[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neural mechanisms involved in motor timing are subcortical, involving mainly cerebellum and basal ganglia. However, the role played by these structures in predictive motor timing is not well understood. Unlike motor timing, which is often tested using rhythm production tasks, predictive motor timing requires visuo-motor coordination in anticipation of a future event, and it is evident in behaviors such as catching a ball or shooting a moving target. We examined the role of the cerebellum and striatum in predictive motor timing in a target interception task in healthy (n = 12) individuals and in subjects (n = 9) with spinocerebellar ataxia types 6 and 8. The performance of the healthy subjects was better than that of the spinocerebellar ataxia. Successful performance in both groups was associated with increased activity in the cerebellum (right dentate nucleus, left uvula (lobule V), and lobule VI), thalamus, and in several cortical areas. The superior performance in the controls was related to activation in thalamus, putamen (lentiform nucleus) and cerebellum (right dentate nucleus and culmen-lobule IV), which were not activated either in the spinocerebellar subjects or within a subgroup of controls who performed poorly. Both the cerebellum and the basal ganglia are necessary for the predictive motor timing. The degeneration of the cerebellum associated with spinocerebellar types 6 and 8 appears to lead to quantitative rather than qualitative deficits in temporal processing. The lack of any areas with greater activity in the spinocerebellar group than in controls suggests that limited functional reorganization occurs in this condition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Similar to the occipital alpha rhythm, electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in the alpha- and beta-frequency bands can be suppressed by movement or motor imagery and have thus been thought to represent the "idling state" of the sensorimotor cortex. A negative correlation between spontaneous alpha EEG and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals has been reported in combined EEG and fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) experiments when subjects stayed at the resting state or alternated between the resting state and a task. However, the precise nature of the task-induced alpha modulation remains elusive. It was not clear whether alpha/beta rhythm suppressions may co-vary with BOLD when conducting tasks involving varying activations of the cortex. Here, we quantified the task-evoked responses of BOLD and alpha/beta-band power of EEG directly in the cortical source domain, by using source imaging technology, and examined their covariation across task conditions in a mixed block and event-related design. In this study, 13 subjects performed tasks of right-hand, right-foot or left-hand movement and motor imagery when EEG and fMRI data were separately collected. Task-induced increase of BOLD signal and decrease of EEG amplitudes in alpha and beta bands were shown to be co-localized at the somatotopic sensorimotor cortex. At the corresponding regions, the reciprocal changes of the two signals co-varied in the magnitudes across imagination and movement conditions. The spatial correspondence and negative covariation between the two measurements were further shown to exist at somatotopic brain regions associated with different body parts. These results suggest an inverse functional coupling relationship between task-induced changes of BOLD and low-frequency EEG signals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reward and punishment are potent modulators of associative learning in instrumental and classical conditioning. However, the effect of reward and punishment on procedural learning is not known. The striatum is known to be an important locus of reward-related neural signals and part of the neural substrate of procedural learning. Here, using an implicit motor learning task, we show that reward leads to enhancement of learning in human subjects, whereas punishment is associated only with improvement in motor performance. Furthermore, these behavioral effects have distinct neural substrates with the learning effect of reward being mediated through the dorsal striatum and the performance effect of punishment through the insula. Our results suggest that reward and punishment engage separate motivational systems with distinctive behavioral effects and neural substrates.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional neuroimaging has led to a revolutionary change in our understanding of how the human brain controls behavior. Much of this new information has come from studying brain changes as subjects learn and adapt to novel situations and environments. We have been interested in the issue of cognitive control: the system used by the brain that enables us to concentrate on a particular goal while ignoring multiple competing distractions. Here we show that one strategy used by the brain to improve cognitive control is to predict events that are likely to happen in the future and to prepare for them in advance. The prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate are important components of this network.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neural substrate of cognitive control is thought to comprise an evaluative component located in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and an executive component in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The control mechanism itself is mainly local, triggered by response conflict (monitored by the ACC) and involving the allocation of executive resources (recruited by the PFC) in a trial-to-trial fashion. However, another way to achieve control would be to use a strategic mechanism based on long-term prediction of upcoming events and on a chronic response strategy that ignores local features of the task. In the current study, we showed that such a strategic control mechanism was based on a functional dissociation or complementary relationship between the ACC and the PFC. When information in the environment was available to make predictions about upcoming stimuli, local task features (e.g., response conflict) were no longer used as a control signal. We suggest that having separate control mechanisms based on local or global task features allows humans to be persistent in pursuing their goals, yet flexible enough to adapt to changes in the environment.
No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to precisely time events is essential for both perception and action. There is evidence that the cerebellum is important for the neural representation of time in a variety of behaviors including time perception, the tapping of specific time intervals, and eye-blink conditioning. It has been difficult to assess the contribution of the cerebellum to timing during more dynamic motor behavior because the component movements themselves may be abnormal or any motor deficit may be due to an inability to combine the component movements into a complete action rather than timing per se. Here we investigated the performance of subjects with cerebellar disease in predictive motor timing using a task that involved mediated interception of a moving target, and we tested the effect of movement type (acceleration, deceleration, constant), speed (slow, medium, fast), and angle (0 degrees , 15 degrees and 30 degrees) on performance. The subjects with cerebellar damage were significantly worse at interception than healthy controls even when we controlled for basic motor impairments such as response time. Our data suggest that subjects with damage to the cerebellum have a fundamental problem with predictive motor timing and indicate that the cerebellum plays an essential role in integrating incoming visual information with motor output when making predictions about upcoming actions. The findings demonstrate that the cerebellum may have properties that would facilitate the processing or storage of internal models of motor behavior.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2007 · Experimental Brain Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a significant overlap between the processes and neural substrates of spatial cognition and those subserving memory and learning. However, for procedural learning, which often is spatial in nature, we do not know how different forms of spatial knowledge, such as egocentric and allocentric frames of reference, are utilized nor whether these frames are differentially engaged during implicit and explicit processes. To address this issue, we trained human subjects on a movement sequence presented on a bi-dimensional (2D) geometric frame. We then systematically manipulated the geometric frame (allocentric) or the sequence of movements (egocentric) or both, and retested the subjects on their ability to transfer the sequence knowledge they had acquired in training and also determined whether the subjects had learned the sequence implicitly or explicitly. None of the subjects (implicit or explicit) showed evidence of transfer when both frames of reference were changed which suggests that spatial information is essential. Both implicit and explicit subjects transferred when the egocentric frame was maintained indicating that this representation is common to both processes. Finally, explicit subjects were also able to benefit from the allocentric frame in transfer, which suggests that explicit procedural knowledge may have two tiers comprising egocentric and allocentric representations.
No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Experimental Brain Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Timing has been proposed as a basic function of the cerebellar cortex (particularly the climbing fiber afferents and their sole source, the inferior olive) that explains the contribution of the cerebellum to both motor control and nonmotor cognitive functions. However, whether the olivo-cerebellar system mediates time perception without motor behavior remains controversial. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to dissociate the neural correlates of the perceptual from the motor aspects of timing. The results show activation of multiple areas within the cerebellar cortex during both perception and motor performance of temporal sequences. The results further show that the inferior olive was activated only when subjects perceived the temporal sequences without motor activity. This finding is most consistent with electrophysiological studies showing decreased responsiveness of the inferior olivary neurons to sensory input during expected, self-produced movement. Our results suggest that the primary role of the inferior olive and the climbing fiber system in timing is the encoding of temporal information independent of motor behavior.
No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience