W. M. Goss

National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States

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Publications (732)2709.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We have recently published observations of significant flux density variations at 1.3 cm in HII regions in the star forming regions Sgr B2 Main and North (De Pree et al. 2014). To further study these variations, we have made new 7 mm continuum and recombination line observations of Sgr B2 at the highest possible angular resolution of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We have observed Sgr B2 Main and North at 42.9 GHz and at 45.4 GHz in the BnA configuration (Main) and the A configuration (North). We compare these new data to archival VLA 7 mm continuum data of Sgr B2 Main observed in 2003 and Sgr B2 North observed in 2001. We find that one of the 41 known ultracompact and hypercompact HII regions in Sgr B2 (K2-North) has decreased $\sim$27% in flux density from 142$\pm$14 mJy to 103$\pm$10 mJy (2.3$\sigma$) between 2001 and 2012. A second source, F3c-Main has increased $\sim$30% in flux density from 82$\pm$8 mJy to 107 $\pm$11 mJy (1.8$\sigma$) between 2003 and 2012. F3c-Main was previously observed to increase in flux density at 1.3 cm over a longer time period between 1989 and 2012 (De Pree et al. 2014). An observation of decreasing flux density, such as that observed in K2-North, is particularly significant since such a change is not predicted by the classical hypothesis of steady expansion of HII regions during massive star accretion. Our new observations at 7 mm, along with others in the literature, suggest that the formation of massive stars occurs through time-variable and violent accretion.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report detections of two candidate distant submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), MM J154506.4$-$344318 and MM J154132.7$-$350320, which are discovered in the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm survey toward the Lupus-I star-forming region. The two objects have 1.1 mm flux densities of 43.9 and 27.1 mJy, and have Herschel/SPIRE counterparts as well. The Submillimeter Array counterpart to the former SMG is identified at 890 $\mu$m and 1.3 mm. Photometric redshift estimates using all available data from the mid-infrared to the radio suggest that the redshifts of the two SMGs are $z_{\rm photo} \simeq$ 4-5 and 3, respectively. Near-infrared objects are found very close to the SMGs and they are consistent with low-$z$ ellipticals, suggesting that the high apparent luminosities can be attributed to gravitational magnification. The cumulative number counts at $S_{\rm 1.1mm} \ge 25$ mJy, combined with other two 1.1-mm brightest sources, are $0.70 ^{+0.56}_{-0.34}$ deg$^{-2}$, which is consistent with a model prediction that accounts for flux magnification due to strong gravitational lensing. Unexpectedly, a $z > 3$ SMG and a Galactic dense starless core (e.g., a first hydrostatic core) could be similar in the mid-infrared to millimeter spectral energy distributions and spatial structures at least at $\gtrsim 1"$. This indicates that it is necessary to distinguish the two possibilities by means of broad band photometry from the optical to centimeter and spectroscopy to determine the redshift, when a compact object is identified toward Galactic star-forming regions.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present methods and results from "21-cm Spectral Line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA" (21-SPONGE), a large survey for Galactic neutral hydrogen (HI) absorption with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). With the upgraded capabilities of the VLA, we reach median root-mean-square (RMS) noise in optical depth of $\sigma_{\tau}=9\times 10^{-4}$ per $0.42\rm\,km\,s^{-1}$ channel for the 31 sources presented here. Upon completion, 21-SPONGE will be the largest HI absorption survey with this high sensitivity. We discuss the observations and data reduction strategies, as well as line fitting techniques. We prove that the VLA bandpass is stable enough to detect broad, shallow lines associated with warm HI, and show that bandpass observations can be combined in time to reduce spectral noise. In combination with matching HI emission profiles from the Arecibo Observatory ($\sim3.5'$ angular resolution), we estimate