- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than 1% of the Japanese population has HLA-homozygous haplotypes. For patients with such haplotypes, HLA-haploidentical family members who have no HLA mismatch in the graft-versus-host direction are readily available donor candidates for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this study, the outcomes of patients with homozygous HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 antigens who received HCT without T-cell depletion from a haploidentical related donor with mismatches in the host-versus-graft direction only (hetero-to-homo, n=78) or from an HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD) (MSD-homo, n=153) were compared to those in patients with heterozygous haplotypes who received HCT from an MSD (MSD-hetero, n=7,242). Transplant outcomes in the hetero-to-homo group were similar to those in the MSD-hetero group regarding neutrophil engraftment, grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and overall survival. On the other hand, the incidences of severe aGVHD and NRM in the MSD-homo group were significantly lower than those in the MSD-hetero group (grade III-IV aGVHD, aHR 0.50, P=0.034; NRM, aHR 0.48, P=0.004). In conclusion, patients with HLA-homozygous haplotypes achieved lower GVHD and NRM rates for MSD transplantation than those with HLA-heterozygous haplotypes. When an MSD or an appropriate alternative donor is not available for patients with HLA-homozygous haplotypes who need immediate transplantation, transplantation from a haploidentical donor without T-cell depletion is a viable option, given the comparable transplant outcomes for hetero-to-homo HCT and MSD-hetero HCT.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data characterizing the safety and effectiveness of eculizumab in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) are limited. We describe the safety and effectiveness of eculizumab in PNH patients enrolled in a post-marketing surveillance study. Types and frequencies of observed adverse events were similar to those reported in previous clinical trials and no meningococcal infection was reported. Effectiveness outcomes included the reduction of intravascular hemolysis, the change in hemoglobin (Hb) level, the withdrawal of transfusion and corticosteroids, the change of renal function, and overall survival. The effect of eculizumab on intravascular hemolysis was demonstrated by a reduction in lactate dehydrogenase levels at all measurements after baseline. Significant increases in Hb levels from baseline were also observed after 1 month's treatment with eculizumab (p < 0.01). Of those who were transfusion-dependent at baseline, the median number of transfusions decreased significantly from 18 to 0 unit/year after 1 year of treatment with eculizumab (p < 0.001). An increase in Hb and a high rate of transfusion independence were observed, especially in patients with platelet count ≥150 × 10(9)/L. Approximately 97 % of patients showed maintenance or improvement of renal function. Overall survival rate was about 90 % (median follow-up 1.9 years). These results suggest an acceptable safety profile and favorable prognosis after eculizumab intervention.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier reports suggested that umbilical cord blood transplant (UCBT) for aplastic anemia (AA) was feasible in alternative transplantation. To identify differences in outcomes of UCBT and HLA-matched or mismatched unrelated bone marrow transplant (UBMT) in adults with AA, we analyzed registry data of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation and compared results of UCBT (n=69) to 8/8 (n=101), 7/8 (n=65) or 6/8 (n=37) matched UBMT. The transplant period was from 2002 to 2012, and patients 16 years or older with AA were eligible. Median ages were 49, 35, 28 and 30 years for UCBT, 8/8, 7/8 and 6/8 UBMT. In multivariate analysis, risk of mortality was lower for 8/8 UBMT compared to UCBT (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.32-0.94, P=0.029), adjusted for age and GVHD prophylaxis that were other associated factors. Mortality risks of 7/8 UBMT (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.02) or 6/8 UBMT (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.32-1.39) were not significantly different from UCBT. Risks of grade 3-4 acute and chronic GVHD were not different among four groups. The most prevalent cause of death was graft failure in UCBT and 6/8 matched UBMT, and infection in 8/8 and 7/8 matched UBMT. Under 40 years old, survival of UCBT was similar to UBMT (76, 79, 83, and 83%, at 3 years), adjusted for transplant period that was another associated factor; but for over 40 years, that of UCBT tended to be lower (47, 64, 64, 75%, at 3 years). To conclude, these data suggest that UCBT could be an alternative treatment option for younger adults when matched sibling or adequate UBMT donors are not available.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The BEAM regimen consisting of carmustine (BCNU), etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (MEL) is widely used before autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) for lymphoma. However, intravenous BCNU is not available in Japan, and therefore, ranimustine (MCNU) has been used instead of BCNU (the MEAM regimen). We retrospectively analyzed the outcome of 79 adult patients who underwent auto-HSCT for lymphoma using this regimen in two centers, with 1- and 2-day dosing of MEL, respectively. Three-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) probabilities were 77.3 and 56.5 % in the entire population and 71.7 and 58.0 % in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma. These outcomes were at least equivalent to those with the BEAM regimen. There was no regimen-related pulmonary toxicity. In a multivariate analysis, older age was the only factor that was significantly associated with for OS. In a comparison of the two MEL dosing schedules, while there was no significant differences in either OS or PFS, diarrhea was observed more frequently with 1-day dosing of MEL. In conclusion, the MEAM regimen appeared to be a promising conditioning regimen in auto-HSCT for lymphoma. A large prospective study is warranted to confirm the current findings.