could be a useful physiological biomarker for abnormality of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons that may induce cognitive deficits and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and autism, as well as of effective pharmacological interventions in both humans and experimental animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emerging lines of evidence have shown that extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate cell-to-cell communication by exporting encapsulated materials, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), to target cells. Endothelial cell-derived EVs (E-EVs) are upregulated in circulating blood in different pathological conditions; however, the characteristics and the role of these E-EVs are not yet well understood. In vitro studies were conducted to determine the role of inflammation-induced E-EVs in the cell-to-cell communication between vascular endothelial cells and pericytes/vSMCs. Stimulation with inflammatory cytokines and endotoxin immediately induced release of shedding type E-EVs from the vascular endothelial cells, and flow cytometry showed that the induction was dose dependent. MiRNA array analyses revealed that group of miRNAs were specifically increased in the inflammation-induced E-EVs. E-EVs added to the culture media of cerebrovascular pericytes were incorporated into the cells. The E-EV-supplemented cells showed highly induced mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-B, which was assumed to be a downstream target of the miRNA that was increased within the E-EVs after inflammatory stimulation. The results suggest that E-EVs mediate inflammation-induced endothelial cell-pericyte/vSMC communication, and the miRNAs encapsulated within the E-EVs may play a role in regulating target cell function. E-EVs may be new therapeutic targets for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that frequently progresses to colon cancer. The tumor-promoting effect of inflammation is now widely recognized and understood. Recent studies have revealed that treatment with nicotine ameliorates colitis in humans and experimental murine models, whereas the effect of nicotine on colitis-associated colonic tumorigenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of nicotine on the development of acute colitis and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). The acute colitis model was induced by treatment with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days, whereas the CAC model was induced by a combination of azoxymethane and repeated DSS treatment. Nicotine and a selective agonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) reduced the severity of DSS-induced acute colonic inflammation. In addition, the suppressive effect of nicotine on acute colitis was attenuated by an antagonist of α7nAChR. Furthermore, nicotine inhibited the IL-6 production of CD4 T cells in the DSS-induced inflamed colonic mucosa. We found that nicotine significantly reduced the number and size of colonic tumors in mice with CAC. Nicotine markedly inhibited the elevation of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA as well as phosphorylated Stat3 expression in the colons of the tumor model mice. These results demonstrate that nicotine suppresses acute colitis and colitis-associated tumorigenesis, and this effect may be associated with the activation of α7nAChR. Furthermore, it is presumed that nicotine downregulates the expression of inflammatory mediators such as IL-6/Stat3 and TNF-α, thereby reducing the colonic tumorigenesis associated with chronic colitis.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · The American journal of physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of blindness and end-stage renal
disease. To understand the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, suitable
animal models for this disease have been needed. The activation of Ca2+/
calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in pancreatic β-cells has
been thought to play a central role in Ca2+-mediated insulin secretion. We
generated transgenic mice over expressing the constitutively active-type
CaMKIIα (Thr286Asp) in β-cells, which showed very high plasma glucose levels
and exhibited the features of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy. In cDNA
microarray analysis osteopontin mRNA increased in CaMKIIα transgenic mice.
In quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses, not only M1 macrophage marker
genes but also M2 macrophage marker genes were over expressed in renal
cortex of CaMKIIα transgenic mice. The mice were crossed with conditional
knockout mice in which platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β gene
(Pdgfr-β) was deleted postnatal. The increased oxidative stress in the kidneys
of the CaMKII α transgenic mice, which was shown by the increased urinary
8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine excretion and the increased expression of NAD (P)
H oxidase 4, was decreased by Pdgfr-β deletion. The CaMKIIα (Thr286Asp)
transgenic mice will be valuable as a novel model of severe insulin-dependent
diabetes accompanied by an early progression of diabetic micro vascular
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is crucially involved in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases such as stroke and degenerative diseases. We previously demonstrated that platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) protected neurons from H2O2-induced oxidative stress and indicated the involvement of PI3K-Akt and MAP kinases as an underlying mechanism. Ca(2+) overload has been shown to mediate the neurotoxic effects of oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. We examined the effects of PDGFs on H2O2-induced Ca(2+) overload in primary cultured neurons to further clarify their neuroprotective mechanism. H2O2-induced Ca(2+) overload in neurons in a dose-dependent manner, while pretreating neurons with PDGF-BB for 24 hours largely suppressed it. In a comparative study, the suppressive effects of PDGF-BB were more potent than those of PDGF-AA. We then evaluated calpain activation, which was induced by Ca(2+) overload and mediated both apoptotic and nonapoptotic cell death. H2O2-induced calpain activation in neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of PDGF-BB completely blocked H2O2-induced calpain activation. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of PDGF against oxidative stress via the suppression of Ca(2+) overload and inactivation of calpain and suggests that PDGF-BB may be a potential therapeutic target of neurological diseases.
Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The superior colliculus (SC), a relay nucleus in the subcortical visual pathways, is implicated in socioemotional behaviors. Homeoprotein Otx2 and β subunit of receptors of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFR- β ) have been suggested to play an important role in development of the visual system and development and maturation of GABAergic neurons. Although PDGFR- β -knockout (KO) mice displayed socio-emotional deficits associated with parvalbumin (PV-)immunoreactive (IR) neurons, their anatomical bases in the SC were unknown. In the present study, Otx2 and PV-immunolabeling in the adult mouse SC were investigated in the PDGFR- β KO mice. Although there were no differences in distribution patterns of Otx2 and PV-IR cells between the wild type and PDGFR- β KO mice, the mean numbers of both of the Otx2- and PV-IR cells were significantly reduced in the PDGFR- β KO mice. Furthermore, average diameters of Otx2- and PV-IR cells were significantly reduced in the PDGFR- β KO mice. These findings suggest that PDGFR- β plays a critical role in the functional development of the SC through its effects on Otx2- and PV-IR cells, provided specific roles of Otx2 protein and PV-IR cells in the development of SC neurons and visual information processing, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and promotion of fibrosis in some tissues, such as the vasculature, we examined the effect of eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and metabolic phenotypes in a mouse model reflecting metabolic syndrome in humans. We adopted liver-specific transgenic mice overexpressing the active form of sterol response element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) fed a high-fat and fructose diet (HFFD) as the animal model in the present study. When wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and liver-specific SREBP1c transgenic (Tg) mice grew while being fed HFFD for 12 weeks, body weight and epididymal fat weight increased in both groups with an elevation in blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were also observed. Adipose tissue hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration with crown-like structure formation were also noted in mice fed HFFD. Interestingly, the changes noted in both genotypes fed HFFD were significantly ameliorated with eplerenone. HFFD-fed Tg mice exhibited the histological features of NASH in the liver, including macrovesicular steatosis and fibrosis, whereas HFFD-fed WT mice had hepatic steatosis without apparent fibrotic changes. Eplerenone effectively ameliorated these histological abnormalities. Moreover, the direct suppressive effects of eplerenone on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFalpha production in the presence and absence of aldosterone were observed in primary-cultured Kupffer cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results indicated that eplerenone prevented the development of NASH and metabolic abnormalities in mice by inhibiting inflammatory responses in both Kupffer cells and macrophages.