excitation (or spin) temperatures ($\rm T_s$) and column densities for Gaussian components fitted to sightlines along which we detect HI absorption (30/31). We measure temperatures up to $\rm T_s\sim1500\rm\,K$ for individual lines, showing that we can probe the thermally unstable interstellar medium (ISM) directly. However, we detect fewer of these thermally unstable components than expected from previous observational studies. We probe a wide range in column density between $\sim10^{16}$ and $>10^{21}\rm\,cm^{-2}$ for individual HI clouds. In addition, we reproduce the trend between cold gas fraction and average $\rm T_s$ found by synthetic observations of a hydrodynamic ISM simulation by Kim et al. (2014). Finally, we investigate methods for estimating HI $\rm T_s$ and discuss their biases.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    D. Anish Roshi · W. M. Goss · S. Jeyakumar
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    ABSTRACT: We present images of C110α and H110α radio recombination line (RRL) emission at 4.8 GHz and images of H166α, C166α, and X166α RRL emission at 1.4 GHz, observed toward the star-forming region NGC 2024. The 1.4 GHz image with angular resolution ~70'' is obtained using Very Large Array (VLA) data. The 4.8 GHz image with angular resolution ~17'' is obtained by combining VLA and Green Bank Telescope data in order to add the short and zero spacing data in the uv plane. These images reveal that the spatial distributions of C110α line emission is confined to the southern rim of the H II region close to the ionization front whereas the C166α line emission is extended in the north-south direction across the H II region. The LSR velocity of the C110α line is 10.3 km s–1 similar to that of lines observed from molecular material located at the far side of the H II region. This similarity suggests that the photodissociation region (PDR) responsible for C110α line emission is at the far side of the H II region. The LSR velocity of C166α is 8.8 km s–1. This velocity is comparable with the velocity of molecular absorption lines observed from the foreground gas, suggesting that the PDR is at the near side of the H II region. Non-LTE models for carbon line-forming regions are presented. Typical properties of the foreground PDR are T PDR ~ 100 K, cm–3, n H ~ 1.7 × 104 cm–3, and path length l ~ 0.06 pc, and those of the far side PDR are T PDR ~ 200 K, 50 cm–3, n H ~ 1.7 × 105 cm–3, and l ~ 0.03 pc. Our modeling indicates that the far side PDR is located within the H II region. We estimate the magnetic field strength in the foreground PDR to be 60 μG and that in the far side PDR to be 220 μG. Our field estimates compare well with the values obtained from OH Zeeman observations toward NGC 2024. The H166α spectrum shows narrow (1.7 km s–1) and broad (33 km s–1) line features. The narrow line has spatial distribution and central velocity (~9 km s–1) similar to that of the foreground carbon line emission, suggesting that they are associated. Modeling the narrow H166α emission provides physical properties T PDR ~ 50 K, cm–3, and l ~ 0.01 pc and implies an ionization fraction of ~10–4. The broad H166α line originates from the H II region. The X166α line has a different spatial distribution compared to other RRLs observed toward NGC 2024 and is probably associated with cold dust clouds. Based on the expected low depletion of sulfur in such clouds and the –8.1 km s–1 velocity separation between the X166α and C166α lines, we interpret that the X166α transition arises from sulfur.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21cm absorption spectra from the 21cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the HI line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · The Astronomical Journal
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    W. M. Goss
