Terence Tao

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Ángeles, California, United States

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Publications (245)233.54 Total impact

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    Kevin Ford · James Maynard · Terence Tao
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    ABSTRACT: Let $p_n$ denote the $n$-th prime, and for any $k \geq 1$ and sufficiently large $X$, define the quantity $$ G_k(X) := \max_{p_{n+k} \leq X} \min( p_{n+1}-p_n, \dots, p_{n+k}-p_{n+k-1} ),$$ which measures the occurrence of chains of $k$ consecutive large gaps of primes. Recently, with Green and Konyagin, the authors showed that \[ G_1(X) \gg \frac{\log X \log \log X\log\log\log\log X}{\log \log \log X}\] for sufficiently large $X$. In this note, we combine the arguments in that paper with the Maier matrix method to show that \[ G_k(X) \gg \frac{1}{k^2} \frac{\log X \log \log X\log\log\log\log X}{\log \log \log X}\] for any fixed $k$ and sufficiently large $X$. The implied constant is effective and independent of $k$.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
  • Vitaly Bergelson · Terence Tao · Tamar Ziegler
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    ABSTRACT: Using an ergodic inverse theorem obtained in our previous paper, we obtain limit formulae for multiple ergodic averages associated with the action of (Formula Presented.). From this we deduce multiple Khintchine-type recurrence results analogous to those for ℤ-systems obtained by Bergelson, Host, and Kra, and also present some new counterexamples in this setting.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal d Analyse Mathématique
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    Hoi Nguyen · Terence Tao · Van Vu
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    ABSTRACT: Gaps (or spacings) between consecutive eigenvalues are a central topic in random matrix theory. The goal of this paper is to study the tail distribution of these gaps in various random matrix models. We give the first repulsion bound for random matrices with discrete entries and the first super-polynomial bound on the probability that a random graph has simple spectrum, along with several applications.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Probability Theory and Related Fields
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    ABSTRACT: Let $p_n$ denotes the $n$-th prime. We prove that $$\max_{p_{n+1} \leq X} (p_{n+1}-p_n) \gg \frac{\log X \log \log X\log\log\log\log X}{\log \log \log X}$$ for sufficiently large $X$, improving upon recent bounds of the first three and fifth authors and of the fourth author. Our main new ingredient is a generalization of a hypergraph covering theorem of Pippenger and Spencer, proven using the R\"odl nibble method.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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    Terence Tao · Van Vu
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    ABSTRACT: Let $M_n = (\xi_{ij})_{1 \leq i,j \leq n}$ be a real symmetric random matrix in which the upper-triangular entries $\xi_{ij}, i<j$ and diagonal entries $\xi_{ii}$ are independent. We show that with probability tending to 1, $M_n$ has no repeated eigenvalues. As a corollary, we deduce that the Erd{\H o}s-Renyi random graph has simple spectrum asymptotically almost surely, answering a question of Babai.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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    Terence Tao
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    ABSTRACT: For each prime $p$, let $n(p)$ denote the least quadratic nonresidue modulo $p$. Vinogradov conjectured that $n(p) = O(p^\eps)$ for every fixed $\eps>0$. This conjecture follows from the generalised Riemann hypothesis, but remains open in general. In this paper we show that Vinogradov's conjecture follows from the Elliott-Halberstam conjecture on the distribution of primes in arithmetic progressions. We also give a variant of this argument that obtains bounds on short centred character sums from "Type II" estimates of the type introduced recently by Zhang and improved upon by the Polymath project. In particular, we can obtain an improvement over the Burgess bound would be obtained if one had Type II estimates with level of distribution above $2/3$ (when the conductor is not cube-free) or $3/4$ (if the conductor is cube-free).
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014
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    Terence Tao · Tamar Ziegler
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    ABSTRACT: In a previous paper of the authors, we showed that for any polynomials $P_1,\dots,P_k \in \Z[\mathbf{m}]$ with $P_1(0)=\dots=P_k(0)$ and any subset $A$ of the primes in $[N] = \{1,\dots,N\}$ of relative density at least $\delta>0$, one can find a "polynomial progression" $a+P_1(r),\dots,a+P_k(r)$ in $A$ with $0 < |r| \leq N^{o(1)}$, if $N$ is sufficiently large depending on $k,P_1,\dots,P_k$ and $\delta$. In this paper we shorten the size of this progression to $0 < |r| \leq \log^L N$, where $L$ depends on $k,P_1,\dots,P_k$ and $\delta$. In the linear case $P_i = (i-1)\mathbf{m}$, we can take $L$ independent of $\delta$. The main new ingredient is the use of the densification method of Conlon, Fox, and Zhao to avoid having to directly correlate the enveloping sieve with dual functions of unbounded functions.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014
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    Kevin Ford · Ben Green · Sergei Konyagin · Terence Tao
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    ABSTRACT: Let $G(X)$ denote the size of the largest gap between consecutive primes below $X$. Answering a question of Erdos, we show that $$G(X) \geq f(X) \frac{\log X \log \log X \log \log \log \log X}{(\log \log \log X)^2},$$ where $f(X)$ is a function tending to infinity with $X$. Our proof combines existing arguments with a random construction covering a set of primes by arithmetic progressions. As such, we rely on recent work on the existence and distribution of long arithmetic progressions consisting entirely of primes.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
