[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sanfilippo B syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB, MPS IIIB) is caused by a deficiency of alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase, a lysosomal enzyme involved in the degradation of heparan sulphate. Accumulation of the substrate in lysosomes leads to degeneration of the central nervous system with progressive dementia often combined with hyperactivity and aggressive behaviour. Age of onset and rate of progression vary considerably, whilst diagnosis is often delayed due to the absence of the pronounced skeletal changes observed in other mucopolysaccharidoses. Cloning of the gene and cDNA encoding alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase enabled a study of the molecular basis of this syndrome. We were able to identify 31 mutations, 25 of them novel, and two polymorphisms in the 40 patients mostly of Australasian and Dutch origin included in this study. The observed allellic heterogeneity reflects the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes reported for MPS IIIB patients. The majority of changes are missense mutations; also four nonsense and nine frameshift mutations caused by insertions or deletions were identified. Only five mutations were found in more than one patient and the observed frequencies are well below those observed for the common mutations in MPS IIIA. R643C and R297X each account for around 20% of MPS IIIB alleles in the Dutch patient group, whilst R297X, P521L, R565W and R626X each have a frequency of about 6% in Australasian patients. R643C seems to be a Dutch MPS IIIB allele and clearly confers the attenuated phenotype. One region of the gene shows a higher concentration of mutations, probably reflecting the instability of this area which contains a direct repeat. Several arginine residues seem to be 'hot-spots' for mutations, being affected by two or three individual base pair exchanges.
Preview · Article · Feb 1999 · European Journal of HumanGenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have identified a common mutation (R245H) in the sulphamidase gene of Sanfilippo syndrome type A (mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA, MPS IIIA) patients from The Netherlands. Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization was used to determine the incidence of this mutation in 45 unrelated MPS IIIA patients from different regions of The Netherlands. R245H was present in 51 alleles, representing 56.7% of the total allelic population. Of 39 patients, for whom we have uniform clinical details, 13 MPS IIIA patients who were homozygous for this common mutation had a more uniform but severe clinical phenotype than the remaining 21 or 5 patients, containing respectively one or no R245H alleles. The R245H allele had a higher prevalence in western rather than eastern regions of The Netherlands.
No preview · Article · Jul 1998 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A group of 27 Italian patients was screened for alpha-L-iduronidase mucopolysaccharidosis type I mutations. Mutations were found in 18 patients, with 28 alleles identified. The two most common mutations in northern Europeans (W402X and Q70X) accounted for 11% and 13% of the alleles, respectively. The R89Q mutation, uncommon in Europeans, was found only in one patient, accounting for 1 of 54 alleles (1.9%). The other mutations, P533R, A327P and G51D, accounted for 11%, 5.6% and 9.3% of the total alleles, respectively. Interestingly, the high frequency of the P533R mutation seems to be confined to Sicily and is higher than the 3% reported in a British/Australian study.
No preview · Article · Dec 1997 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sanfilippo syndrome type A or mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of sulfamidase. The resulting lysosomal storage of heparan sulfate may lead to severe neurodegeneration preceded by progressive dementia, often combined with aggressive and hyperactive behaviour. A total of 109 patients from four different geographic areas were screened for the common mutation R245H and two other previously identified mutations. SSCP analysis of exons was used to characterize the unknown alleles. We identified 16 novel sequence variants, 12 of them likely to be pathogenic. The majority of the pathogenic variants were single base pair changes leading to missense mutations. Several single base pair deletions/insertions and one nonsense mutation were also identified. Altogether, we were able to characterize 55% of the pathogenic alleles. Sequence homology between sulfamidase and N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase, the first sulfatase to have its tertiary structure defined, suggests that amino acid residues R74 and T79, which were found to be mutated, are likely to be involved in the formation of the active site of sulfamidase. R245H accounts for 31% of the Sanfilippo A alleles in Australasia, for 19.2% of the alleles in patients from the UK and has a high frequency of 57.8% in patients from The Netherlands. The identification of mutations common in certain geographic regions or ethnic groups will help in the diagnosis of MPS IIIA and allow carrier testing and improved genetic counselling.
Preview · Article · Oct 1997 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sanfilippo A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA, MPS-IIIA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder due to an enzymatic defect of the lysosomal enzyme sulphamidase (EC 18.104.22.168) required for the degradation of heparan sulphate. In this study, molecular defects in the sulphamidase gene of MPS-IIIA patients were investigated in a group of 10 patients of Australian and American origin. The entire coding region of the sulphamidase gene was RT-PCR amplified and one polymorphism (R456H), four novel mutations (S66W, R245H, E447K, 1307 del 9) and one previously described mutation (1284 del 11) were identified by direct PCR sequencing. R245H was present in six patients including one severely affected homozygote. In three of the other patients with R245H, second mutant alleles were identified as S66W, 1284 del 11 and E447K, respectively. S66W was also detected in another patient where the other mutant allele remains undefined. In addition, 1307 del 9 was also detected in a patient with the other mutant allele remaining undefined. Allele specific oligonucleotide hybridisation was used to determine the incidence of these in a population of 26 MPS-IIIA patients (Australian and American) and 60 normal controls (Australian). R245H represented 27% (14/52 alleles) in this total patient population, while the other three changes ranged from 1.9 to 9.6% (1-5 of 52 alleles). The sequence variant, R456H, was shown to be polymorphic as it was present in 55% of normal and 38% of patient alleles. The total combined incidence of these five is 46% of alleles. This is the first study of the molecular defects in MPS-IIIA patients and will greatly assist the development of molecular analysis for MPS-IIIA patients and studies concerned with genotype to phenotype relationships.