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    ABSTRACT: I will discuss the interactions of a number of individuals that played major roles in the formation of radio astronomy in India in the period 1952-1962, particularly Dr. Joseph L. Pawsey. The story began in 1953-1954: Pawsey brought Govind Swarup to Australia as a Colombo Fellow in 1953, where he worked with Christiansen, Mills, Wild and Bolton. Later, Swarup went to Stanford where he completed a PhD with Ron Bracewell working on the new Solar Microwave Spectroheliograph. In the era 1960-1963, with the encouragement of Pawsey, several colleagues in Australia and Bracewell, discussions began among a number of Indian colleagues to form a radio astronomy group in India. The main players were G. Swarup, T.K. Menon, M.R. Kundu and T. Krishnan. Homi J. Bhabha, the Director of TIFR, made the decisive offer to this group to start a radio astronomy project in early 1962. Swarup joined TIFR in early April 1963. Many factors contributed to the successful formation of the new group: international networking among scientists of several generations, rapid decisions by Bhabha and the readiness to take chances in choosing promising, young, energetic scientists.In December 2013, we have celebrated 50 years of ground breaking research by the TIFR radio astronomers as well as the outstanding decade of research with the GMRT- the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. Govind Swarup has provided the inspiration and leadership for this remarkable achievement.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2014
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    D. Anish Roshi · W. M. Goss · S. Jeyakumar
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    ABSTRACT: We present images of C110$\alpha$ and H110$\alpha$ radio recombination line (RRL) emission at 4.8 GHz and images of H166$\alpha$, C166$\alpha$ and X166$\alpha$ RRL emission at 1.4 GHz, observed toward the starforming region NGC 2024. The 1.4 GHz image with angular resolution $\sim$ 70\arcsec\ is obtained using VLA data. The 4.8 GHz image with angular resolution $\sim$ 17\arcsec\ is obtained by combining VLA and GBT data. The similarity of the LSR velocity (10.3 \kms\) of the C110$\alpha$ line to that of lines observed from molecular material located at the far side of the \HII\ region suggests that the photo dissociation region (PDR) responsible for C110$\alpha$ line emission is at the far side. The LSR velocity of C166$\alpha$ is 8.8 \kms. This velocity is comparable with the velocity of molecular absorption lines observed from the foreground gas, suggesting that the PDR is at the near side of the \HII\ region. Non-LTE models for carbon line forming regions are presented. Typical properties of the foreground PDR are $T_{PDR} \sim 100$ K, $n_e^{PDR} \sim 5$ \cmthree, $n_H \sim 1.7 \times 10^4$ \cmthree, path length $l \sim 0.06$ pc and those of the far side PDR are $T_{PDR} \sim$ 200 K, $n_e^{PDR} \sim$ 50 \cmthree, $n_H \sim 1.7 \times 10^5$ \cmthree, $l \sim$ 0.03 pc. Our modeling indicates that the far side PDR is located within the \HII\ region. We estimate magnetic field strength in the foreground PDR to be 60 $\mu$G and that in the far side PDR to be 220 $\mu$G. Our field estimates compare well with the values obtained from OH Zeeman observations toward NGC 2024.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We use MERLIN, VLA and VLBA observations of Galactic H i absorption towards 3C 138 to estimate the structure function of the H i opacity fluctuations at au scales. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that there is likely to be a significant bias in the estimated structure function at signal-to-noise ratios characteristic of our observations, if the structure function is constructed in the manner most commonly used in the literature. We develop a new estimator that is free from this bias and use it to estimate the true underlying structure function slope on length-scales ranging from 5 to 40 au. From a power-law fit to the structure function, we derive a slope of $0.81^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$, i.e. similar to the value observed at parsec scales. The estimated upper limit for the amplitude of the structure function is also consistent with the measurements carried out at parsec scales. Our measurements are hence consistent with the H i opacity fluctuation in the Galaxy being characterized by a power-law structure function over length-scales that span six orders of magnitude. This result implies that the dissipation scale has to be smaller than a few au if the fluctuations are produced by turbulence. This inferred smaller dissipation scale implies that the dissipation occurs either in (i) regions with densities ≳ 103cm−3 (i.e. similar to that inferred for ‘tiny scale’ atomic clouds or (ii) regions with a mix of ionized and atomic gas (i.e. the observed structure in the atomic gas has a magnetohydrodynamic origin).
