W G Blackard

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States

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Publications (83)498.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle cell membrane phospholipids (PLs) is known to influence insulin responsiveness in man. We have recently shown that the fatty acid composition of phosphatidylcholine (PC), and not phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), from skeletal muscle membranes is of particular importance in this relationship. Efforts to alter the PL fatty acid composition in animal models have demonstrated induction of insulin resistance. However, it has been more difficult to determine if changes in insulin sensitivity are associated with changes in the skeletal muscle membrane fatty acid composition of PL in man. Using nicotinic acid (NA), an agent known to induce insulin resistance in man, 9 normal subjects were studied before and after treatment for 1 month. Skeletal muscle membrane fatty acid composition of PC and PE from biopsies of vastus lateralis was correlated with insulin responsiveness using a 3-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Treatment with NA was associated with a 25% increase in the half-maximal insulin concentration ([ED50] 52.0 +/- 7.5 to 64.6 +/- 9.0 microU/mL, P < .05), consistent with decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity. Significant changes in the fatty acid composition of PC, but not PE, were also observed after NA administration. An increase in the percentage of 16:0 (21% +/- 0.3% to 21.7% +/- 0.4%, P < .05) and decreases in 18:0 (6.2% +/- 0.5% to 5.1% +/- 0.4%, P = .01), long-chain n-3 fatty acids (1.7% +/- 0.2% to 1.4% +/- 0.1%, P < .01), and total polyunsaturated fatty acids ([PUFAs] 8.7% +/- 0.8% to 8.0% +/- 0.8%, P < .05) are consistent with a decrease in fatty acid length and unsaturation in PC following NA administration. The change in ED50 was significantly correlated with the change in PUFAs (r = -.65, P < .05). These studies suggest that the induction of insulin resistance with NA is associated with changes in the fatty acid composition of PC in man.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Metabolism
  • J N Clore · J Li · R Gill · S Gupta · R Spencer · A Azzam · W Zuelzer · W B Rizzo · W G Blackard
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    ABSTRACT: The fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids (PL) is known to influence insulin responsiveness in humans. However, the contribution of the major PL of the outer (phosphatidylcholine, PC) and inner (phosphatidylethanolamine, PE) layers of the sarcolemma to insulin sensitivity is not known. Fatty acid composition of PC and PE from biopsies of vastus lateralis from 27 normal men and women were correlated with insulin sensitivity determined by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique at insulin infusion rates of 0.4, 1.0, and 10.0 mU . kg-1 . min-1. Significant variation in the half-maximal insulin concentration (ED50) was observed in the normal volunteers (range 24.0-146.0 microU/ml), which correlated directly with fasting plasma insulin (r = 0.75, P < 0.0001). ED50 was inversely correlated with the degree of membrane unsaturation (C20-C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids; r = 0. 58, P < 0.01) and directly correlated with fatty acid elongation (ratio of 16:0 to 18:0, r = 0.45, P < 0.05) in PC. However, no relationship between fatty acid composition and insulin sensitivity was observed in PE (NS). These studies suggest that the fatty acid composition of PC may be of particular importance in the relationship between fatty acids and insulin sensitivity in normal humans.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1998 · The American journal of physiology
  • William G. Blackard · Jing Li · John N. Clore · William B. Rizzo
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    ABSTRACT: The fatty acid composition of the membrane phospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine in insulin-sensitive Type I (soleus) and insulin-resistant Type II (EDL) muscle is not known. In the present studies, soleus and EDL muscles were removed from 250-300 g Sprague-Dawley rats, and the fatty acid composition of total and individual phospholipid (PL) species was quantitated. As expected, triglyceride content was increased twofold in soleus muscle. No quantitative differences in the individual PL species or cholesterol content were found between the two muscles. However, a striking difference in PL fatty acid composition was observed in the PC fraction. An increase in 16:0 with decreases in 18:0, 18:1, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 (P < 0.001 for each) was observed in the PC fraction of EDL compared to that from soleus, consistent with reduced elongation of PC fatty acids. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation with the carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 inhibitor, etomoxir, did not alter the fatty acid pattern in either muscle. We conclude that an alteration in PL fatty acid composition consistent with reduced elongation of both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids is observed in Type II muscle. The restriction of these alterations to the PC fraction has important implications.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1997 · Lipids
