Are you Wendelin Frick?

Claim your profile

Publications (24)70.08 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel molecular mechanism for the regulation of lipid metabolism by palmitate, H2O2 and the anti-diabetic sulfonylurea drug, glimepiride, in rat adipocytes was recently elucidated. It encompasses the translocation of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI-) and (c)AMP degrading enzymes Gce1 and CD73 from detergent-insoluble glycolipid-enriched microdomains of the plasma membrane (DIGs) to intracellular lipid droplets (LD), the incorporation of Gce1 and CD73 into vesicles (adiposomes) which are then released from donor adipocytes and finally the transfer of Gce1 and CD73 from the adiposomes to acceptor adipocytes, where they degrade (c)AMP at the LD surface. Here the stimulation of esterification and inhibition of lipolysis by synthetic phosphoinositolglycans (PIGs), such as PIG37, which represents the glycan component of the GPI anchor, are shown to be correlated to translocation from DIGs to LD and release into adiposomes of Gce1 and CD73. PIG37 actions were blocked upon disruption of DIGs, inactivation of PIG receptor and removal of adiposomes from the incubation medium as was true for those induced by palmitate, H2O2 or glimepiride. In contrast, only the latter actions were dependent on the GPI-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC), which may generate PIGs, or on exogenous PIG37 in case of inhibited GPI-PLC. At submaximal concentrations PIG37 and palmitate, H2O2 or glimepiride acted in synergistic fashion. These data suggest that PIGs provoke the transfer of GPI-proteins from DIGs via LD and adiposomes of donor adipocytes to acceptor adipocytes and thereby mediate the regulation of lipid metabolism by palmitate, H2O2 and glimepiride between adipocytes.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
  • Source
    G Müller · C Jung · S Wied · G Biemer-Daub · W Frick
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In addition to predominant localization at detergent-insoluble, glycolipid-enriched plasma membrane microdomains (DIGs), glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-proteins) have been found associated with lipid droplets (LDs) and adiposomes. Adiposomes are vesicles that are released from adipocytes in response to anti-lipolytic and lipogenic signals, such as H(2)O(2), palmitate and the antidiabetic sulfonylurea drug, glimepiride, and harbour (c)AMP-degrading GPI-proteins, among them the 5-nucleotidase CD73. Here the role of adiposomes in GPI-protein-mediated information transfer was studied. Adiposomes were incubated with isolated rat adipocytes under various conditions. Trafficking of CD73 and lipid synthesis were analysed. Upon blockade of GPI-protein trafficking, CD73 specifically associated with DIGs of small, and to a lower degree, large, adipocytes. On reversal of the blockade, CD73 appeared at cytosolic LD in time- adiposome concentration- and signal (H(2)O(2) > glimepiride > palmitate)-dependent fashion. The salt- and carbonate-resistant association of CD73 with structurally intact DIGs and LD was dependent on its intact GPI anchor. Upon incubation with small and to a lower degree, large adipocytes, adiposomes increased lipid synthesis in the absence or presence of H(2)O(2), glimepiride and palmitate and improved the sensitivity toward these signals. Upregulation of lipid synthesis by adiposomes was dependent on the translocation of CD73 with intact GPI anchors from DIGs to LD. The signal-induced transfer of GPI-anchored CD73 from adiposomes via DIGs to LD of adipocytes mediates paracrine upregulation of lipid synthesis within the adipose tissue.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · British Journal of Pharmacology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sulphonylurea drugs have been widely used in the safe and efficacous therapy of type II diabetes during the past five decades. They lower blood glucose predominantly via the stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells. However, a moderate insulin-independent regulation of fatty acid esterification and release in adipose tissue cells has been reported for certain sulphonylureas, in particular for glimepiride. On basis of the known pleiotropic pathogenesis of type II diabetes with a combination of beta-cell failure and peripheral, including adipocyte, insulin resistance, anti-diabetic drugs exerting both insulin releasing- and