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present new Very Large Array 6cm H2CO observations toward four extragalactic radio continuum sources (B0212+735, 3C111, NRAO150, BL Lac) to explore the structure of foreground Galactic clouds as revealed by absorption variability. This project adds a new epoch in the monitoring observations of the sources reported by Marscher and collaborators in the mid 1990's. Our new observations confirm the monotonic increase in H$_2$CO absorption strength toward NRAO150. We do not detect significant variability of our 2009 spectra with respect to the 1994 spectra of 3C111, B0212+735 and BL Lac; however we find significant variability of the 3C111 2009 spectrum with respect to archive observations conducted in 1991 and 1992. Our analysis supports that changes in absorption lines could be caused by chemical and/or geometrical gradients in the foreground clouds, and not necessarily by small scale (~10 AU) high density molecular clumps within the clouds.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We use the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to conduct a high-sensitivity survey of neutral hydrogen (HI) absorption in the Milky Way. In combination with corresponding HI emission spectra obtained mostly with the Arecibo Observatory, we detect a widespread warm neutral medium (WNM) component with excitation temperature = 7200 (+1800,-1200) K (68% confidence). This temperature lies above theoretical predictions based on collisional excitation alone, implying that Ly-{\alpha} scattering, the most probable additional source of excitation, is more important in the interstellar medium (ISM) than previously assumed. Our results demonstrate that HI absorption can be used to constrain the Ly-{\alpha} radiation field, a critical quantity for studying the energy balance in the ISM and intergalactic medium yet notoriously difficult to model because of its complicated radiative transfer, in and around galaxies nearby and at high redshift.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Accretion flows onto massive stars must transfer mass so quickly that they are themselves gravitationally unstable, forming dense clumps and filaments. These density perturbations interact with young massive stars, emitting ionizing radiation, alternately exposing and confining their HII regions. As a result, the HII regions are predicted to flicker in flux density over periods of decades to centuries rather than increasing monotonically in size as predicted by simple Spitzer solutions. We have recently observed the Sgr B2 region at 1.3 cm with the VLA in its three hybrid configurations (DnC, CnB and BnA) at a resolution of 0.25''. These observations were made to compare in detail with matched continuum observations from 1989. At 0.25'' resolution, Sgr B2 contains 41 UC HII regions, 6 of which are hypercompact. The new observations of Sgr B2 allow comparison of relative peak flux densites for the HII regions in Sgr B2 over a 23 year time baseline (1989-2012) in one of the most source-rich massive star forming regions in the Milky Way. The new 1.3 cm continuum images indicate that four of the 41 UC HII regions exhibit significant changes in their peak flux density, with one source (K3) dropping in peak flux density, and the other 3 sources (F10.303, F1 and F3) increasing in peak flux density. The results are consistent with statistical predictions from simulations of high mass star formation, suggesting that they offer a solution to the lifetime problem for ultracompact HII regions.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    Mark Morris · Jun-Hui Zhao · W. M. Goss
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    ABSTRACT: Deep imaging of the Sgr A complex at 6 cm wavelength with the B and C configurations of the Karl G. Jansky VLA has revealed a new population of faint radio filaments. Like their brighter counterparts that have been observed throughout the Galactic Center on larger scales, these filaments can extend up to ~10 parsecs, and in most cases are strikingly uniform in brightness and curvature. Comparison with a survey of Paschen-alpha emission reveals that some of the filaments are emitting thermally, but most of these structures are nonthermal: local magnetic flux tubes illuminated by synchrotron emission. The new image reveals considerable filamentary substructure in previously known nonthermal filaments (NTFs). Unlike NTFs previously observed on larger scales, which tend to show a predominant orientation roughly perpendicular to the Galactic plane, the NTFs in the vicinity of the Sgr A complex are relatively randomly oriented. Two well-known radio sources to the south of Sgr A - sources E and F - consist of numerous quasi-parallel filaments that now appear to be particularly bright portions of a much larger, strongly curved, continuous, nonthermal radio structure that we refer to as the "Southern Curl". It is therefore unlikely that sources E and F are HII regions or pulsar wind nebulae. The Southern Curl has a smaller counterpart on the opposite side of the Galactic Center - the Northern Curl - that, except for its smaller scale and smaller distance from the center, is roughly point-reflection symmetric with respect to the Southern Curl. The curl features indicate that some field lines are strongly distorted, presumably by mass flows. The point symmetry about the center then suggests that the flows originate near the center and are somewhat collimated.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    Jun-Hui Zhao · Mark R. Morris · W. M. Goss