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    Ben Green · Terence Tao
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    ABSTRACT: This is an erratum to 'On the quantitative distribution of polynomial nilsequences' [GT]. The proof of Theorem 8.6 of that paper, which claims a distribution result for multiparameter polynomial sequences on nilmanifolds, was incorrect. We provide two fixes for this issue here. First, we deduce the "equal sides" case $N_1 = \dots = N_t = N$ of [GT, Theorem 8.6] from the 1-parameter results in [GT]. This is the same basic mode of argument we attempted in the original paper, though the details are different. The equal sides case is the only one required in applications such as the proof of the inverse conjectures for the Gowers norms due to the authors and Ziegler. Second, we sketch a proof that [GT, Theorem 8.6] does in fact hold in its originally stated form, that is to say without the equal sides condition. To obtain this statement the entire argument of [GT] must be run in the context of multiparameter polynomial sequences $g : \mathbb{Z}^t \rightarrow G$ rather than 1-parameter sequences $g : \mathbb{Z} \rightarrow G$ as is currently done.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Annals of Mathematics
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    ABSTRACT: We show that random Cayley graphs of finite simple (or semisimple) groups of Lie type of fixed rank are expanders. The proofs are based on the Bourgain-Gamburd method and on the main result of our companion paper, establishing strongly dense subgroups in simple algebraic groups.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of the European Mathematical Society
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    Terence Tao · Van Vu
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we establish some local universality results concerning the correlation functions of the zeroes of random polynomials with independent coefficients. More precisely, consider two random polynomials $f =\sum _{i=1}^n c_i \xi _i z^i$ and $\tilde {f} =\sum _{i=1}^n c_i \tilde {\xi }_i z^i$, where the ξi and $\tilde {\xi }_i$ are iid random variables that match moments to second order, the coefficients ci are deterministic, and the degree parameter n is large. Our results show, under some light conditions on the coefficients ci and the tails of $\xi _i, \tilde {\xi }_i$, that the correlation functions of the zeroes of f and $\tilde {f}$ are approximately the same. As an application, we give some answers to the classical question How many zeroes of a random polynomials are real? for several classes of random polynomial models. Our analysis relies on a general replacement principle, motivated by some recent work in random matrix theory. This principle enables one to compare the correlation functions of two random functions f and $\tilde {f}$ if their log magnitudes $\log |f|, \log |\tilde {f}|$ are close in distribution, and if some nonconcentration bounds are obeyed.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2013 · International Mathematics Research Notices
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    Terence Tao · Tamar Ziegler
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    ABSTRACT: We establish a version of the Furstenberg-Katznelson multi-dimensional Szemer\'edi in the primes ${\mathcal P} := \{2,3,5,\ldots\}$, which roughly speaking asserts that any dense subset of ${\mathcal P}^d$ contains constellations of any given shape. Our arguments are based on a weighted version of the Furstenberg correspondence principle, relative to a weight which obeys an infinite number of pseudorandomness (or "linear forms") conditions, combined with the main results of a series of papers by Green and the authors which establish such an infinite number of pseudorandomness conditions for a weight associated with the primes. The same result, by a rather different method, has been simultaneously established by Cook, Magyar, and Titichetrakun.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Israel Journal of Mathematics
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    Vitaly Bergelson · Terence Tao · Tamar Ziegler
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    ABSTRACT: Using an ergodic inverse theorem obtained in our previous paper, we obtain limit formulae for multiple ergodic averages associated with the action of $\F_{p}^{\omega}$. From this we deduce multiple Khintchine-type recurrence results analogous to those for $\Z$-systems obtained by Bergelson, Host, and Kra, and also present some new counterexamples in this setting.
    Preview · Article · May 2013
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    Emmanuel Breuillard · Ben Green · Terence Tao
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    ABSTRACT: Let A be a subset of a group G = (G,.). We will survey the theory of sets A with the property that |A.A| <= K|A|, where A.A = {a_1 a_2 : a_1, a_2 in A}. The case G = (Z,+) is the famous Freiman--Ruzsa theorem.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2013
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    Vitaly Bergelson · Terence Tao
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    ABSTRACT: We establish a new mixing theorem for quasirandom groups (finite groups with no low-dimensional unitary representations) G which, informally speaking, asserts that if g, x are drawn uniformly at random from G, then the quadruple (g, x, gx, xg) behaves like a random tuple in G 4, subject to the obvious constraint that gx and xg are conjugate to each other. The proof is non-elementary, proceeding by first using an ultraproduct construction to replace the finitary claim on quasirandom groups with an infinitary analogue concerning a limiting group object that we call an ultra quasirandom group, and then using the machinery of idempotent ultrafilters to establish the required mixing property for such groups. Some simpler recurrence theorems (involving tuples such as (x, gx, xg)) are also presented, as well as some further discussion of specific examples of ultra quasirandom groups.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Geometric and Functional Analysis
