[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 87 patients with hereditary hemochromatosis, osteoporosis was detected in 25%, and osteopenia in 41%. Bone mineral density was independently associated with BMI, ALP levels, hypogonadism/menopause, and the amount of iron removed to reach depletion, but not with cirrhosis. Osteoporosis is influenced by iron overload in hemochromatosis.
To analyze prevalence, clinical characteristics and genetic background associated with osteoporosis in a retrospective study in Italian patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC).
In 87 consecutive patients with HHC, bone mineral density was systematically evaluated by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (n = 87) and femoral neck (n = 66).
Osteoporosis was detected in 22 (25.3%), and osteopenia in 36 (41.4%) patients. Mean Z scores were -0.92 +/- 1.42 at lumbar spine and -0.35 +/- 1.41 at femoral neck. Lumbar spine T-score was independently associated with total ALP (p = 0.002), hypogonadism/menopause (p = 0.026), and iron overload (p = 0.033 for ferritin and p = 0.017 for iron removed). We observed a borderline significance for BMI (p = 0.069) and smoking status (p = 0.086). Lumbar spine osteoporosis was independently associated with lower BMI (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.94), total ALP (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1-1.39 per 10 unit increase) and the amount of iron removed (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1-2.5 per 5 g increase). HFE genotypes did not differ between patients with and without osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is observed in a quarter of unselected patients with HHC, independently of the genetic background, and is associated with ALP, hypogonadism, body weight, and severity of iron overload.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Osteoporosis International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the clinical characteristics and genetic background associated with the presence of hand arthropathy, as determined by radiological findings, in Italian patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC).
In 88 consecutive unselected patients with phenotypically expressed HHC, joint involvement was systematically evaluated in plain radiographs of hands, wrists, lumbar spine, pelvis, and knees. Risk factors considered were age, sex, body mass index, alcohol abuse, organ involvement at other sites, and indices of iron overload, including ferritin, transferrin saturation, and iron removed to reach depletion. HFE genotype was also considered. The independent role of risk factors was tested by logistic regression analysis.
Thirty-two subjects (36%) showed signs of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) arthropathy. Intercarpal, radiocarpal, and chondrocalcinosis were less frequent and occurred in association with MCP arthropathy. At multivariate analysis MCP arthropathy was independently associated with older age [odds ratio (OR) 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.33/yr; p = 0.0001], higher ferritin levels at diagnosis (OR 4.17, 95% CI 1.60-13.9 for values > 1000 ng/ml; p = 0.008), the presence of the C282Y +/+ and C282Y/H63D HFE genotypes (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.09-7.87; p = 0.04), and higher percentage transferrin saturation (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1-1.1; p = 0.05). The severity of arthropathy was independently associated with older age (p = 0.03) and higher ferritin values (p = 0.05).
MCP arthropathy together with a typical pattern of joint involvement is observed in one-third of unselected patients with HHC, and is influenced by the duration and degree of the iron overload.
No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · The Journal of Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) islet cell tumors are usually not associated with a distinct clinical syndrome, although some reports suggest that they can cause a watery diarrhea syndrome similar to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) cell tumors. We report the case of a young woman with an unusual presentation of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor mainly secreting PP. The patient developed a reversible hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis very likely secondary to the presence of the tumor. The myopathy resolved following the restoration of normokaliemia using potassium supplementation and a partial laparoscopic pancreasectomy. Isolated cases of hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis induced by intestinal diseases have been described in literature but these did not include gastroenteropancreatic neoplasms. We suggest that pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors should be added to the list of intestinal diseases capable of producing hypokalemic myopathy.
No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess whether a migrant population from southern regions of Italy showed differences in osteoporosis (OP) and fracture prevalence in comparison to a population born and living in Milan, a city in northern Italy. The study group consisted of 1764 postmenopausal women born in southern Italy who migrated after age 20 to Milan, where they had lived for at least 15 years. This group was compared with a sample of 4018 postmenopausal women born, raised and living in Milan. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Univariate analysis showed a significantly higher BMI, a greater parity, a lower postmenopausal estrogen (HRT) usage and a lower calcium intake in the Southern group (SG). Densitometric values showed a mean lumbar BMD significantly lower in SG ( P<0.001), resulting in a greater prevalence of OP (30.5% versus 24.9%; P<0.001). Consistent with this result, the number of women reporting low energy fractures after menopause was higher in SG (4.8% versus 3.6%; P=0.01). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that OP was predicted by well-recognized variables, such as age, age at menopause, BMI, HRT, calcium intake together to belonging to SG, which independently increased the risk for OP by 42%. Age, age at menopause, BMI and belonging to SG significantly influenced the fracture risk, but the last variable was no longer associated with an increased fracture risk when BMD was entered in the model. Despite the results of previous epidemiological studies and protective anthropometric measures, a higher OP and fracture prevalence was found in the migrant group from southern Italy to Milan in comparison with the native sample. These differences are not solely explained by lifestyle variables. Our data suggest that changing environmental exposures can influence bone mass and fracture risk.
No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Osteoporosis International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case of tumor-induced osteomalacia in a 35-year-old woman suffering from severe bone pain and muscle weakness is described. This uncommon disease is characterized by a reduced serum phosphorus level with elevated urinary phosphate excretion, normocalcemia, high serum bone alkaline phosphatase and a deficiency of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. The tumors responsible for oncogenic osteomalacia are usually small, benign and commonly located in bone or soft tissues of the head and the limbs, so the diagnosis can often be difficult. In this case a 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy was able to detect a hemangiopericytoma located in the right mascellar sinus. Removal of the tumor resulted in the reversal of clinical and biochemical abnormalities.
No preview · Article · Jul 2003 · Clinical and experimental rheumatology