fatty acid-metabolizing activities in a more balanced and potent fashion may be of advantage. However, the completely different molecular mechanisms underlying the insulin-releasing and fatty acid-metabolizing activities, as have been delineated so far for glimepiride, may hamper their optimization within a single sulphonylurea molecule. By analyzing conventional sulphonylureas and novel glimepiride derivatives for their activities at the primary targets and downstream steps in both beta-cells and adipocytes in vitro we demonstrate here that the insulin-releasing and fatty acid-metabolizing activities are critically dependent on both overlapping and independent structural determinants. These were unravelled by the parallel losses of these two activities in a subset of glimepiride derivatives and the impairment in the insulin-releasing activity in parallel with elevation in the fatty acid-metabolizing activity in a different subset. Together these findings may provide a basis for the design of novel sulphonylureas with blood glucose-lowering activity relying on less pronounced stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells and more pronounced insulin-independent stimulation of esterification as well as inhibition of release of fatty acids by adipocytes than provoked by the sulphonylureas currently used in therapy.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Small membrane vesicles released from large adipocytes and harbouring the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI-) AMP-degrading protein CD73 have previously been demonstrated to stimulate the signal-induced esterification of free fatty acids into neutral lipids suggesting a role of these so-called adiposomes (ADIP) in the paracrine regulation of lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue. Here the involvement of another constituent GPI-protein of ADIP, the cAMP-degrading protein Gce1 in the signal-induced inhibition of lipolysis was investigated in primary rat adipocytes. Incubation of small, and to a lower degree, large adipocytes with ADIP inhibited lipolysis and increased its sensitivity toward inhibition by H(2)O(2), the anti-diabetic drug glimepiride and palmitate. This was accompanied by the transfer of Gce1 from the ADIP to detergent-insoluble glycolipid-enriched plasma membrane microdomains (DIGs) and its subsequent translocation to cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LD) of the acceptor adipocytes. The translocation from DIGs to LD rather than the transfer from ADIP to DIGs of Gce1 was stimulated by H(2)O(2) > glimepiride > palmitate. Both transfer and translocation led to salt- and carbonate-resistant association of Gce1 with DIGs and LD, respectively, and relied on the structural integrity of the DIGs and GPI anchor of Gce1. In conclusion, the trafficking of GPI-proteins from ADIP of donor adipocytes via DIGs to LD of acceptor adipocytes mediates paracrine regulation of lipolysis within adipose tissue.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
  • Günter Müller · Sabine Over · Susanne Wied · Wendelin Frick
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of lipolysis in rat adipocytes by palmitate, H2O2 and the antidiabetic sulfonylurea drug, glimepiride, has been demonstrated to rely on the upregulated conversion of cAMP to adenosine by enzymes associated with lipid droplets (LD) rather than on cAMP degradation by the insulin-stimulated microsomal phosphodiesterase 3B (Müller, G., Wied, S., Over, S., and Frick, W. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 1259-1273). Here these two enzymes were identified as the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored phosphodiesterase, Gce1, and the 5'-nucleotidase, CD73, on basis of the following findings: (i) Photoaffinity labeling with 8-N3-[32P]cAMP and [14C]5'-FSBA of LD from palmitate-, glucose oxidase- and glimepiride-treated, but not insulin-treated and basal, adipocytes led to the identification of 54-kDA cAMP- and 62-kDa AMP-binding proteins. (ii) The amphiphilic proteins were converted into hydrophilic versions and released from the LD by chemical or enzymic treatments specifically cleaving GPI anchors, but resistant toward carbonate extraction. (iii) The cAMP-to-adenosine conversion activity was depleted from the LD by adsorption to (c)AMP-Sepharose. (iv) cAMP-binding to LD was increased upon challenge of the adipocytes with palmitate, glimepiride or glucose oxidase and abrogated by phospholipase