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is a key drug in immunosuppressive therapy for patients with aplastic anemia. The mainstay of ATG therapy had been a horse ATG (hATG) formulation, Lymphoglobulin or ATGAM, but Lymphoglobulin was recently discontinued, and Thymoglobulin, a rabbit ATG (rATG) formulation, is currently used as the first-line drug in many countries, including Japan. However, a recent randomized clinical trial reported significantly unfavorable outcomes associated with the use of rATG regimens. We retrospectively analyzed clinical outcomes of adult patients with moderate to severe aplastic anemia who were treated with 3.5 mg/kg of Thymoglobulin (n = 22) or 15 mg/kg of Lymphoglobulin (n = 25) in our facility. The estimated overall response rates in the rATG and hATG groups were 64.6 versus 56.0 % at 6 months, and 76.4 versus 69.2 % at 12 months, respectively; and there was no statistical difference between the two groups (P = 0.32). Overall survival at 24 months was not significantly different: rATG 89.8 % versus hATG 96.0 % (P = 0.39). Early phase infection was observed in 37.5 % of cases in the rATG and 14.8 % in the hATG group, but the frequency was not statistically different (P = 0.107). Our data indicate that Thymoglobulin at a dose of 3.5 mg/kg is a viable alternative when hATG is not available.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated 121 patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) and analyzed the association between the soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) level at diagnosis and the cumulative incidence of transformation. By a receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we determined a cutoff value of sIL-2R for transformation at 4360 U/mL to classify patients into two groups. Patients in the high sIL-2R group showed a shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and shorter disease-specific survival (DSS) (p < 0.001 and p = 0.018). Furthermore, the cumulative incidence of transformation in the high sIL-2R group was higher than that in the low sIL-2R group (40.9% vs. 7.3% at 5 years, p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, high sIL-2R was an independent predictive risk factor for transformation (HR 7.42, 95% CI: 2.75–20.0, p < 0.001). This study showed that the sIL-2R level at diagnosis may be a prognostic factor for transformation, PFS, and DSS in patients with FL.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Secondary failure of platelet recovery (SFPR), a late decrease in the platelet count following primary platelet recovery that is not due to relapse or graft rejection, occasionally occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The risk factors and impact of SFPR on transplant outcomes are not well known in the clinical setting. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated 184 adult patients who underwent their first allogeneic HSCT and achieved primary platelet recovery. The cumulative incidence of SFPR, defined as a decrease in the platelet count to below 20,000/µL for more than 7 days, was 12.2% at 3 years, with a median onset of 81 days (range 39-729) after HSCT. Among patients who developed SFPR (n=23), 19 (82.6%) showed recovery to a sustained platelet count of more than 20,000/µL without transfusion support, and the median duration of SFPR was 23 days (range, 7-1048 days). A multivariate analysis showed that in vivo T-cell depletion (hazard ratio [HR], 6.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.31-20.7; P < 0.001), grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (HR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.52-10.5; P = 0.005), and the use of ganciclovir or valganciclovir (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.05-7.77; P = 0.039) were associated with an increased risk for SFPR. The occurrence of SFPR as a time-dependent covariate was significantly associated with inferior overall survival (HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.18-4.46; P = 0.015) in a multivariate analysis. These findings may help to improve the management and treatment strategy for SFPR.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conditioning regimens that include cyclophosphamide (CY) and total body irradiation (TBI) induce severe gonadal toxicity and permanent infertility in approximately 90 % of female patients who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, the use of ovarian shielding or non-myeloablative regimens may preserve ovarian function. To evaluate the ovarian reserve, serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels were retrospectively measured in 11 female HSCT recipients aged less than 40 years, including seven with acute leukemia (AL) and four with aplastic anemia (AA), who received a myeloablative conditioning regimen with ovarian shielding or a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen. In most patients, menstruation had stopped and AMH level had decreased to an undetectable level (<0.1 ng/ml) after HSCT. Most patients showed a recovery of regular menstruation, but AMH levels did not increase immediately after the resumption of menstruation. However, in three AL patients and two AA patients who were evaluable for long-term recovery, AMH level increased gradually beyond 1 year after HSCT. In conclusion, recovery of the serum AMH level may be delayed after HSCT, and the AMH level early after HSCT may not accurately reflect ovarian reserve. A prospective study is required to address the usefulness of measuring the AMH level in HSCT recipients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with hematological malignancies show a high prevalence of asymptomatic colonization with Clostridium difficile (CD colonization). Therefore, it is difficult to distinguish CD colonization with diarrhea induced by a conditioning regimen from true Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. We retrospectively analyzed 308 consecutive patients who underwent a CD toxin A/B enzyme immunoassay test for diarrhea within 100 days after HSCT from November 2007 to May 2014. Thirty patients (9.7%) had positive CD toxin results, and 11 of these had positive results in subsequent tests after an initial negative result. Allogenic HSCT, total body irradiation, stem cell source, acute leukemia, and the duration of neutropenia were significantly correlated with positive CD toxin results. In a logistic regression model, allogenic HSCT was identified as a significant risk factor (odds ratio 18.6, P<0.01). In an analysis limited to within 30 days after the conditioning regimen, the duration of neutropenia was the sole risk factor (odds ratio 10.4, P< 0.01). There were no distinctive clinical features for CDI, including the onset or duration of diarrhea. In conclusion, although CDI may be overdiagnosed in HSCT recipients, it is difficult to clinically distinguish between CDI and CD colonization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) is considered a standard therapy for transplant-eligible patients with multiple myeloma, while allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT) is controversial. We retrospectively analyzed 765 patients with myeloma who underwent tandem transplantation between 1998 and 2012 using Japanese registry data. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of tandem auto-HCT (n = 676) and auto/allo-HCT (n = 89). To adjust for a selection bias, we compared overall survival (OS) between the two groups by a propensity score analysis. The probability of OS at six years was 58.5% for the tandem auto-HCT group and 54.4% for the tandem auto/allo-HCT group (p = 0.47). In a matched-pair analysis based on the propensity score, the difference in survival between the two groups was not statistically significant, although the survival curve appeared to reach a plateau beyond five years in the auto/allo group. Further strategies to reduce treatment-related mortality and enhance a graft-versus-myeloma effect are necessary to improve OS.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The combination of mitoxantrone (MIT), etoposide (ETP), and cytarabine (Ara-C) (MEC) is a frequently used salvage therapy for acute leukemia, but has been associated with severe myelosuppression. Therefore, we investigated the miniMEC regimen with reduced doses of AraC and MIT. Thirteen ALL and 44 AML patients, all relapsed or refractory, received miniMEC, which consisted of MIT at 8 mg/m(2) for 3 d, ETP at 100 mg/m(2) for 5 d, and Ara-C at 100 mg/m(2) infused over 24 h for 7 d. CR + CRi was achieved in eight ALL patients (61.5%) and 16 AML patients (36.4%). Median duration of neutropenia was 30 d (range, 1-50). Thirty-one patients (54.4%) subsequently received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), and overall survival was significantly improved in this group (median OS 161 versus 481 d, p = 0.006). We concluded that miniMEC is a safe and effective bridging therapy to SCT.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The standard conditioning regimen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for aplastic anemia from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling has been high-dose cyclophosphamide (CY 200 mg/kg). In the present study, results for 203 patients with aplastic anemia aged 16 years or older who underwent allogeneic HSCT from HLA-identical siblings were retrospectively analyzed using the registry database of Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. Conditioning regimens were defined as a (1) high-dose CY (200 mg/kg or greater)-based (n = 117); (2) reduced-dose CY (100 mg/kg or greater, but less than 200 mg/kg)-based (n = 38); and (3) low-dose CY (less than 100 mg/kg)-based (n = 48) regimen. Patient age and the proportion of patients receiving fludarabine were significantly higher in the reduced- and low-dose CY groups than the high-dose CY group. Engraftment was comparable among the groups. Five-year overall survival (OS) tended to be higher in the low-dose CY group [93.0 % (95 % CI 85.1-100.0 %)] than the high-dose CY [84.2 % (95 % CI 77.1-91.3 %)] or reduced-dose CY groups [83.8 % (95 % CI 71.8-95.8 %); P = 0.214]. Age-adjusted OS was higher in the low-dose CY group than the high- and reduced-dose CY groups with borderline significance (P = 0.067). These results suggest that CY dose can safely be reduced without increasing graft rejection by adding fludarabine in allogeneic HSCT for aplastic anemia from an HLA-identical sibling.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive large B-cell lymphoma (ALK+LBCL) is a rare, aggressive B-cell lymphoma with ALK fusion genes. Histopathologically, the ALK immunohistochemical staining pattern is suggestive of the fusion partner of ALK. Here, we examined an ALK+LBCL case showing a unique diffuse cytoplasmic ALK staining pattern and identified EML4-ALK, which has not previously been reported in ALK+LBCL. Furthermore, to clarify whether the prognosis differs depending on the staining pattern, we reviewed 112 previously reported cases, and analyzed immunohistochemical markers and clinical data stratified by the staining pattern. We found that ALK staining can be classified into a granular cytoplasmic staining (GCS) or a non-GCS patterns. Sixty-four adult cases for which both the ALK staining pattern and survival time were reported were further analyzed for survival trends. The non-GCS pattern was significantly associated with inferior overall survival (P = 0.031). This difference remained significant after adjusting for age and clinical stage (hazard ratio 5.08, 95 % CI 1.88–13.7, P = 0.0013). Given that the ALK immunohistochemical staining pattern is associated with the ALK fusion partner, the present results suggest that the prognosis for ALK+LBCL differs depending on the ALK fusion partner.