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    Terence Tao
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    ABSTRACT: Let $P: \F \times \F \to \F$ be a polynomial of bounded degree over a finite field $\F$ of large characteristic. In this paper we establish the following dichotomy: either $P$ is a moderate asymmetric expander in the sense that $|P(A,B)| \gg |\F|$ whenever $A, B \subset \F$ are such that $|A| |B| \geq C |\F|^{2-1/8}$ for a sufficiently large $C$, or else $P$ takes the form $P(x,y) = Q(F(x)+G(y))$ or $P(x,y) = Q(F(x) G(y))$ for some polynomials $Q,F,G$. This is a reasonably satisfactory classification of polynomials of two variables that moderately expand (either symmetrically or asymmetrically). We obtain a similar classification for weak expansion (in which one has $|P(A,A)| \gg |A|^{1/2} |\F|^{1/2}$ whenever $|A| \geq C |\F|^{1-1/16}$), and a partially satisfactory classification for almost strong asymmetric expansion (in which $|P(A,B)| = (1-O(|\F|^{-c})) |\F|$ when $|A|, |B| \geq |\F|^{1-c}$ for some small absolute constant $c>0$). The main new tool used to establish these results is an algebraic regularity lemma that describes the structure of dense graphs generated by definable subsets over finite fields of large characteristic. This lemma strengthens the Sz\'emeredi regularity lemma in the algebraic case, in that while the latter lemma decomposes a graph into a bounded number of components, most of which are $\eps$-regular for some small but fixed $\epsilon$, the latter lemma ensures that all of the components are $O(|\F|^{-1/4})$-regular. This lemma, which may be of independent interest, relies on some basic facts about the \'etale fundamental group of an algebraic variety.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Contributions to Discrete Mathematics
  • Ben Green · Terence Tao · Tamar Ziegler
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    ABSTRACT: We prove the inverse conjecture for the Gowers U s+1[N]-norm for all s ≥ 1; this is new for s ≥ 4. More precisely, we establish that if f: [N] → [-1; 1] is a function with ||f|| Us+1[N] ≥ δ, then there is a bounded complexitys-step nilsequence F(g(n)Γ) that correlates with f, where the bounds on the complexity and correlation depend only on s and δ. From previous results, this conjecture implies the Hardy-Littlewood prime tuples conjecture for any linear system of finite complexity.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Annals of Mathematics
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    Ben Green · Terence Tao
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    ABSTRACT: Let P be a set of n points in the plane, not all on a line. We show that if n is large then there are at least n/2 ordinary lines, that is to say lines passing through exactly two points of P. This confirms, for large n, a conjecture of Dirac and Motzkin. In fact we describe the exact extremisers for this problem, as well as all sets having fewer than n - C ordinary lines for some absolute constant C. We also solve, for large n, the "orchard-planting problem", which asks for the maximum number of lines through exactly 3 points of P. Underlying these results is a structure theorem which states that if P has at most Kn ordinary lines then all but O(K) points of P lie on a cubic curve, if n is sufficiently large depending on K.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Discrete and Computational Geometry
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    Terence Tao · Van Vu
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    ABSTRACT: It is a classical result of Ginibre that the normalized bulk $k$-point correlation functions of a complex $n \times n$ gaussian matrix with independent entries of mean zero and unit variance are asymptotically given by the determinantal point process on $\C$ with kernel $K_\infty(z,w) := \frac{1}{\pi} e^{-|z|^2/2 - |w|^2/2 + z \bar{w}}$ in the limit $n \to \infty$. In this paper we show that this asymptotic law is universal among all random $n \times n$ matrices $M_n$ whose entries are jointly independent, exponentially decaying, have independent real and imaginary parts, and whose moments match that of the complex gaussian ensemble to fourth order. Analogous results at the edge of the spectrum are also obtained. As an application, we extend a central limit theorem for the number of eigenvalues of complex gaussian matrices in a small disk, to these more general ensembles. Our method also extends to the case of matrices which match the real gaussian ensemble instead of the complex one. As an application, we show that a real $n \times n$ matrix whose entries are jointly independent, exponentially decaying, and whose moments match the real gaussian ensemble to fourth order has $\sqrt{\frac{2n}{\pi}} + o(\sqrt{n})$ real eigenvalues asymptotically almost surely.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · The Annals of Probability
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    Ben Green · Terence Tao
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    ABSTRACT: Let p > 4 be a prime. We show that the largest subset of F_p^n with no 4-term arithmetic progressions has cardinality << N(log N)^{-c}, where c = 2^{-22} and N := p^n. A result of this type was claimed in a previous paper by the authors and published in Proc. London Math. Society. Unfortunately the proof had a gap, and we issue an erratum for that paper here. Our new argument is different and significantly shorter. In fact we prove a stronger result, which can be viewed as a quantatitive version of some previous results of Bergelson-Host-Kra and the authors.
    Preview · Article · May 2012

Publication Stats

27k Citations
233.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997-2014
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Mathematics
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Yale University
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2006
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2001
    • University of Missouri
      • Department of Mathematics
      Columbia, Missouri, United States
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Mathematics
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States