Full-text · Article · Jun 1997 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sanfilippo A syndrome (MPS-IIIA) is a mucopolysaccharide lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme, sulphamidase (EC 22.214.171.124), which is required for the degradation of heparan sulphate. A genomic clone containing the entire sulphamidase gene was isolated from a chromosome 17-specific gridded cosmid library. The structure of the gene and the sequence of the exon/intron boundaries and the 5' promoter region were determined. The sulphamidase gene is split into 8 exons spanning approximately 11 kb.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sanfilippo A syndrome is one of four recognised Sanfilippo sub-types (A, B, C and D) that result from deficiencies of different enzymes involved in the lysosomal degradation of heparan sulphate; patients suffer from severe neurological disorders. The Sanfilippo syndrome sub-types are also known as mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type III (MPS-IIIA, B, C and D), and are part of the large group of lysosomal storage disorders. Each of the MPS-III types is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder with considerable variation in severity of clinical phenotype. The incidence of Sanfilippo syndrome has been estimated at 1:24,000 in The Netherlands with MPS IIIA (MIM #252900) the most common. MPS-IIIA is the predominant MPS-III in the United Kingdom, and has a similar high incidence to that found in The Netherlands (E. Wraith, personal communication). There is a particularly high incidence of a clinically severe form of MPS-IIIA in the Cayman Islands with a carrier frequency of 0.1 (ref. 4). Due to the mild somatic disease compared to other MPS disorders there is difficulty in diagnosing mild cases of MPS-III, hence Sanfilippo syndrome may be underdiagnosed, especially in patients with mild mental retardation. Here, we report the isolation, sequence and expression of cDNA clones encoding the enzyme sulphamidase (EC 126.96.36.199). In addition, we report the chromosomal localisation of the sulphamidase gene as being 17q25.3. An 11-bp deletion, present in sulphamidase cDNA from two unrelated Sanfilippo A patients, is described.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Full-length cDNA sequences encoding human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulphatase were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells under the transcriptional control of the human polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha gene promoter. A clonal cell line overexpressing recombinant N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulphatase to a level of approx. 3 mg/l of culture medium was isolated. The secreted precursor enzyme was purified to homogeneity by a two-column procedure with an overall yield of 53% of the activity. The physical and catalytic parameters of the recombinant enzyme were similar to those of the mature form isolated from liver. On SDS/PAGE and gel filtration, recombinant N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulphatase had a native molecular mass of 58-60 kDa. Recombinant N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulphatase was endocytosed by mucopolysaccharidosis IVA fibroblasts via the mannose-6-phosphate receptor-mediated pathway and was efficiently localized to lysosomes.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1995 · Biochemical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme, N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfatase (GALNS;EC 188.8.131.52), results in the storage of the glycosaminoglycans, keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate, which leads to the lysosomal storage disorder Morquio A syndrome. Four overlapping genomic clones derived from a chromosome 16-specific gridded cosmid library containing the entire GALNS gene were isolated. The structure of the gene and the sequence of the exon/intron boundaries and the 5' promoter region were determined. The GALNS gene is split into 14 exons spanning approximately 40 kb. The potential promoter for GALNS lacks a TATA box but contains GC box consensus sequences, consistent with its role as a housekeeping gene. The GALNS gene contains an Alu repeat in intron 5 and a VNTR-like sequence in intron 6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene for N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase, the deficiency of which results in Morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA), was assigned to chromosome 16 at band q24.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Localization of this band was confirmed by PCR analysis of a somatic cell hybrid panel used for fine mapping of chromosome 16.
Full-text · Article · Feb 1993 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In humans, a deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA;EC 184.108.40.206) results in the lysosomal storage of the glycosaminoglycans heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate, thereby causing the lysosomal storage disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type I. The gene for IDUA is split into 14 exons spanning approximately 19 kb. We report the sequence of two non-contiguous segments of the IDUA gene, one 1.8-kb segment containing exons 1 and 2 and surrounding sequences and a second segment of 4.5 kb containing the last 12 exons. The potential promoter for IDUA has only GC box type consensus sequences consistent with a housekeeping promoter and is bounded by an Alu repeat sequence. The first two exons of IDUA are separated by an intron of 566 bp, then there is a large intron of approximately 13 kb, and the last 12 exons are clustered within 4.5 kb. No consensus polyadenylation signal was found in the 3' untranslated region, although two variant polyadenylation signals are proposed.