[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to validate cross-correlation analysis between spontaneous slow oscillations of arterial blood pressure (aBP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) or flow velocity as a means to assess the status of cerebral autoregulation continuously, we compared its results with different autoregulation bedside tests. The second aim was to check the method's stability over longer time periods. aBP, ICP, and flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (FVMCA) was measured continuously in 13 critically ill comatose patients. Cross-correlation analysis was performed online and offline between aBP and ICP (CC [aBP → ICP]) and aBP/FVMCa (CC [aBP → FVMCA]). Three different autoregulation bedside tests (cuff deflation, transient hyperemic response, orthostatic hypotension) were performed immediately before a 29-min cross-correlation test period. In addition, continuous Cross-correlation autoregulation monitoring was performed over multiple hours (in order to analyze for stability and to assess the influence of other factors). Cluster analysis revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 (indicative for disturbed autoregulation) showed a centroid at t = -0.21 ± 3.32 sec, r = 0.43 ± 0.18 for CC [aBP → ICP], and t = 0 ± 3.14 sec, r = 0.44 ± 0.18 for CC [aBP → FVMCA]. Cluster 2 (indicative for normal autoregulation) revealed a centroid at t = 4.94 ± 3.74 sec, r = -0.4 ± 0.16 for CC [aBP → ICP], and t = 3.38 ± 4.44 sec, r = -0.38 ± 0.18 for CC [aBP → FVMCA]. Comparison between the cross-correlation test results and the bedside tests showed a sensitivity of 44-73% for CC [aBP → FVMCA], whereas CC [aBP → ICP] was more specific (60-80 %). Long-term monitoring revealed stable cross-correlation tests in about 45% of the measurement time. It is concluded that cross-correlation between aBP, ICP, and FVMCA is a valid means to monitor the autoregulation status continuously, although further improvement of sensitivity and specificity is needed to make it reliable for clinical decision making.
No preview · Article · Nov 2002 · Journal of Neurotrauma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a former study, we applied cross-correlation (CC) analysis to recordings of arterial blood pressure (BP), intracranial pressure (ICP), and intracranial blood flow velocity (FV). A lack of significant time delay and a positive correlation coefficient of slow oscillations between these parameters was interpreted as indicative of impaired cerebral autoregulation, whereas a significant time delay and a negative correlation was regarded as preserved autoregulation. To test this hypothesis, cross-correlation was applied on recordings of BP and FV (CC [BP --> FV]) in healthy volunteers with a presumably preserved cerebral autoregulation.
Study of a diagnostic test.
A total of 17 healthy volunteers.
BP was recorded by using a tonometric device, and bilateral FV in the middle cerebral arteries (MCA) was measured by transcranial Doppler sonography. Signals were sampled at a resting horizontal position for 29 mins. Cluster analysis showed a mean +/- sd time delay for CC [BP --> FV(MCA right)] of 6.45 +/- 2.1 secs, and for CC [BP --> FV(MCA left) ] of 6.09 +/- 1.8 secs. The mean correlation coefficient was -.33 +/-.17 for the left and -.36 +/-.09 for the right side. In about 30%, differing results with a correlation coefficient between -.2 and.2 and a time delay near zero were found. Cross-correlation between left and right FV showed a mean time delay of 0.09 +/- 0.18 secs, with a mean correlation coefficient of.82 +/-.16. CONCLUSION Spontaneous slow oscillations of BP and FV were detected, and cross-correlation analysis showed a negative correlation and a positive time delay in about 70% of the examinations. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that CC [BP --> FV] might be able to assess the status of cerebral autoregulation continuously. The observed time delay between BP and FV oscillations is in good agreement with former studies on the dynamic properties of cerebral autoregulation.
No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · Critical Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temporary arterial occlusion (TAO) during aneurysm surgery carries the risk of ischemic sequelae. Because monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may limit neurological damage, the authors evaluated a novel thermal diffusion (TD) microprobe for use in the continuous and quantitative assessment of rCBF during TAO.
Following subcortical implantation of the device at a depth of 20 mm in the middle cerebral artery or anterior cerebral artery territory, rCBF was continuously monitored by TD microprobe (TD-rCBF) throughout surgery in 20 patients harboring anterior circulation aneurysms; 46 occlusive episodes were recorded. Postoperative radiographic evidence of new infarction was used as the threshold for failure of occlusion tolerance. The mean subcortical TD-rCBF decreased from 27.8+/-8.4 ml/100 g/min at baseline to 13.7+/-11.1 ml/100 g/min (p < 0.0001) during TAO. The TD microprobe showed an immediate exponential decline of TD-rCBF on clip placement. On average, 50% of the total decrease was reached after 12 seconds, thus rapidly indicating the severity of hypoperfusion. Following clip removal, TD-rCBF returned to baseline levels after an average interval of 32 seconds, and subsequently demonstrated a transient hyperperfusion to 41.4+/-18.3 ml/l 00 g/min (p < 0.001). The occurrence of postoperative infarction (15%) and the extent of postischemic hyperperfusion correlated with the depth of occlusion-induced ischemia.
The new TD microprobe provides a sensitive, continuous, and real-time assessment of intraoperative rCBF during TAO. Occlusion-induced ischemia is reliably detected within the 1st minute after clip application. In the future, this may enable the surgeon to alter the surgical strategy early after TAO to prevent ischemic brain injury.
No preview · Article · Sep 2001 · Journal of Neurosurgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various biological signals show nonpulsatile, slow rhythmic oscillations. These include arterial blood pressure (aBP), blood flow velocity in cerebral arteries, intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral microflow, and cerebral tissue PO2. Generation and interrelations between these rhythmic fluctuations remained unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze whether stable dynamic interrelations in the low-frequency range exist between these different variables, and if they do, to analyze their exact time delay.
In a clinical study, 16 comatose patients with either higher-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage or severe traumatic brain injury were examined. A multimodal digital data acquisition system was used to simultaneously monitor aBP, flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (FVMCA), ICP, cerebral microflow, and oxygen saturation in the jugular bulb (SjO2). Cross-correlation as a means to analyze time delay and correlation between two periodic signals was applied to a time series of 30 minutes' duration divided into four segments of 2048 data points (approximately 436 seconds) each. This resulted in four cross-correlations for each 30-minute time series. If the four cross-correlations were consistent and reproducible, averaging of the original cross-correlations was performed, resulting in a representative time delay and correlation for the complete 30-minute interval.
Reproducible cross-correlations and stable dynamic interrelations were found between aBP, FVMCA, ICP, and SjO2. The mean time delay between aBP and ICP was 6.89 +/- 1.90 seconds, with a negative correlation in 81%. A mean time delay of 1.50 +/- 1.29 seconds (median, 0.85 seconds) was found between FVMCA and ICP, with a positive correlation in 94%. The mean delay between ICP and SjO2 was 9.47 +/- 2.21 seconds, with a positive correlation in 77%. Mean values of aBP and ICP did not influence the time delay and dynamic interrelation between the different parameters.
These results strongly support Rosner's theory that ICP B-waves are the autoregulatory response of spontaneous fluctuations of cerebral perfusion pressure. There is casuistic evidence that failure of autoregulation significantly modifies time delay and the correlation between aBP and ICP.