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cilostazol, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 3B, is widely used as an anti-platelet drug in diabetic patients. Recently, cilostazol has been shown to promote preadipocyte differentiation to mature adipocyte and affect glucose homeostasis; therefore, we examined the impact of cilostazol on impaired glucose metabolism in adipose tissues of diabetic db/db mice. Administration of cilostazol at 100-300mg/kg/day significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner in db/db mice, whereas these effects were not observed in non-diabetic control mice. Cilostazol reduced the adipocyte size and suppressed mRNA expressions of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, CD11c, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) in the epididymal fat tissue of db/db mice. As for the cellular mechanism, cilostazol attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNFα expression by decreasing the mRNA and protein levels of Toll-like receptor 4 in Raw264.3 macrophages. Cilostazol also effectively ameliorated the TNFα-induced decrease of insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and [(3)H]2-deoxyglucose uptake by suppressing c-Jun N terminal kinase-mediated serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Importantly, the improvement of impaired insulin signaling was blunted by pretreatment with KT5720, a protein kinase A inhibitor, but not with GW9662, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. These results indicate that cilostazol suppressed TNFα production from macrophages and attenuated TNFα-induced chronic inflammation in adipose tissue, leading to the improvement of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in obese diabetic mice. Thus, the present study reveals an additional benefit in the use of cilostazol in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · European journal of pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) is a potential therapeutic strategy of neurological disorders. In this study, NSPCs of subventricular zone were isolated and cultured from platelet-derived growth factor-β-receptor-knockout (PDGFR-β-/-) mice of postnatal day 1 (P1) and P28, and the roles of PDGFR-β were examined in these cells. In PDGFR-β-preserving control NSPCs, stem cell activities, such as numbers and diameters of secondary neurospheres, cell proliferation and survival rates, were significantly higher in P1 NSPCs than those in P28 NSPCs. In PDGFR-β-/- NSPCs, most of these parameters were decreased as compared with age-matched controls. Among them, the decrease of secondary neurosphere formation was most striking in P1 and P28 PDGFR-β-/- NSPCs and in P28 control NSPCs as compared with P1 control NSPCs. PCR-array and following qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that expressions of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and exons IV-IX of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were decreased, and noggin was increased in P1 PDGFR-β-/- as compared with P1 controls. Addition of BDNF rescued the number and diameter of secondary neurospheres in P1 PDGFR-β-/- NSPCs to similar levels as controls. The expressions of PDGFs and PDGFRs in control NSPCs were increased along with the differentiation-induction, where phosphorylated PDGFR-β was co-localized with neuronal and astrocyte differentiation markers. In controls, the neuronal differentiation was decreased, and the glial differentiation was increased from P1 to P28 NSPCs. Compared with P1 controls, neuronal differentiation was reduced in P1 PDGFR-β-/- NSPCs, whereas glial differentiation was comparable between the two genotypes. These results suggest that PDGFR-β signaling is important for the self-renewal and multipotency of NSPCs, particularly in neonatal NSPCs. BDNF, FGF2, and noggin may be involved in the effects of PDGFR-β signaling in these cells. Accordingly, the activation of PDGFR-β in NSPCs may be a novel therapeutic strategy of neurological diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The physiological role of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in the central nervous system (CNS) synaptic function remains uncharacterized. Here we identify physiological roles of PDGF receptor-β (PDGFR-β) in the CNS by conditional knockout of the gene encoding it. In the hippocampus, PDGFR-β colocalized immunohistochemically with both presynaptic synaptophysin and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95). In the hippocampal CA1 region, expression levels of postsynaptic proteins, including spinophilin, drebrin, and PSD-95, were significantly decreased in PDGFR-β knockout mice, although presynaptic synaptophysin levels remained comparable to controls. Interestingly, in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, dendritic spine density in PDGFR-β knockout mice was significantly decreased compared with that seen in wild-type mice, although spine length and number of dendritic branches remained unchanged. Consistent