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    ABSTRACT: Based on our deep image of Sgr A using broadband data observed with the Jansky VLA at 6 cm, we present a new perspective of the radio bright zone at the Galactic center. We further show the radio detection of the X-ray Cannonball, a candidate neutron star associated with the Galactic center SNR Sgr A East. The radio image is compared with the Chandra X-ray image to show the detailed structure of the radio counterparts of the bipolar X-ray lobes. The bipolar lobes are likely produced by the winds from the activities within Sgr A West, which could be collimated by the inertia of gas in the CND, or by the momentum driving of Sgr A*; and the poloidal magnetic fields likely play an important role in the collimation. The less-collimated SE lobe, in comparison to the NW one, is perhaps due to the fact that the Sgr A East SN might have locally reconfigured the magnetic field toward negative galactic latitudes. In agreement with the X-ray observations, the time-scale of ~ $1\times10^4$ yr estimated for the outermost radio ring appears to be comparable to the inferred age of the Sgr A East SNR.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    Jun-Hui Zhao · Mark R Morris · W M Goss
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    ABSTRACT: We report the Very Large Array (VLA) detection of the radio counterpart of the X-ray object referred to as the "Cannonball," which has been proposed to be the remnant neutron star resulting from the creation of the Galactic center supernova remnant, Sagittarius A East. The radio object was detected both in our new VLA image from observations in 2012 at 5.5 GHz and in archival VLA images from observations in 1987 at 4.75 GHz and in the period from 1990 to 2002 at 8.31 GHz. The radio morphology of this object is characterized as a compact, partially resolved point source located at the northern tip of a radio "tongue" similar to the X-ray structure observed by Chandra. Behind the Cannonball, a radio counterpart to the X-ray plume is observed. This object consists of a broad radio plume with a size of 30 ×15 , followed by a linear tail having a length of 30 . The compact head and broad plume sources appear to have relatively flat spectra (∝ ν α) with mean values of α = −0.44 ± 0.08 and −0.10 ± 0.02, respectively, and the linear tail shows a steep spectrum with the mean value of −1.94 ± 0.05. The total radio luminosity integrated from these components is ∼8 × 10 33 erg s −1 , while the emission from the head and tongue amounts for only ∼1.5 × 10 31 erg s −1 . Based on the images obtained from the two epochs' observations at 5 GHz, we infer the proper motion of the object: μ α = 0.001 ± 0.003 arcsec yr −1 and μ δ = 0.013 ± 0.003 arcsec yr −1 . With an implied velocity of 500 km s −1 , a plausible model can be constructed in which a runaway neutron star surrounded by a pulsar wind nebula was created in the event that produced Sgr A East. The inferred age of this object, assuming that its origin coincides with the center of Sgr A East, is approximately 9000 yr.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Our analysis of a VLBA 12-hour synthesis observation of the OH masers in a well-known star-forming region W49N has yielded valuable data that enables us to probe distributions of magnetic fields in both the maser columns and the intervening interstellar medium (ISM). The data consisting of detailed high angular-resolution images (with beam-width ~20 milli-arc-seconds) of several dozen OH maser sources or "spots", at 1612, 1665 and 1667 MHz, reveal anisotropic scatter broadening, with typical sizes of a few tens of milli-arc-seconds and axial ratios between 1.5 to 3. Such anisotropies have been reported earlier by Desai, Gwinn & Diamond (1994) and interpreted as induced by the local magnetic field parallel to the Galactic plane. However, we find a) the apparent angular sizes on the average a factor of ~2.5 less than those reported by Desai et al. (1994), indicating significantly less scattering than inferred earlier, and b) a significant deviation in the average orientation of the scatter-broadened images (by ~10 degrees) from that implied by the magnetic field in the Galactic plane. More intriguingly, for a few Zeeman pairs in our set, significant differences (up to 6 sigma) are apparent in the scatter broadened images for the two hands of circular polarization, even when apparent velocity separation is less than 0.1 km/s. This may possibly be the first example of a Faraday rotation contribution to the diffractive effects in the ISM. Using the Zeeman pairs, we also study the distribution of magnetic field in the W49N complex, finding no significant trend in the spatial structure function. In this paper, we present the details of our observations and analysis leading to these findings, discuss implications of our results for the intervening anisotropic magneto-ionic medium, and suggest the possible implications for the structure of magnetic fields within this star-forming region.