C digestion. (v) The 62-kDa AMP-binding protein was labeled with typical GPI anchor constituents and reacted with anti-CD73 antibodies. (vi) Inhibition of the bacterial phosphatidylinitosol-specific phospholipase C or GPI anchor biosynthesis blocked both agent-dependent upregulation and subsequent loss of cAMP-to-adenosine conversion associated with LD and inhibition of lipolysis. (vii) Gce1 and CD73 can be reconstituted into and exchanged between LD in vitro. These data suggest a novel insulin-independent antilipolytic mechanism engaged by palmitate, glimepiride and H2O2 in adipocytes which involves the upregulated expression of a GPI-anchored PDE and 5'-nucleotidase at LD. Their concerted action may ensure degradation of cAMP and inactivation of hormone-sensitive lipase in the vicinity of LD.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Biochemistry
  • Günter Müller · Susanne Wied · Sabine Over · Wendelin Frick
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The release of fatty acids and glycerol from lipid droplets (LD) of mammalian adipose cells is tightly regulated by a number of counterregulatory signals and negative feedback mechanisms. In humans unrestrained lipolysis contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity and type II diabetes. In order to identify novel targets for the pharmacological interference with lipolysis, the molecular mechanisms of four antilipolytic agents were compared in isolated rat adipocytes. Incubation of the adipocytes with insulin, palmitate, glucose oxidase (for the generation of H2O2) and the antidiabetic sulfonylurea drug, glimepiride, reduced adenylyl cyclase-dependent, but not dibutyryl-cAMP-induced lipolysis as well as the translocation of hormone-sensitive lipase and the LD-associated protein, perilipin-A, to and from LD, respectively. The antilipolytic activity of palmitate, H2O2 and glimepiride rather than that of insulin was dependent on rolipram-sensitive but cilostamide-insensitive phosphodiesterase (PDE) but was not associated with detectable downregulation of total cytosolic cAMP and insulin signaling via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and protein kinase B. LD from adipocytes treated with palmitate, H2O2 and glimepiride were capable of converting cAMP to adenosine in vitro, which was hardly observed with those from basal cells. Conversion of cAMP to adenosine was blocked by rolipram and the 5'-nucleotidase inhibitor, AMPCP. Immunoblotting analysis revealed a limited salt-sensitive association with LD of some of the PDE isoforms currently known to be expressed in rat adipocytes. In contrast, the cAMP-to-adenosine converting activity was stripped off the LD by bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. These findings emphasize the importance of the compartmentalization of cAMP signaling for the regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, in general, and of the involvement of LD-associated proteins for cAMP degradation, in particular.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Biochemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AVE2268, a substituted glycopyranoside, is an orally active and selective inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2; IC50 = 13 nmol/L). Investigation of the pharmacological profile of AVE2268 on urinary glucose excretion (UGE) and blood glucose after glucose challenge (po or Intraperitoneal) was performed in mice and rats. AVE2268 caused a dose-dependent increase of UGE in mice (ID30 = 79 +/- 8.1 mg/kg p.o.) and rats (ID30 = 39.8 +/- 4.0 mg/kg p.o.). AVE2268 in mice was more potent to decrease blood glucose ascent when glucose was given intraperitoneally (ID50 = 13.2 +/- 3.9 mg/ kg), compared to orally administered glucose (ID50 = 26.1 +/- 3.9 mg/kg), showing that AVE2268 has no effects on SGLT 1 in the gut in vivo, which is in accordance with ist very low affinity to the SGLT 1 in vitro (IC50 >10,000 nmol/L). During an oral glucose tolerance test, AVE2268 dose-dependently increased UGE, with subsequent decreases of AUC and blood glucose. A highly significant inverse correlation between AUC and UGE was found (p < 0.001). The increase in UGE is linked to the inhibition of SGLT2 only. This profile renders AVE2268 as a new antidiabetic drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Arzneimittel-Forschung

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2007
  • Günter Müller · Andrea Schulz · Susanne Wied · Wendelin Frick