with these findings, impairment in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and in hippocampus-dependent memory formation were seen in PDGFR-β knockout mice. These results suggest PDGFR-β plays critical roles in spine morphology and memory formation in mouse brain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related loss of ovarian function promotes adiposity and insulin resistance in women. Estrogen (E(2)) directly enhances insulin sensitivity and suppresses lipogenesis in peripheral tissues. Recently, the central actions of E(2) in the regulation of energy homeostasis are becoming clearer; however, the functional relevance and degree of contribution of the central vs. peripheral actions of E(2) are currently unknown. Therefore, we prepared and analyzed four groups of mice. 1) Control: sham-operated mice fed a regular diet, 2) OVX-HF: ovariectomized (OVX) mice fed a 60% high-fat diet (HF), 3) E2-SC: OVX-HF mice subcutaneously treated with E(2), and 4) E2-ICV: OVX-HF mice treated with E(2) intracerebroventricularly. OVX-HF mice showed increased body weight with both visceral and subcutaneous fat volume enlargement, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Both E2-SC and E2-ICV equally ameliorated these abnormalities. Although the size of adipocytes and number of CD11c-positive macrophages in perigonadal fat in OVX-HF were reduced by both E(2) treatments, peripherally administered E(2) decreased the expression of TNFα, lipoprotein lipase, and fatty acid synthase in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of OVX-HF. In contrast, centrally administered E(2) increased hormone-sensitive lipase in WAT, decreased the hepatic expression of gluconeogenic enzymes, and elevated core body temperature and energy expenditure with marked upregulation of uncoupling proteins in the brown adipose tissue. These results suggest that central and peripheral actions of E(2) regulate insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism via different mechanisms, and their coordinated effects may be important to prevent the development of obesity and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and receptors (PDGFRs) are abundantly expressed in the central nervous system, their functions largely remain elusive. We investigated the role of PDGFR-β in tissue responses and functional recovery after photothrombolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In the normal adult mouse brain, PDGFR-β was mainly localized in neurons and in pericyte/vascular smooth muscle cells (PC/vSMCs). From 3 to 28 days after MCAO, postnatally induced systemic PDGFR-β knockout mice (Esr-KO) exhibited the delayed recovery of body weight and behavior, and larger infarction volume than controls. In Esr-KO, PC/vSMC coverage was decreased and vascular leakage of infused fluorescent-labeled albumin was extensive within the ischemic lesion, but not in the uninjured cerebral cortex. Angiogenesis levels were comparable between Esr-KO and controls. In another PDGFR-β conditional KO mouse (Nestin-KO), PDGFR-β was deleted in neurons and astrocytes from embryonic day 10.5, but was preserved in PC/vSMCs. After MCAO, vascular leakage and infarction volume in Nestin-KO were worse than controls, but partly improved compared with Esr-KO. Astroglial scar formation in both Esr-KO and Nestin-KO was similarly reduced compared with controls after MCAO. These data suggested that PDGFR-β signaling is crucial for neuroprotection, endogenous tissue repair, and functional recovery after stroke by targeting neurons, PC/vSMCs, and astrocytes.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations of the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factor, were identified in patients with α-thalassemia X-linked mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome. There is a milder variant of ATR-X syndrome caused by mutations in the Exon 2 of the gene. To examine the impact of the Exon 2 mutation on neuronal development, we generated ATRX mutant (ATRX(ΔE2)) mice. Truncated ATRX protein was produced from the ATRX(ΔE2) mutant allele with reduced expression level. The ATRX(ΔE2) mice survived and reproduced normally. There was no significant difference in Morris water maze test between wild-type and ATRX(ΔE2) mice. In a contextual fear conditioning test, however, total freezing time was decreased in ATRX(ΔE2) mice compared to wild-type mice, suggesting that ATRX(ΔE2) mice have impaired contextual fear memory. ATRX(ΔE2) mice showed significantly reduced long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region evoked by high-frequency stimulation. Moreover, autophosphorylation of calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (αCaMKII) and phosphorylation of glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 1 (GluR1) were decreased in the hippocampi of the ATRX(ΔE2) mice compared to wild-type mice. These findings suggest that ATRX(ΔE2) mice may have fear-associated learning impairment with the dysfunction of αCaMKII and GluR1. The ATRX(ΔE2) mice would be useful tools to investigate the role of the chromatin-remodeling factor in the pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors and learning impairment.