Yoshikazu Kuwahara

The University of Tokyo, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (3)15.01 Total impact

  • Yoshikazu Kuwahara · Atsuko Shimada · Hiroshi Mitani · Akihiro Shima
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the spermatogenesis (and spermiogenesis) cell population kinetics after gamma-irradiation, the frequency and fate of BrdU-labeled pre-meiotic spermatogenic cells (spermatogonia and pre-leptotene spermatocytes) and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) of the medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) were examined immunohistochemically and by BrdU-labeling. After 4.75 Gy of gamma-irradiation, a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of BrdU-labeled cells was detected in the SSCs, but not in pre-meiotic spermatogenic cells. The time necessary for differentiation of surviving pre-meiotic spermatogenic cells without delay of germ cell development was shortened. More than 90% of surviving pre-meiotic spermatogenic cells differentiated into haploid cells within 5 days after irradiation, followed by a temporal spermatozoa exhaust in the testis. Next, spermatogenesis began in the surviving SSCs. However, the outcome was abnormal spermatozoa, indicating that accelerated maturation process led to morphological abnormalities. Moreover, 35% of the morphologically normal spermatozoa were dead at day 6. Based on these results, we suggest a reset system; after irradiation most surviving spermatogenic cells, except for the SSCs, are prematurely eliminated from the testis by spermatogenesis (and spermiogenesis) acceleration, and subsequent spermatogenesis begins with the surviving SSCs, a possible safeguard against male germ cell mutagenesis.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Molecular Reproduction and Development
  • Yoshikazu Kuwahara · Atsuko Shimada · Hiroshi Mitani · Akihiro Shima
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    ABSTRACT: To ensure the high-fidelity transmission by reproductive cells of genetic information from generation to generation, cells have evolved surveillance systems to eliminate genomic lesions by inducing cell suicide and/or DNA repair. In this report, gamma-ray-induced cell death was investigated using the medaka fish, Oryzias latipes, because of the ease with which the differentiation stages of its spermatogenic cells can be identified. After 4.75 Gy gamma irradiation, the maximum rate of death of spermatogonial stem cells was observed at 18 h, and that of differentiating spermatogonia was at 12 h, followed by a peak in the extent of DNA fragmentation detected by the TUNEL assay. Dose-response curves for the death rate showed an obvious increase in the death rate for early-differentiating spermatogonia even after 0.11 Gy irradiation, whereas there were no such increases for spermatogonial stem cells and late-differentiating spermatogonia. In the male germ cells of this fish, the stage during spermatogenesis most sensitive to radiation-induced cell death is in early-differentiating spermatogonia, the immediate descendants of the stem cells. These spermatogonia may have a rigorous surveillance system for genomic lesions induced in spermatogonial stem cells.
    No preview · Article · May 2002 · Radiation Research
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    ABSTRACT: The bodies of most teleost fish species are covered with specialized subepithelial structures known as scales. The scale is an epithelial appendage that differentiates from the dermal mesenchyme. Mammals, on the other hand, have no scales, but instead their bodies are covered with hair. Although their appearances are quite different, scales and hair can be considered structurally similar in that both of them are epithelial appendages distributed over the body surface in an orderly pattern. This analogy suggests that they may have the same evolutionary origin. But, to date, no molecular evidence has been presented that links scales and hair. A mutation at the rs-3 locus of medaka (Oryzias latipes) leads to almost complete loss of scales. We demonstrated that the rs-3 locus encodes ectodysplasin-A receptor (EDAR), which is required for the initiation of hair development in mammals. We identified a novel transposon inserted in the first intron of EDAR, which causes aberrant splicing. This work shows that EDAR is required for scale development in fish and suggests that it is an evolutionarily conserved molecule that is required for the development of epithelial appendages in vertebrates.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2001 · Current Biology