[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims/hypothesis Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a member of the proglucagon-derived peptide family, was seen to exert favourable actions
on cardiovascular function in preclinical and clinical studies. The mechanisms through which GLP-1 modulates cardiovascular
function are complex and incompletely understood. We thus investigated whether the GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide, which is an
acylated GLP-1, has protective effects on vascular endothelial cells.
Methods Nitrite and nitrate were measured in medium with an automated nitric oxide detector. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)
activation was assessed by evaluating the phosphorylation status of the enzyme and evaluating eNOS activity by citrulline
synthesis. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation was assessed by reporter gene assay.
Results Liraglutide dose-dependently increased nitric oxide production in HUVECs. It also caused eNOS phosphorylation, potentiated
eNOS activity and restored the cytokine-induced downregulation of eNOS (also known as NOS3) mRNA levels, which is dependent on NF-κB activation. We therefore examined the effect of liraglutide on TNFα-induced NF-κB
activation and NF-κB-dependent expression of proinflammatory genes. Liraglutide dose-dependently inhibited NF-κB activation
and TNFα-induced IκB degradation. It also reduced TNFα-induced MCP-1 (also known as CCL2), VCAM1, ICAM1 and E-selectin mRNA expression. Liraglutide-induced enhancement of nitric oxide production and suppression of NF-κB activation
were attenuated by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor compound C or AMPK (also known as PRKAA1) small interfering RNA. Indeed, liraglutide induced phosphorylation of AMPK, which occurs through a signalling pathway independent
of cyclic AMP.
Conclusions/interpretation Liraglutide exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on vascular endothelial cells by increasing nitric oxide production and suppressing
NF-κB activation, partly at least through AMPK activation. These effects may explain some of the observed vasoprotective properties
of liraglutide, as well as its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the effects of insulin therapy, age and gender on the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) according to glycemic control.
We performed a prospective cohort study (Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study) of type 2 diabetes patients (n = 4014) for 2 years. The primary endpoint was the onset of fatal/non-fatal IHD and/or CVA, which occurred at rates of 7.9 and 7.2 per 1000 person-years, respectively. We divided diabetic patients into four groups based on age (≤ 70 and > 70) and hemoglobin A1C levels (≤ 7.0 and > 7.0%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that IHD was associated with high systolic blood pressure and low HDL-C in patients under 70 years of age with fair glycemic control and was associated with low diastolic blood pressure in the older/fair group. Interestingly, insulin use was associated with IHD in the older/poor group (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.11-5.89; p = 0.026) and was associated with CVA in the older/fair group (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.06-4.25; p = 0.028). CVA was associated with lower HDL-C and longer duration of diabetes in younger/poor glycemic control group. Results by stepwise analysis were similar. Next, patients were divided into four groups based on gender and diabetic control(hemoglobinA1C < or > 7.0%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that IHD was associated with high systolic blood pressure in male/fair glycemic control group, age in male/poor control group, and short duration of diabetic history in females in both glycemic control groups. Interestingly, insulin use was associated with IHD in the male/poor group(OR = 4.11, 95% CI = 1.22-8.12; p = 0.018) and with CVA in the female/poor group(OR = 3.26, 95% CI = 1.12-6.24; p = 0.02). CVA was associated with short duration of diabetes in both female groups.
IHD and CVA risks are affected by specific factors in diabetics, such as treatment, gender and age. Specifically, insulin use has a potential role in preventing IHD but may also be a risk factor for CVA among the diabetic elderly, thus revealing a need to develop improved treatment strategies for diabetes in elderly patients. The Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study was formulated to evaluate them(Umin Clinical Trials Registry, clinical trial reg. no. UMIN00000516; http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm).
Preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Cardiovascular Diabetology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes study demonstrated that treatment with fenofibrate in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus not only reduced nonfatal coronary events but also diminished the need for laser treatment of diabetic retinopathy and delayed the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, the mechanism by which fenofibrate may have altered the microvasculature remains unclear. We thus investigated the effect of fenofibrate on human glomerular microvascular endothelial cells (HGMEC). Treatment of HGMEC with fenofibrate resulted in transient activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), thereby inducing the phosphorylation of Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, leading to nitric oxide production. We compared AMPK activation induced by bezafibrate and WY14643 with that induced by fenofibrate in HGMEC as well as HepG2 cells. Only fenofibrate activated AMPK in HGMEC. Fenofibrate also inhibited nuclear factor-κB activation by advanced glycation end-products, thereby suppressing the expression of various adhesion molecule genes in HGMEC. Suppression of fenofibrate-induced inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation was observed in cells treated with AMPK small interfering RNA or compound C. Furthermore, fenofibrate was observed to significantly suppress apoptosis of HGMEC in hyperglycemic culture medium. Treatment with compound C or Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) abolished the suppressive effect of fenofibrate on HGMEC apoptosis. Our findings suggest that fenofibrate might exert a protective effect on the microvasculature by suppressing inflammation and apoptosis through AMPK activation beyond its lipid-lowering actions.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Metabolism: clinical and experimental
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducers thapsigargin (TG) and tunicamycin (Tm) on immunostimulant lipopolysaccharide/interferon (LPS/IFN)-induced expression of isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular smooth muscle cells. LPS/IFN-induced iNOS mRNA expression was markedly enhanced by TG, whereas iNOS mRNA expression was strongly attenuated by Tm. Similarly, production of iNOS protein was markedly upregulated by TG but virtually eliminated by Tm. LPS/IFN-induced guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I mRNA expression was slightly reduced by TG and markedly inhibited by Tm. Similarly, LPS/IFN-mediated induction of cellular biopterin was modestly reduced by TG and markedly inhibited by Tm. TG modestly enhanced LPS/IFN-induced activation of NF-κB, whereas Tm had no effect on it. Cellular respiration was reduced by TG and Tm in a concentration-dependent manner, which was confirmed by apoptosis assay. Thus, TG and Tm-induced ER stress and differently modulated NO production through alterations in iNOS expression and activity independently of NF-κB activation and caused a similar degree of ER stress-induced apoptosis.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well established that statins improve the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease. However, it is still unclear whether the protective effects of statins relate to lipid lowering alone or whether other pleiotropic effects may contribute. Thus, we compared the endothelial function among two groups of diabetic patients treated with fluvastatin 60 mg (F60) or fluvastatin 20 mg combined with ezetimibe 10 mg (F20/E10). The endothelial function was evaluated by measuring flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) at baseline and follow-up at 10 weeks. Similar improvements in FMD were observed in the two groups. The reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was less pronounced in the F60 group, compared with the F20/E10 group. A significant reduction in remnant-like lipoprotein particles cholesterol (RLP-C) was observed in the F20/E10 group, but not in the F60 group. A correlation between the observed reduction in LDL-C or RLP-C and the improvement in FMD was observed in F20/E10 group. These results suggest that high-dose fluvastatin might have pleiotropic effects of potential clinical benefit, and that the combination of ezetimibe with a reduced dose of fluvastatin may also significantly improve endothelial function with reduction of LDL-C and RLP-C.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Endocrine Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, fluvastatin, appears to act directly on the blood vessel wall to stabilize plaques in situ, agents that share this property have been termed vascular statins.
We investigated the effects of fluvastatin on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation and expression, as well as terahydrobiopterin (BH4) metabolism, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC).
Fluvastatin was observed to enhance eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 and Ser-633 through the PI3-kinase/Akt and PKA pathways, respectively. Inhibition of eNOS phosphorylation using inhibitors of these pathways attenuated acute NO release in response to fluvastatin. The mRNA of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH), the rate-limiting enzyme of the first step of de novo BH4 synthesis, as well as eNOS, was upregulated in HUVEC treated with fluvastatin. In parallel with this observation, fluvastatin increased intracellular BH4. Pre-treatment of HUVEC with the selective GTPCH inhibitor, 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine, reduced intracellular BH4 and decreased citrulline formation following stimulation with ionomycin. Furthermore, the potentiating effect of fluvastatin was reduced by limiting the cellular availability of BH4.
Our data demonstrate that fluvastatin phosphorylates and activates eNOS, and increases eNOS expression in vascular endothelial cells. In addition to modulating eNOS, fluvastatin potentiates GTPCH gene expression and BH4 synthesis, thereby increasing NO production and preventing relative shortages of BH4.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · International journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a member of the proglucagon-derived peptide family, was seen to exert favourable actions on cardiovascular function in preclinical and clinical studies. The mechanisms through which GLP-1 modulates cardiovascular function are complex and incompletely understood. We thus investigated whether the GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide, which is an acylated GLP-1, has protective effects on vascular endothelial cells.
Nitrite and nitrate were measured in medium with an automated nitric oxide detector. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation was assessed by evaluating the phosphorylation status of the enzyme and evaluating eNOS activity by citrulline synthesis. Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation was assessed by reporter gene assay.
Liraglutide dose-dependently increased nitric oxide production in HUVECs. It also caused eNOS phosphorylation, potentiated eNOS activity and restored the cytokine-induced downregulation of eNOS (also known as NOS3) mRNA levels, which is dependent on NF-kappaB activation. We therefore examined the effect of liraglutide on TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB activation and NF-kappaB-dependent expression of proinflammatory genes. Liraglutide dose-dependently inhibited NF-kappaB activation and TNFalpha-induced IkappaB degradation. It also reduced TNFalpha-induced MCP-1 (also known as CCL2), VCAM1, ICAM1 and E-selectin mRNA expression. Liraglutide-induced enhancement of nitric oxide production and suppression of NF-kappaB activation were attenuated by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor compound C or AMPK (also known as PRKAA1) small interfering RNA. Indeed, liraglutide induced phosphorylation of AMPK, which occurs through a signalling pathway independent of cyclic AMP.