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present a comprehensive view of the W51B HII region complex and the W51C supernova remnant (SNR) using new radio observations from the VLA, VLBA, MERLIN, JCMT, and CSO along with archival data from Spitzer, ROSAT, ASCA, and Chandra. Our VLA data include the first 400 cm (74 MHz) continuum image of W51 at high resolution (88 arcsec). The 400 cm image shows non-thermal emission surrounding the G49.2-0.3 HII region, and a compact source of non-thermal emission (W51B_NT) coincident with the previously-identified OH (1720 MHz) maser spots, non-thermal 21 and 90 cm emission, and a hard X-ray source. W51B_NT falls within the region of high likelihood for the position of TeV gamma-ray emission. Using the VLBA three OH (1720 MHz) maser spots are detected in the vicinity of W51B_NT with sizes of 60 to 300 AU and Zeeman effect magnetic field strengths of 1.5 to 2.2 mG. The multiwavelength data demonstrate that the northern end of the W51B HII region complex has been partly enveloped by the advancing W51C SNR and this interaction explains the presence of W51B_NT and the OH masers. This interaction also appears in the thermal molecular gas which partially encircles W51B_NT and exhibits narrow pre-shock (DeltaV 5 km/s) and broad post-shock (DeltaV 20 km/s) velocity components. RADEX radiative transfer modeling of these two components yield physical conditions consistent with the passage of a non-dissociative C-type shock. Confirmation of the W51B/W51C interaction provides additional evidence in favor of this region being one of the best candidates for hadronic particle acceleration known thus far.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Our analysis of a VLBA 12-hour synthesis observations of the OH masers in W49N has provided detailed high angular-resolution images of the maser sources, at 1612, 1665 and 1667 MHz. The images, of several dozens of spots, reveal anisotropic scatter broadening; with typical sizes of a few tens of milli-arc-seconds and axial ratios between 1.5 to 3. The image position angles oriented perpendicular to the galactic plane are interpreted in terms of elongation of electron-density irregularities parallel to the galactic plane, due to a similarly aligned local magnetic field. However, we find the apparent angular sizes on the average a factor of 2.5 less than those reported by Desai et al., indicating significantly less scattering than inferred earlier. The average position angle of the scattered broadened images is also seen to deviate significantly (by about 10 degrees) from that implied by the magnetic field in the Galactic plane. More intriguingly, for a few Zeeman pairs in our set, we find significant differences in the scatter broadened images for the two hands of polarization, even when apparent velocity separation is less than 0.1 km/s. Here we present the details of our observations and analysis, and discuss the interesting implications of our results for the intervening anisotropic magneto-ionic medium, as well as a comparison with the expectations based on earlier work.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of short time-scale variability of OH masers within a contiguous 15-hour Very Long Baseline Array observation of the high-mass star-forming region, W3 (OH). With an angular resolution of ~7 mas and a velocity resolution of 53 m s-1, we isolate emission from masers in the field into individual Gaussian-shaped components, each a few milliarcseconds in size. We compute dynamic spectra for individual maser features with a time resolution of 1 minute by fitting for the flux density of all sources in the field simultaneously in the uv-domain. We isolate intrinsic maser variability from interstellar scintillation and instrumental effects. We find fluctuations in the maser line shape on time scales of 5 to 20 minutes, corresponding to maser column lengths of 0.5 to 2.0 Astronomical Units.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: The structure function of opacity fluctuations is a useful statistical tool to study tiny scale structures of neutral hydrogen. Here we present high-resolution observation of H I absorption toward 3C 138, and estimate the structure function of opacity fluctuations from the combined VLA, MERLIN, and VLBA data. The angular scales probed in this work are ~10-200 mas (about 5-100 AU). The structure function in this range is found to be well represented by a power law S τ(x) ~ x β with index β ~ 0.33 ± 0.07 corresponding to a power spectrum P τ(U) ~ U –2.33. This is slightly shallower than the earlier reported power-law index of ~2.5-3.0 at ~1000 AU to few pc scales. The amplitude of the derived structure function is a factor of ~20-60 times higher than the extrapolated amplitude from observation of Cas A at larger scales. On the other hand, extrapolating the AU scale structure function for 3C 138 predicts the observed structure function for Cas A at the pc scale correctly. These results clearly establish that the atomic gas has significantly more structures in AU scales than expected from earlier pc scale observations. Some plausible reasons are identified and discussed here to explain these results. The observational evidence of a shallower slope and the presence of rich small-scale structures may have implications for the current understanding of the interstellar turbulence.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present high angular resolution continuum observations of the high-mass protostar NGC 7538 S with BIMA and CARMA at 3 and 1.4 mm, Very Large Array (VLA) observations at 1.3, 2, 3.5, and 6 cm, and archive Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) observations from the Spitzer Space Observatory, which detect the star at 4.5, 5.8, and 8 μm. The star looks rather unremarkable in the mid-IR. The excellent positional agreement of the IRAC source with the VLA free-free emission, the OH, CH3OH, H2O masers, and the dust continuum confirms that this is the most luminous object in the NGC 7538 S core. The continuum emission at millimeter wavelengths is dominated by dust emission from the dense cold cloud core surrounding the protostar. Including all array configurations, the emission is dominated by an elliptical source with a size of ~8'' × 3''. If we filter out the extended emission we find three compact millimeter sources inside the elliptical core. The strongest one, SA, coincides with the VLA/IRAC source and resolves into a double source at 1.4 mm, where we have subarcsecond resolution. The measured spectral index, α, between 3 and 1.4 mm is ~2.3, and steeper at longer wavelengths, suggesting a low dust emissivity or that the dust is optically thick. We argue that the dust in these accretion disks is optically thick and estimate a mass of an accretion disk or infalling envelope surrounding SA to be ~60 M ☉.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

10k Citations
2,709.48 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1973-2015
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      • Very Large Array (VLA)
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 1976-2013
    • University of Tasmania
      • School of Mathematics & Physics
      Hobart Town, Tasmania, Australia
    • Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2004-2011
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Buenos Aires
      Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina
  • 1980-2009
    • University of Bonn
      • Argelander-Institute of Astronomy
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2007-2008
    • New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Socorro, New Mexico, United States
    • National University of La Plata
      • Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas
      Eva Perón, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • 2006
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Physics
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2004-2005
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 2003-2005
    • University of New Mexico
      • Department of Physics & Astronomy
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
  • 1983-2004
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Radio Astronomy Laboratory
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2002
    • Agnes Scott College
      Louisiana, United States
  • 1975-2002
    • Raman Research Institute
      Bengalūru, Karnātaka, India
  • 1977-1998
    • University of Sydney
      • School of Physics
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1996
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      North Carolina, United States
  • 1994
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 1991-1993
    • Middlebury College
      • Department of Physics
      Middlebury, Indiana, United States
  • 1992
    • Bureau of Materials & Physical Research
      Springfield, Illinois, United States
    • University of Oklahoma
      Norman, Oklahoma, United States
  • 1974-1990
    • University of Groningen
      • Kapteyn Astronomical Institute
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1976-1987
    • The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
      • Australia Telescope National Facility
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • 1984
    • Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
      Mumbai, Mahārāshtra, India
  • 1978
    • The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom