[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although existence of humoral immunity has been previously shown in malignant pleural effusions, only a limited number of immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAA) have been identified and associated with lung cancer. In this study, we intended to identify more TAAs in pleural effusion-derived tumor cells.
Using morphologically normal lung tissues as a control lysate in Western blotting analyses, 54 tumor samples were screened with autologous effusion antibodies. Biochemical purification and mass spectrometric identification of TAAs were done using established effusion tumor cell lines as antigen sources. We identified a p48 antigen as alpha-enolase (ENO1). Semiquantitative immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate expression status of ENO1 in the tissue samples of 80 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and then correlated with clinical variables.
Using ENO1-specifc antiserum, up-regulation of ENO1 expression in effusion tumor cells from 11 of 17 patients was clearly observed compared with human normal lung primary epithelial and non-cancer-associated effusion cells. Immunohistochemical studies consistently showed high level of ENO1 expression in all the tumors we have examined thus far. Log-rank and Cox's analyses of ENO1 expression status revealed that its expression level in primary tumors was a key factor contributing to overall- and progression-free survivals of patients (P < 0.05). The same result was also obtained in the early stage of NSCLC patients, showing that tumors expressing relatively higher ENO1 level were tightly correlated with poorer survival outcomes.
Our data strongly support a prognostic role of ENO1 in determining tumor malignancy of patients with NSCLC.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A different degree of immunodeficiency is often found at tumor sites in cancer patients. At the late stage many patients develop malignant effusion that contains large numbers of tumor cells and host immune cells that constantly interact with each other. These sites may provide an ideal model to examine in situ anti-tumor immunity. The T cells in effusion were found to be immunodeficient, which suggested a defective anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes response. To pursue the mechanism for the T cell deficiency, we determined the production of immunomodulating cytokines in the effusion and detected the presence of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta), prostaglandin E2, IL-6, IL-10, and IFNgamma. There was no detectable IL-2, IL-4, IL-12, or TNFalpha. The most prominent feature was the presence of TGFbeta and IL-6 at a very high level. Thus, the possible role of these two cytokines on T cell competence was further determined. TGFbeta was found to induce T cell anergy and reduced the production of perforin in T killer cells and their lytic activity. These events lead to the induction of peripheral T cell tolerance with profound T cell deficiency. IL-6 did not affect perforin production or cytolytic activity of the T killer cells. But the CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (TR) that were often employed by TGFbeta to suppress T cell response were reduced in the malignant effusion, consistent with the fact that IL-6 down-regulates TR and this may represent the host's vigorous response to the tumor's subversion. These results show that TGFbeta and IL-6 might play pivotal but opposing roles in the host tumor interaction that, together with other immunomodulating components, determines the outcome for the development of local tumor immunity.