Liraglutide exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on vascular endothelial cells by increasing nitric oxide production and suppressing NF-kappaB activation, partly at least through AMPK activation. These effects may explain some of the observed vasoprotective properties of liraglutide, as well as its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ghrelin contains an octanoic acid at the third residue serine, and the presence of octanoic acid on ghrelin is critical to its physiological functions. The precise mechanism for the deacylation of ghrelin in circulation remains to be clarified, although the level of deacylated ghrelin (des-acyl ghrelin) is higher than that of acylated ghrelin in serum. In this study, rapid identification of ghrelin deacylation activity was achieved by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and a ghrelin deacylation enzyme was purified 1515-fold from fetal bovine serum. Chromatographic separation showed a 24-kDa band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to ghrelin deacylation activity, and the protein band was identified as acyl-protein thioesterase 1 (APT1)/lysophospholipase I. A ghrelin deacylation enzyme in medium from HepG2 cells was also purified and identified as APT1. Although it lacks a secretion signal sequence, APT1 may be released by cells expressing APT1, mainly from liver in vivo. APT1 was originally purified as a cytosolic lysophospholipid hydrolyzing enzyme (lysophospholipase I), and recombinant APT1 exhibited deacylation activity as well as lysophospholipase activity in vitro. APT1 is released at high levels from RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells into the culture medium after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and LPS suppresses APT1 mRNA and protein expressions in these cells. More potent ghrelin deacylase activities were detected in sera from LPS-treated rats than in control sera. These results suggested that the serum activity of APT1 may play an important role in determination of the concentration of des-acyl ghrelin in circulation, especially under septic inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with dyslipidemia and advanced renal failure are at markedly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of ezetimibe administration to patients with endstage renal failure (ESRF) who are undergoing hemodialysis. Ezetimibe at 10 mg/day was given to 20 patients for 12 weeks. Efficacy was determined by monitoring lipids, and safety was determined by monitoring clinical and laboratory parameters. We also evaluated the effects of ezetimibe on surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption and synthesis. Compared to baseline values, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) was reduced by 24.9% (p<0.005) after 12 weeks of ezetimibe administration. Treatment with ezetimibe did not change HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and HbA1c values but caused a significant reduction in remnant like particles-cholesterol (RLP-C, p<0.05) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, p<0.05). Ezetimibe therapy decreased cholesterol absorption markers (campesterol and sitosterol) and increased a marker of cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol). A highly significant correlation was observed between alterations in LDL-C and campesterol levels in response to ezetimibe therapy. No patients reported musculoskeletal symptoms. None of the patients experienced elevations in their creatine kinase or liver transaminase levels. Ezetimibe not only reduced serum LDL-C, but also RLP-C and hsCRP, in ESRF patients. Inhibition of cholesterol absorption by ezetimibe is an important therapeutic option in these patients due to its efficacy and safety.
No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Endocrine Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cilostazol is a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 3, by which it increases intracellular cAMP and activates protein kinase A, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation and inducing peripheral vasodilation. We investigated whether cilostazol might prevent nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC).
Cilostazol was observed to activate AMPK, as well as its downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, in rat VSMC. Phosphorylation of AMPK with cilostazol was not affected by co-treatment with an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, SQ 22536. Furthermore, a cell-permeable cyclic AMP analog, pCTP-cAMP, did not influence cilostazol-induced AMPK phosphorylation. These findings suggest that cilostazol-induced AMPK activation occurs through a signalling pathway independent of cyclic AMP. Cilostazol dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation in the present study. It was also observed to inhibit LPS-induced iNOS gene promoter activity and iNOS gene expression, resulting in markedly reduced NO production. An AMPK inhibitor compound C or siRNA for AMPK attenuated the observed cilostazol-induced inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by LPS. Ingestion of cilostazol inhibited NF-kappaB activation, as well as the induction of iNOS mRNA and protein expression, within the aortas of LPS-treated rats.
In light of these findings, we suggest that cilostazol might attenuate cytokine-induced expression of the iNOS gene by inhibiting NF-kappaB following AMPK activation in VSMC.
No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 68-year-old woman developed Cushingoid features three months prior to admission. She was found to have a markedly elevated plasma ACTH-cortisol level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass in the left sphenoidal sinus, which had become enlarged to a point where it could not be removed by transsphenoidal surgery. We decided to proceed with radiation therapy to shrink the tumor. However, it was ineffective. Despite a reduction in serum cortisol levels using metyrapone, she died of septic shock. We describe a rare case of an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma within the sphenoid sinus.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific protein that plays an important regulatory role in the development or prevention of diabetes and atherosclerosis.
In the present study, we examined the effect of a proteolytic cleavage product of adiponectin, known as globular adiponectin (gAd), on induction of gene expression and activation of various signaling pathways in vascular endothelial cells.
We showed that gAd induces the expression of a number of genes using PCR arrays, including MCP-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, IL-6, and IL-8, all of which have been previously shown to be associated with adiponectin, as well as SOD2, PAI-1, and CSF2, which is a new finding. We also demonstrated that gAd activates AMPK, Akt, and NF-kB, as well as various MAPKs, including ERK1/2, JNK, and p38MAPK.
Upstream regulation of gene expression might involve two or more activated pathways which interact with one another.