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    J N Clore · S T Helm · W G Blackard
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of increased glycogen stores on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism, 15 nondiabetic volunteers were studied before and after 4 d of progressive overfeeding. Glucose production and gluconeogenesis were assessed with [2-3H] glucose and [6-14C] glucose (Study I, n = 6) or [3-3H] glucose and [U-14C]-alanine (Study II, n = 9) and substrate oxidation was determined by indirect calorimetry. Overfeeding was associated with significant (P < 0.01) increases in plasma glucose (4.97 +/- 0.10 to 5.09 +/- 0.11 mmol/liter), insulin (18.8 +/- 1.5 to 46.6 +/- 10.0 pmol/liter) and carbohydrate oxidation (4.7 +/- 1.4 to 18.0 +/- 1.5 mumol.kg-1.min-1) and a decrease in lipid oxidation (1.2 +/- 0.2 to 0.3 +/- 0.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1). Hepatic glucose output (HGO) increased in Study I (10.2 +/- 0.5 to 13.1 +/- 0.9 mumol.kg-1.min-1, P < 0.01) and Study II (11.17 +/- 0.67 to 13.33 +/- 0.83 mumol.kg-1.min-1, P < 0.01), and gluconeogenesis decreased (57.6 +/- 6.4 to 33.4 +/- 4.9 mumol/min, P < 0.01), indicating an increase in glycogenolysis. The increase in glycogenolysis was only partly compensated by an increase in glucose cycle activity (2.2 +/- 0.2 to 3.4 +/- 0.4 mumol.kg-1.min-1, P < 0.01) and the fall in gluconeogenesis, thus resulting in increased HGO. The suppression of gluconeogenesis despite increased lactate and alanine (glycerol was decreased) was associated with decreased free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation and negligible FFA enhanced gluconeogenesis. These studies suggest that increased liver glycogen stores alone can overwhelm normal intrahepatic mechanisms regulating carbohydrate metabolism resulting in increased HGO in nondiabetic man.
    Preview · Article · Nov 1995 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
  • W G Blackard · J N Clore · J M Kellum
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    ABSTRACT: Amylin/insulin secretory ratios were determined in nine morbidly obese subjects consenting to portal venous catheterization at the time of gastric bypass surgery. By subtracting recirculating insulin and amylin concentrations (arterial values) from portal venous hormone concentrations, instantaneous amylin/insulin secretory ratios could be determined before and after iv glucose administration. Baseline portal venous amylin levels were 32% higher than peripheral concentrations (7.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 5.6 +/- 0.6 pmol/L). Portal venous amylin and insulin concentrations peak 90 s after the initiation of a 2-min glucose infusion. When instantaneously secreted amylin and insulin were compared at each of the eight time points, a highly significant correlation was observed in seven of the nine subjects. However, large interindividual variations in amylin/insulin secretory ratios were observed, with molar ratios from 0.2-1.6%. The amylin/insulin secretory ratios calculated at the time of surgery varied inversely (r = -0.89; P < 0.001) with glucose disappearance rates obtained 5-7 months later after 19- to 29-kg weight loss. These data corroborate those obtained from animal studies and indicate that amylin and insulin are cosecreted in man. Despite evidence for cosecretion of amylin and insulin, the large intersubject variation in amylin/insulin secretory ratios and its inverse correlation with glucose disappearance rates suggest a constitutional factor that may either play a role in the pathogenesis of carbohydrate intolerance or result from it.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1994 · Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
  • J N Clore · W G Blackard
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of inhibition of gluconeogenesis on liver glycogen stores in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) after a 3-day fast, 10% ethanol (EtOH) was administered intravenously to nine obese patients with NIDDM and six obese nondiabetic subjects. Rates of glucose appearance (3-[3H]glucose) and [U-14C]alanine incorporation into glucose (alanine gluconeogenesis [Ala-GNG]) were determined before and during EtOH administration, and residual glycogen stores were assessed by the incremental glucose response to glucagon (glucoseAUC). Hepatic glucose output (HGO) was closely correlated with plasma glucose levels (r = 0.71, P < 0.001) after the 3-day fast and was significantly greater in the diabetic compared with the nondiabetic subjects (13.8 +/- 1.4 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.6 mumol.kg-1 FFM.min-1, P < 0.01). During the 120-min EtOH infusion, Ala-GNG fell by more than 50% in both groups and did not increase after intravenous glucagon administration. HGO fell modestly in both the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects during the first 30 min of EtOH infusion and stabilized thereafter. In contrast to Ala-GNG, HGO increased significantly after intravenous glucagon administration in both the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects, but the increase was significantly greater in the patients with NIDDM (P < 0.01). The glucose area under the curve in response to glucagon (glucoseAUC) was lower in the presence of EtOH than in its absence (14.9 +/- 7 vs. 68 +/- 15.6 mM/min, P < 0.01) in the obese nondiabetic subjects, which suggests a decrease in liver glycogen stores.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    No preview · Article · Mar 1994 · Diabetes
  • W G Blackard
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    ABSTRACT: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) occurs predominantly after the age of 50 years but is not easy to distinguish from late onset insulin-dependent diabetes. It is likely that misclassification is rare in a Caucasian population.Whilst NIDDM is widely believed to be genetically determined, recent epidemiological observations have consistently revealed statistical associations between indices of poor fetal and infant growth with susceptibility to loss of glucose tolerance in adult life. A possible explanation of these observations is that environmental constraints on fetal growth lead to permanent changes in organogenesis such that a poor capacity for insulin secretion and insulin resistance result. It is postulated that these adaptive responses serve to preserve the growth of certain organs, such as the brain, at the expense of others, such as the viscera. In addition, alterations in the function of organs, such as the liver, serve to aid survival of the offspring under conditions of poor postnatal nutrition.The results of studies of an animal model in which pregnant rats were fed a reduced protein diet are consistent with these concepts.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1994 · Current therapy in endocrinology and metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies demonstrate an association between increased waist to hip ratio ([WHR] android obesity, central obesity) and diabetes mellitus in man. To study the relative insulin sensitivity of splanchnic versus peripheral adipose tissue, portal vein catheterization via the collapsed umbilical vein was performed in 14 morbidly obese subjects at the time of surgery. Catheters were also placed in a peripheral artery and antecubital vein such that simultaneous arterio-venous (A-V) differences (glycerol, free fatty acids [FFA], and lactate) could be determined. After two baseline samples obtained 3 minutes apart, 25 g intravenous (i.v.) glucose (14 subjects) was administered over a 2-minute period, with samples being obtained every 5 minutes for 30 additional minutes. Arterial plasma glycerol levels decreased from 173.9 +/- 17.4 mumol/L at baseline to 89.1 +/- 7.6 mumol/L at 30 minutes (P < .01). Peripheral and splanchnic A-V glycerol differences were similar at baseline, but within 10 minutes after glucose administration the difference across the splanchnic area decreased by 52% and remained significantly less than that across the periphery (P < .01). Despite a 49% decrease in arterial plasma glycerol level, plasma FFA level decreased only 18.3% over the 30-minute period (942 +/- 74.8 to 770.0 +/- 76 mumol/L, NS). These studies in morbidly obese man (glycerol data) indicate a greater insulin sensitivity of splanchnic adipose tissue than of peripheral adipose tissue. Thus hypertrophy of fat in the splanchnic area might be an expected consequence of the hyperinsulinemia associated with insulin-resistant states.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1993 · Metabolism
  • Jing Li · Julie S. Stillman · John N. Clore · William G. Blackard
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    ABSTRACT: The glucose-free fatty acid (FFA) cycle (Randle) was examined in soleus muscle, a red muscle with a high lipid oxidation rate, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle, a white muscle with a low lipid oxidation rate, using a carnitine palmethyltransferase (CPT-I) inhibitor as a probe. Exogenous palmitate by itself had little if any effect on glycolysis or glycogen accumulation in the two muscle types. The CPT-I inhibitor markedly decreased glycogen accumulation in both muscles (from fed rats), but increased glycolysis (lactate formation) and glucose oxidation to carbon dioxide only in the red muscle. When the muscles were made more dependent on FFA oxidation by prior fasting or exercise, the CPT-I stimulatory effect on glycolysis and glucose oxidation in white muscle was unmasked. In conclusion, the competition between lipid and carbohydrate utilization (Randle cycle) is easily demonstrated in both red and white muscle using a CPT-I inhibitor as a probe. The difficulties encountered in showing this competition in other studies using exogenous FFA may be explained by a combination of factors, including (1) low tissue lipid oxidation rates, (2) competition between exogenous and endogenous lipids such that provision of exogenous lipids fails to increase overall lipid oxidation, and (3) preferential utilization of exogenous glucose with glycogen sparing in the presence of FFA.
    No preview · Article · May 1993 · Metabolism
  • William G. Blackard

    No preview · Article · May 1993 · The American Journal of Medicine
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    J N Clore · J S Stillman · S T Helm · W G Blackard
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    ABSTRACT: In order to examine the role of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) in non-esterified-fatty-acid-stimulated gluconeogenesis, Fru-2,6-P2 levels were measured in cultured rat hepatocytes under conditions mimicking the fasted state. After addition of either 1.5 mM-palmitate or 10 nM-glucagon, [U-14C]lactate incorporation into glucose increased 2-fold, but only glucagon suppressed Fru-2,6-P2. Prevention of palmitate oxidation with a carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I inhibitor (2-bromopalmitate) diminished glucose production and Fru-2,6-P2 levels. Addition of exogenous glucose to the media increased Fru-2,6-P2 in a dose-related manner, which was further augmented by addition of palmitate. When Fru-2,6-P2 levels were examined in cells cultured under conditions mimicking the fed state (significantly higher basal Fru-2,6-P2 levels and lower glucose production), palmitate oxidation was associated with a significant fall in Fru-2,6-P2. In conclusion, the present studies have demonstrated a dissociation between fatty-acid-stimulated gluconeogenesis and changes in Fru-2,6-P2 in cultured rat hepatocytes. Further experiments suggest that the accumulation of intracellular hexose 6-phosphate as a result of fatty-acid-stimulated gluconeogenesis masks a putative inhibitory effect of fatty acids on Fru-2,6-P2 concentrations.
    Preview · Article · Dec 1992 · Biochemical Journal
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    J E Nestler · J N Clore · W G Blackard
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    ABSTRACT: A well-established epidemiologic association exists between hyperinsulinemia and macrovascular disease. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which hyperinsulinemia promotes atherogenesis is unknown. Recent evidence indicates that the adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) exerts multiple antiatherogenic effects and also suggests that hyperinsulinemia may reduce serum DHEA and DHEA-sulfate levels by decreasing production and enhancing metabolic clearance. We advance the hypothesis that hyperinsulinemia promotes macrovascular disease in part by reducing serum DHEA and DHEA-sulfate levels and illustrate how this may be the case in two clinical conditions characterized by hyperinsulinemic insulin resistance: aging and obesity.
    Preview · Article · Oct 1992 · The FASEB Journal
  • J N Clore · E P Post · D J Bailey · J E Nestler · W G Blackard
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    ABSTRACT: In order to assess hepatic glycogen stores in patients with noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) after a 3-day fast, the incremental glucose response to 1.0 mg iv glucagon (glucose area under the curve, glucoseAUC) was assessed in 19 obese diabetic subjects after an overnight (14 h) fast and again after a 3-day (64 h) fast. Results were compared to those of lean (n = 6) and obese (n = 15) nondiabetic subjects. During the fast, plasma glucose fell significantly in the lean (4.9 +/- 0.2 to 3.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/L), obese (5.1 +/- 0.1 to 4.2 +/- 0.2 mmol/L), and diabetic (14.7 +/- 0.7 to 10.3 +/- 1.0 mmol/L) subjects. However, in contrast to the fall in glucoseAUC observed in the lean (92.4 +/- 15.4 to 39.9 +/- 8.1 mmol min-1 L-1, P less than 0.02) and obese (64.4 +/- 11.1 to 48.4 +/- 9.4 mmol min-1 L-1) subjects, the glucoseAUC increased in diabetic subjects from 81.6 +/- 8.6 to 103.9 +/- 8.8 mmol min-1 L-1 during the fast, and was significantly greater than that of either the lean (P less than 0.001) or obese (P less than 0.001) nondiabetic subjects after the 64-h fast. Evidence that the glucose response to glucagon after a 64-h fast represents glycogenolysis and not gluconeogenesis was provided by studies in 10 additional subjects (5 obese nondiabetic subjects and 5 patients with NIDDM). Overall hepatic glucose output calculated from glucose kinetic data [( 3-3H]glucose) increased in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects during the first 30 min after glucagon administration and fell progressively thereafter. However, no increase in alanine gluconeogenesis (14C-alanine incorporation into glucose) was observed after glucagon administration in either subject group. The paradoxical accumulation of glycogen in the patients with NIDDM during the fast occurred despite basal rates of hepatic glucose output on the third day of the fast which were greater than those of obese nondiabetic subjects (9.0 +/- 1.2 vs. 5.6 +/- 0.5 mumol kg-1 min-1, P less than 0.05). A glycogen sparing action of increased gluconeogenesis is proposed as the explanation for the preservation of liver glycogen in patients with NIDDM.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1992 · Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
  • J Li · J S Stillman · J N Clore · W G Blackard
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    ABSTRACT: Soleus (red) and extensor digitorum longus (white) muscles from Sprague Dawley rats were incubated with 6-14C-labelled glucose in normal and in hyperosmotic media. Hyperosmolarity decreased 6-14C-glucose incorporation into muscle glycogen in a dose dependent manner and increased glycolysis and glucose oxidation. Increased glycogenolysis rather than decreased glycogenesis was responsible for the reduction in labelled glycogen accumulation.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1992 · Hormone and Metabolic Research
  • J E Nestler · M A McClanahan · J N Clore · W G Blackard
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    ABSTRACT: Experimentally induced hyperinsulinemia reduces serum adrenal androgen levels in man, but does not alter cortisol secretion. To determine whether insulin might selectively inhibit adrenal androgen production by suppressing 17,20-lyase activity, ACTH-stimulated androgen secretion was assessed in 10 normal men after an insulin infusion (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) or a control saline infusion. For the insulin clamp study, each man received a 2-U (14.4-nmol) insulin bolus dose, followed by a 2.0-mU/kg.min (14.4-pmol/kg.min) insulin infusion for 5 h. An average insulin level of 746 +/- 35 (+/- SE) pmol/L was achieved; serum glucose was maintained at 4.96 +/- 0.03 mmol/L. At the end of the insulin infusion, an ACTH stimulation test was performed, and serum steroid levels were determined 30 and 60 min later. Subjects returned 1-3 weeks later for control studies, during which 0.45% saline was infused at rates matched exactly to the rates of the dextrose and insulin infusions during the insulin clamp studies, and an ACTH stimulation test was performed after 5 h of saline infusion. After the insulin infusion, stimulation by ACTH resulted in a significant rise in the serum molar ratio of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone to androstenedione (from 0.914 +/- 0.110 at zero time to 1.388 +/- 0.278 60 min after ACTH; P less than 0.05), whereas no change occurred in the ACTH-stimulated ratio of these steroids after the saline infusion (1.067 +/- 0.109 at zero time to 1.060 +/- 0.109 60 min after ACTH; P = NS). The insulin-induced change in this steroid ratio was due to a relative increase in precursor (17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone) and decrease in product (androstenedione) responsiveness to ACTH. Similarly, insulin treatment resulted in a greater than 100% rise in the difference from baseline in the serum molar ratio of 17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone to dehydroepiandrosterone 30-60 min after ACTH (P less than 0.004), whereas no change in this difference was observed after the saline infusion (P = 0.71). Again, the insulin-induced change in this steroid ratio was due to a relative increase in precursor (17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone) and decrease in product (dehydroepiandrosterone) responsiveness to ACTH. Of note, insulin treatment altered neither cortisol responsiveness to ACTH nor 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity, as indicated by similar ACTH-stimulated responses in the serum molar ratio of progesterone to 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone after the insulin and saline infusions (P = 0.71). Hence, the results of this study indicate that the acute elevation of serum insulin levels into the high physiological range selectively inhibits adrenal 17,20-lyase activity in man.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1992 · Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
  • J N Clore · P S Glickman · J E Nestler · W G Blackard
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the effect of increased gluconeogenesis [by increasing free fatty acids (FFA)] on hepatic glucose output (HGO) and on the first substrate (glucose) cycle, a primed continuous infusion of [2-3H]- and [6-14C]glucose was infused to isotopic steady state in 12 normal male volunteers after an overnight fast. Blood samples for the determination of glucose specific activity were obtained before and after an infusion of saline (n = 6) or 10% Intralipid and heparin (90 mU.kg-1.min-1, n = 6). Plasma FFA (593.3 +/- 74.5 to 971.1 +/- 127.1 mumol/l, P = 0.007) and glycerol (68.0 +/- 5.9 vs. 222.4 +/- 32.0 mumol/l, P = 0.002) increased during the lipid infusion, and beta-hydroxybutyrate levels rose from 0.24 +/- 0.12 to 0.50 +/- 0.17 mmol/l (P = 0.01). No change in plasma glucose, insulin, or glucagon levels was observed during the study, and levels of the gluconeogenic substrates alanine and lactate were also unchanged. Baseline rates of glucose cycling (rate of appearance of [2-3H]glucose minus rate of appearance of [6-14C]glucose) were similar in the two groups [1.44 +/- 0.33 vs. 1.33 +/- 0.44 mumol.kg-1.min-1, not significant (NS)] and did not change during either saline or lipid infusion, respectively. However, Cori cycle activity (the conversion of [6-14C]- to [1-14C]glucose) increased significantly from 0.59 +/- 0.19 to 1.28 +/- 0.19 mumol.kg-1.min-1 (P = 0.002) after FFA and glycerol levels had been increased, in marked contrast to the saline control (0.51 +/- 0.18 to 0.39 +/- 0.18 mumol.kg-1.min-1, NS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    No preview · Article · Nov 1991 · The American journal of physiology
  • J N Clore · P S Glickman · S T Helm · J E Nestler · W G Blackard
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported a fall in hepatic glucose output (HGO) during sleep accompanied by reductions in glucose utilization (Rd) and free fatty acids (FFAs). This study was undertaken to determine the potential role of changes in Rd and FFA on HGO in nondiabetic men. To determine if the fall in HGO during sleep could be reversed by FFA elevation, seven nondiabetic men underwent [3-3H]glucose infusions from 2200 to 0800, with heparin (90 mU.kg-1.min-1) added at 0200. Glucose appearance (Ra) fell from 11.7 +/- 1.1 at 2430 to 8.9 +/- 0.8 mumol.kg-1.min-1 (P less than 0.05) at 0200. The fall in Ra was associated with decreases in FFA (0.57 +/- 0.10 to 0.48 +/- 0.07 mM) and glycerol (0.08 +/- 0.01 to 0.06 +/- 0.01 mM). Infusion of heparin significantly increased FFA and glycerol (1.09 +/- 0.21 and 0.11 +/- 0.01 mM, respectively, P less than 0.01) and resulted in a significant fall in plasma alanine, suggesting that gluconeogenesis had been increased. However, rates of glucose turnover were indistinguishable from overnight studies without heparin. In additional studies (n = 6), intralipid and heparin-induced FFA elevation (from 0.61 +/- 0.07 to 0.95 +/- 0.05 mM, P less than 0.01) stimulated gluconeogenesis ([U-14C]alanine to glucose) twofold (188 +/- 22% increase compared to 114 +/- 6% in saline control studies, P less than 0.01). However, despite increasing gluconeogenesis, overall HGO did not change (10.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 10.7 +/- 0.6 mumol.kg-1.min-1) during lipid infusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    No preview · Article · Sep 1991 · Diabetes
  • John E. Nestler · John N. Clore · William G. Blackard
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    ABSTRACT: Dehydroepiandrosterone (3 beta-hydroxy-5-androsten-17-one; DHA) and DHA-sulfate are abundantly produced adrenal steroids, whose serum concentrations exceed those of other adrenal steroids. Serum concentrations of DHA and DHA-sulfate, in contrast to other adrenal steroids, exhibit a progressive age-related decline. The mechanism(s) for this selective decline in serum DHA and DHA-sulfate levels and the biologic function of these steroids remain unknown. Studies examining insulin's regulation of adrenal androgens are reviewed. These studies show that experimentally-induced hyperinsulinemia lowers serum DHA and DHA-sulfate levels, and suggest that insulin reduces serum concentrations of these steroids by inhibiting production rather than by increasing clearance. Studies examining the actions of short-term pharmacologic DHA administration to young nonobese and obese men are also reviewed. These studies suggest that DHA may possess hypolipidemic and, possibly, anti-obesity properties. They have failed, however, to demonstrate any effect of DHA on tissue insulin sensitivity.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1991 · The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether hyperinsulinemia can directly reduce serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in obese women with the polycystic ovary syndrome, six obese women with this disorder were studied. Before study, ovarian steroid production was suppressed in each woman by the administration of 7.5 mg of a long-acting GnRH agonist, leuprolide depot, im, on days -56, -28, and 0. This resulted in substantial reductions in serum concentrations of testosterone (from 1.72 +/- 0.29 nmol/L on day -56 to 0.32 +/- 0.09 nmol/L on day 0), non-SHBG-bound testosterone (from 104 +/- 16 pmol/L on day -56 to 19 +/- 5 pmol/L on day 0), androstenedione (from 7.25 +/- 1.65 nmol/L on day -56 to 2.78 +/- 0.94 nmol/L on day 0), estrone (from 371 +/- 71 pmol/L on day -56 to 156 +/- 29 pmol/L on day 0), estradiol (from 235 +/- 26 pmol/L on day -56 to 90 +/- 24 pmol/L on day 0), and progesterone (from 0.28 +/- 0.12 nmol/L on day -56 to 0.08 +/- 0.02 nmol/L on day 0). Serum SHBG levels, however, did not change (18.8 +/- 2.8 nmol/L on day -56 vs. 17.8 +/- 2.6 nmol/L on day 0). While continuing leuprolide treatment, the women were administered oral diazoxide (300 mg/day) for 10 days to suppress serum insulin levels. Diazoxide treatment resulted in suppressed insulin release during a 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (insulin area under the curve, 262 +/- 55 nmol/min.L on day 0 vs. 102 +/- 33 nmol/min.L on day 10; P less than 0.05) and deterioration of glucose tolerance. Serum testosterone, androstenedione, estrone, estradiol, and progesterone levels did not change during combined diazoxide and leuprolide treatment. In contrast, serum SHBG levels rose by 32% from 17.8 +/- 2.6 nmol/L on day 0 to 23.5 +/- 2.0 nmol/L on day 10 (P less than 0.003). Due primarily to the rise in serum SHBG levels, serum non-SHBG-bound testosterone levels fell by 43% from 19 +/- 5 pmol/L on day 0 to 11 +/- 4 pmol/L on day 10 (P = 0.05). These observations suggest that hyperinsulinemia directly reduces serum SHBG levels in obese women with the polycystic ovary syndrome independently of any effect on serum sex steroids.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1991 · Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic patients manifest increased vascular permeability. To determine whether insulin per se might increase vascular permeability, five nondiabetic men were studied by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique. Each subject received a 0.72-nmol/kg body wt i.v. insulin bolus, followed by a 72-pmol.kg-1.min-1 insulin infusion for 4 h. Euglycemia was maintained by the Biostator glucose controller. At 7 h of study, 10 microCi i.v. 125I-labeled albumin was injected as bolus dose. Frequent blood samples were drawn during the next 70 min for determination of the transcapillary escape rate (TER) of albumin. Subjects returned 1-2 wk later for a control study, during which 0.45% saline was infused at a rate identical to the dextrose and insulin infusion rates during the hyperinsulinemic clamp. The mean +/- SE serum insulin levels during the hyperinsulinemic clamp and saline infusion were 9786 +/- 126 and 46 +/- 4 pM, respectively, whereas serum glucose during the two sessions was similar (5.0 +/- 0.2 vs. 4.8 +/- 0.1 mM, NS). Identical fluid volumes were infused during the two sessions (1767 +/- 197 ml/7 h), and urine outputs did not differ significantly (1615 +/- 309 vs. 1035 +/- 248 ml/7 h). The TER of albumin was greater in all five men after hyperinsulinemia than after saline infusion (18.3 +/- 2.7 vs. -2.8 +/- 2.3%/h, P = 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    No preview · Article · Nov 1990 · Diabetes

Publication Stats

3k Citations
498.19 Total Impact Points


  • 1984-1997
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • • Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism
      • • School of Medicine
      Richmond, Virginia, United States
  • 1993
    • Richmond College
      Virginia Beach, Virginia, United States
  • 1988-1993
    • Richmond VA Medical Center
      Richmond, Virginia, United States
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1979
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Medicine
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1967-1976
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      • • Department of Physiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
  • 1975
    • Louisiana State University
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 1971
    • Tulane University
      • Department of Medicine
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States