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The insulin receptor-independent insulin-mimetic signalling provoked by the antidiabetic sulfonylurea drug, glimepiride, is accompanied by the redistribution and concomitant activation of lipid raft-associated signalling components, such as the acylated tyrosine kinase, pp59(Lyn), and some glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-proteins). We now found that impairment of glimepiride-induced lipolytic cleavage of GPI-proteins in rat adipocytes by the novel inhibitor of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC), GPI-2350, caused almost complete blockade of (i) dissociation from caveolin-1 of pp59(Lyn) and GPI-proteins, (ii) their redistribution from high cholesterol- (hcDIGs) to low cholesterol-containing (lcDIGs) lipid rafts, (iii) tyrosine phosphorylation of pp59(Lyn) and insulin receptor substrate-1 protein (IRS-1) and (iv) stimulation of glucose transport as well as (v) inhibition of isoproterenol-induced lipolysis in response to glimepiride. In contrast, blockade of the moderate insulin activation of the GPI-PLC and of lipid raft protein redistribution by GPI-2350 slightly reduced insulin signalling and metabolic action, only. Importantly, in response to both insulin and glimepiride, lipolytically cleaved hydrophilic GPI-proteins remain associated with hcDIGs rather than redistribute to lcDIGs as do their uncleaved amphiphilic versions. In conclusion, GPI-PLC controls the localization within lipid rafts and thereby the activity of certain GPI-anchored and acylated signalling proteins. Its stimulation is required and may even be sufficient for insulin-mimetic cross-talking to IRS-1 in response to glimepiride via redistributed and activated pp59(Lyn).
    No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Biochemical Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intestinal cholesterol absorption is an important regulator of serum cholesterol levels. Ezetimibe is a specific inhibitor of intestinal cholesterol absorption recently introduced into medical practice; its mechanism of action, however, is still unknown. Ezetimibe neither influences the release of cholesterol from mixed micelles in the gut lumen nor the transfer of cholesterol to the enterocyte brush border membrane. With membrane-impermeable Ezetimibe analogues we could demonstrate that binding of cholesterol absorption inhibitors to the brush border membrane of small intestinal enterocytes from the gut lumen is sufficient for inhibition of cholesterol absorption. A 145-kDa integral membrane protein was identified as the molecular target for cholesterol absorption inhibitors in the enterocyte brush border membrane by photoaffinity labeling with photoreactive Ezetimibe analogues (Kramer, W., Glombik, H., Petry, S., Heuer, H., Schafer, H. L., Wendler, W., Corsiero, D., Girbig, F., and Weyland, C. (2000) FEBS Lett. 487, 293-297). The 145-kDa Ezetimibe-binding protein was purified by three different methods and sequencing revealed its identity with the membrane-bound ectoenzyme aminopeptidase N ((alanyl)aminopeptidase; EC 3.4.11.2; APN; leukemia antigen CD13). The enzymatic activity of APN was not influenced by Ezetimibe (analogues). The uptake of cholesterol delivered by mixed micelles by confluent CaCo-2 cells was partially inhibited by Ezetimibe and nonabsorbable Ezetimibe analogues. Preincubation of confluent CaCo-2 cells with Ezetimibe led to a strong decrease of fluorescent APN staining with a monoclonal antibody in the plasma membrane. Independent on its enzymatic activity, aminopeptidase N is involved in endocytotic processes like the uptake of viruses. Our findings suggest that binding of Ezetimibe to APN from the lumen of the small intestine blocks endocytosis of cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains, thereby limiting intestinal cholesterol absorption.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Journal of Biological Chemistry

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2004
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The design and synthesis of a biotin-tagged photoreactive analogue C-4 of the cholesterol absorption inhibitor Ezetimibe is described. Photoaffinity labeling of intestinal brush border membrane vesicles with C-4 and subsequent streptavidin-biotin chromatography leads to selective extraction of a 145 kDa integral membrane protein as the molecular target for cholesterol absorption inhibitors.