Dataset: Supplementary material 1
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after HLA-matched sibling bone marrow (BM) transplantation is lower in Japanese than in Caucasian patients. However, race may have differential effect on GVHD dependent on the graft source. North American Caucasian and Japanese patients receiving their first allogeneic BM or peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantations from an HLA-matched sibling for leukemia were eligible. BM was used in 13% and 53% of Caucasian and Japanese patients, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the interaction term between race and graft source was not significant in any of the models, indicating that graft source does not affect the impact of race on outcomes. The risk of grades III-IV acute GVHD was significantly lower in Japanese than in Caucasian patients (hazard ratio (HR) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-0.96), which resulted in lower risk of non-relapse mortality in Japanese patients (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.89). The risk of relapse was also lower in this group. Lower risk of non-relapse mortality and relapse resulted in lower overall mortality rates among Japanese patients. In conclusion, irrespective of graft source, the risk of severe acute GVHD is lower in Japanese patients, which results in lower risk of non-relapse mortality.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: While unrelated bone marrow transplantation (UBMT) has been widely used as alternative donor transplantation, the use of umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is increasing recently. Methods: We conducted a decision analysis to address which transplantation procedure should be prioritized for younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring high- or intermediate-risk cytogenetics in first complete remission (CR1), when they lack a matched related donor but have immediate access to a suitable UCB unit. Main sources for our analysis comprised the data from three phase III trials for a chemotherapy cohort (n = 907) and the registry data for transplantation cohort (n = 752). Results: The baseline analysis showed that when the 8/8 match was considered for UBMT, the expected 5-year survival rate was higher for UBMT than for UCBT (58.1% vs. 51.8%). This ranking did not change even when the 7/8 match was considered for UBMT. Sensitivity analysis showed consistent superiority of UBMT over UCBT when the time elapsed between CR1 and UBMT was varied within a plausible range of 3 to 9 months. Conclusions: These results suggest that 8/8 or 7/8 UBMT is a better transplantation option than UCBT even after allowing time required for donor coordination. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal treatment for use as a bridge to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the decision for transplantation has not been established in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We retrospectively evaluated the clinical outcomes after the decision for transplantation in our patients with MDS or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) secondary to MDS, aged more than 15 years, who underwent transplantation between 2007 and 2012. A total of 124 patients were included. We classified patients into two groups according to the bridge treatment selected at the decision for transplantation: Group 1, supportive care (n = 79), immunosuppressive therapy (n = 7), low-dose chemotherapy (n = 12); Group 2, AML-type induction chemotherapy (ICT: n = 22), azacitidine (Aza: n = 4). The rate of blasts in the bone marrow significantly influenced the treatment selection at the time of decision. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the rate of overall survival (OS) from the decision (73.1% vs 80.4% at 1 year) or from transplantation (59.0% vs 59.2% at 1 year). A significant difference was not observed even after patients were stratified according to either the rate of blasts in the bone marrow at the time of decision or the propensity score. In conclusion, the bridge treatment selected at the decision for transplantation did not affect the outcomes of transplantation in patients with MDS. However, this analysis did not include patients who could not undergo transplantation after the decision, and thus a prospective study is warranted. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The early clearance of blast cells in peripheral blood (PB) during induction chemotherapy can predict the clinical outcome in acute leukemia. We retrospectively analyzed the kinetics of white blood cell (WBC) count, blast cell percentage (BCP), and blast cell count (BCC) in PB in 78 patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia who underwent a uniform induction chemotherapy between December 2001 and December 2015 at Jichi Medical University. By a repeated-measures analysis of variance, the interaction of the decline in BCP with the achievement of complete remission (CR) was stronger than those of the decline in WBC or BCC. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for the achievement of CR showed that the areas under the curve for the decline in WBC, BCP, and BCC were 0.592, 0.703, and 0.634, respectively, and a decline in BCP of 9.25%/day within 4 or 5 days from induction chemotherapy was the optimal cutoff value. A multivariate analysis showed that a rapid decline in BCP (≥9.25%/day) was a significant predictive factor for CR, independent of the cytogenetic risk (p = 0.0096). A rapid decline in BCP during the first 5 days of induction chemotherapy may be a good predictor of CR. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Saitama Medical University
Saitama, Saitama, Japan
- Department of Hematology and Oncology
Jichi Medical University
Totigi, Tochigi, Japan
- Division of Hematology
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization
Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
- Radiation Science Research Center