    Full-text · Article · May 2003 · Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The phosphoinositolglycan(-peptide) (PIG-P) portion of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored plasma membrane (GPI) proteins or synthetic PIG(-P) molecules interact with proteinaceous binding sites which are located in high-cholesterol-containing detergent/carbonate-insoluble glycolipid-enriched raft domains (hcDIGs) of the plasma membrane. In isolated rat adipocytes, PIG(-P) induce the redistribution of GPI proteins from hcDIGs to low-cholesterol-containing DIGs (lcDIGs) and concomitantly provoke insulin-mimetic signaling and metabolic action. Using a set of synthetic PIG(-P) derivatives we demonstrate here that their specific binding to hcDIGs and their insulin-mimetic signaling/metabolic activity strictly correlate with respect to (i) translocation of the GPI proteins, Gce1 and 5(')-nucleotidase, from hcDIGs to lcDIGs, (ii) dissociation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, pp59(Lyn), from caveolin residing at hcDIGs, (iii) translocation of pp59(Lyn) from hcDIGs to lcDIGs, (iv) activation of pp59(Lyn), (v) tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate proteins-1/2, and finally (vi) stimulation of glucose transport. The natural PIG(-P) derived from the carboxy-terminal tripeptide of Gce1, YCN-PIG, exhibits the highest potency followed by a combination of the separate peptidylethanolamidyl and PIG constituents. We conclude that efficient positive cross-talk of PIG(-P) to the insulin signaling cascade requires their interaction with hcDIGs. We suggest that PIG(-P) thereby displace GPI proteins from binding to hcDIGs leading to their release from hcDIGs for lateral movement to lcDIGs which initiates signal transduction from DIGs via caveolin and pp59(Lyn) to the insulin receptor substrate proteins of the insulin signaling pathway.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Insulin receptor-independent activation of the insulin signal transduction cascade in insulin-responsive target cells by phosphoinositolglycans (PIG) and PIG-peptides (PIG-P) is accompanied by redistribution of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored plasma membrane proteins (GPI proteins) and dually acylated nonreceptor tyrosine kinases from detergent/carbonate-resistant glycolipid-enriched plasma membrane raft domains of high-cholesterol content (hcDIGs) to rafts of lower cholesterol content (lcDIGs). Here we studied the nature and localization of the primary target of PIG(-P) in isolated rat adipocytes. Radiolabeled PIG-P (Tyr-Cys-Asn-NH-(CH(2))(2)-O-PO(OH)O-6Manalpha1(Manalpha1-2)-2Manalpha1-6Manalpha1-4GluN1-6Ino-1,2-(cyclic)-phosphate) prepared by chemical synthesis or a radiolabeled lipolytically cleaved GPI protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which harbors the PIG-P moiety, bind to isolated hcDIGs but not to lcDIGs. Binding is saturable and abolished by pretreatment of intact adipocytes with trypsin followed by NaCl or with N-ethylmaleimide, indicating specific interaction of PIG-P with a cell surface protein. A 115-kDa polypeptide released from the cell surface by the trypsin/NaCl-treatment is labeled by [(14)C]N-ethylmaleimide. The labeling is diminished upon incubation of adipocytes with PIG-P which can be explained by direct binding of PIG-P to the 115-kDa protein and concomitant loss of its accessibility to N-ethylmaleimide. Binding of PIG-P to hcDIGs is considerably increased after pretreatment of adipocytes with (glycosyl)phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipases compatible with lipolytic removal of endogenous ligands, such as GPI proteins/lipids. These data demonstrate that in rat adipocytes synthetic PIG(-P) as well as lipolytically cleaved GPI proteins interact specifically with hcDIGs. The interaction depends on the presence of a trypsin/NaCl/NEM-sensitive 115-kDa protein located at hcDIGs which thus represents a candidate for a binding protein for exogenous insulin-mimetic PIG(-P) and possibly endogenous GPI proteins/lipids.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2002
  • Source
    Gunter Müller · Nils Hanekop · Susanne Wied · Wendelin Frick
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored plasma membrane (GPI) proteins, such as Gce1, the dually acylated nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs), such as pp59 Lyn, and the membrane protein, caveolin, together with cholesterol are typical components of detergent/carbonate-insoluble glycolipidenriched raft domains (DIGs) in the plasma membrane of most eucaryotes. Previous studies demonstrated the dissociation from caveolin and concomitant redistribution from DIGs of Gce1 and pp59 Lyn in rat adipocytes in response to four different insulin-mimetic stimuli, glimepiride, phosphoinositolglycans, caveolin-binding domain peptide, and trypsin/NaCl-treatment. We now characterized the structural basis for this dynamic of DIG components. Materials and Methods: Carbonate extracts from purified
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2002 · Molecular Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The insulin signal transduction cascade provides a number of sites downstream of the insulin receptor (IR) for cross-talk from other signaling pathways. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the IR substrates IRS-1/2 and metabolic insulin-mimetic activity in insulin-responsive cells can be provoked by soluble phosphoinositolglycans (PIG), which trigger redistribution from detergent-insoluble glycolipid-enriched raft domains (DIGs) to other areas of the plasma membrane and thereby activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NRTK) [Müller, G., Jung, C., Wied, S., Welte, S., Jordan, H., and Frick, W. (2001) Mol. Cell. Biol. 21, 4553-4567]. Here we describe that stimulation of glucose transport in isolated rat adipocytes by a different stimulus, the sulfonylurea glimepiride, is also based on IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream insulin-mimetic signaling involving activation of the NRTK, pp59(Lyn), and pp125(Fak), as well as tyrosine phosphoryation of the DIGs component caveolin. As is the case for PIG 41, glimepiride causes the concentration-dependent dissociation of pp59(Lyn) from caveolin and release of this NRTK and the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI) proteins, Gce1 and 5'-nucleotidase, from total and anti-caveolin-immunoisolated DIGs. This results in their movement to detergent-insoluble raft domains of higher buoyant density (non-DIGs areas). IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation and glucose transport activation by both glimepiride and PIG are blocked by introduction into adipocytes of the caveolin scaffolding domain peptide which mimicks the negative effect of caveolin on pp59(Lyn) activity. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the NRTK, IRS-1/2, and caveolin as well as release of the NRTK and GPI proteins from DIGs and their redistribution into non-DIGs areas in response to PIG is also inhibited by treatment of intact adipocytes with either trypsin plus salt or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). In contrast, the putative trypsin/salt/NEM-sensitive cell surface component (CIR) is not required for glimepiride-induced glucose transport, IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation, and redistribution of GPI proteins and NRTK. The data suggest that CIR is involved in concentrating signaling molecules at DIGs vs detergent-insoluble non-DIGs areas. These inhibitory interactions are relieved in response to putative physiological (PIG) or pharmacological (sulfonylurea) stimuli via different molecular mechanisms (dependent on or independent of CIR, respectively) thereby inducing IR-independent positive cross-talk to metabolic insulin signaling.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Biochemistry
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Caveolae and caveolin-containing detergent-insoluble glycolipid-enriched rafts (DIG) have been implicated to function as plasma membrane microcompartments or domains for the preassembly of signaling complexes, keeping them in the basal inactive state. So far, only limited in vivo evidence is available for the regulation of the interaction between caveolae-DIG and signaling components in response to extracellular stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that in isolated rat adipocytes, synthetic intracellular caveolin binding domain (CBD) peptide derived from caveolin-associated pp59(Lyn) (10 to 100 microM) or exogenous phosphoinositolglycan derived from glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane protein anchor (PIG; 1 to 10 microM) triggers the concentration-dependent release of caveolar components and the GPI-anchored protein Gce1, as well as the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases pp59(Lyn) and pp125(Fak), from interaction with caveolin (up to 45 to 85%). This dissociation, which parallels redistribution of the components from DIG to non-DIG areas of the adipocyte plasma membrane (up to 30 to 75%), is accompanied by tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of pp59(Lyn) and pp125(Fak) (up to 8- and 11-fold) but not of the insulin receptor. This correlates well to increased tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin and the insulin receptor substrate protein 1 (up to 6- and 15-fold), as well as elevated phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase activity and glucose transport (to up to 7- and 13-fold). Insulin-mimetic signaling by both CBD peptide and PIG as well as redistribution induced by CBD peptide, but not by PIG, was blocked by synthetic intracellular caveolin scaffolding domain (CSD) peptide. These data suggest that in adipocytes a subset of signaling components is concentrated at caveolae-DIG via the interaction between their CBD and the CSD of caveolin. These inhibitory interactions are relieved by PIG. Thus, caveolae-DIG may operate as signalosomes for insulin-independent positive cross talk to metabolic insulin signaling downstream of the insulin receptor based on redistribution and accompanying activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2001 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
  • Source
    Günter Müller · Susanne Wied · Wendelin Frick
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Signaling molecules downstream from the insulin receptor, such as the insulin receptor substrate protein 1 (IRS-1), are also activated by other receptor tyrosine kinases. Here we demonstrate that the non-receptor tyrosine kinases, focal adhesion kinase pp125FAK and Src-class kinase pp59Lyn, after insulin-independent activation by phosphoinositolglycans (PIG), can cross talk to metabolic insulin signaling in rat and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Introduction by electroporation of neutralizing antibodies against pp59Lyn and pp125FAK into isolated rat adipocytes blocked IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in response to PIG but not insulin. Introduction of peptides encompassing either the major autophosphorylation site of pp125FAK, tyrosine 397, or its regulatory loop with the twin tyrosines 576 and 577 inhibited PIG-induced IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and glucose transport. PIG-induced pp59Lyn kinase activation and pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation were impaired by the former and latter peptide, respectively. Up-regulation of pp125FAK by integrin clustering diminished PIG-induced IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and glucose transport in nonadherent but not adherent adipocytes. In conclusion, PIG induced IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation by causing (integrin antagonized) recruitment of IRS-1 and pp59Lyn to the common signaling platform molecule pp125FAK, where cross talk of PIG-like structures and extracellular matrix proteins to metabolic insulin signaling may converge, possibly for the integration of the demands of glucose metabolism and cell architecture.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2000 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
  • G Müller · W Frick
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In recent years, a number of cross-talk systems have been identified which feed into the insulin signalling cascade at the level of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) tyrosine phosphorylation, e.g., receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases and G-protein-coupled receptors. At the molecular level, a number of negative modulator and feedback systems somehow interacting with the beta-subunit (catecholamine-, phorbolester-, or tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced serine/threonine phosphorylation, carboxy-terminal trimming by a thiol-dependent protease, association of inhibitory/regulatory proteins such as RAD, PC1, PED, alpha2-HS-glycoprotein) have been identified as candidate mechanisms for the impairment of insulin receptor function by elevations in the activity and/or amount of the corresponding modification enzymes/inhibitors. Both decreased responsiveness and sensitivity of the insulin receptor beta-subunit for insulin-induced tyrosine autophosphorylation have been demonstrated in several cellular and animal models of metabolic insulin resistance as well as in the adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of diabetic patients and obese Pima Indians compared to non-obese subjects. Therefore, induction of the insulin signalling cascade by bypassing the defective insulin receptor kinase may be useful for the therapy of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. During the past two decades, phosphoinositolglycans (PIGs) of various origin have been demonstrated to exert potent insulin-mimetic metabolic effects upon incubation with cultured or isolated muscle and adipose cells. However, it remained to be elucidated whether these compounds actually manage to trigger insulin signalling and if so at which level of hierarchy within the signalling cascade the site of interference is located. Recent studies using isolated rat adipocytes and chemically synthesized PIG compounds point to IRS1/3 tyrosine phosphorylation by p59Lyn kinase as the site of cross-talk, the negative regulation of which by interaction with caveolin is apparently abrogated by PIG. This putative mechanism is thus compatible with the recently formulated caveolin signalling hypothesis, the supporting data for which are reviewed here. Though we have not obtained experimental evidence for the involvement of PIG in physiological insulin action, the potential cross-talk between insulin and PIG signalling, including the caveolae/detergent-insoluble glycolipid-enriched rafts as the compartments where the corresponding signalling components are concentrated, thus represent novel targets for signal transduction therapy.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS