[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we report the first series of cases of Down syndrome (DS) cytogenetically analyzed in Sudan. Five children with clinical features of DS underwent cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses. Cytogenetic analysis of parents was also performed for counselling purposes. All children showed karyotypes consistent with DS. One child showed a Robertsonian translocation that was not present in either of her parents. The other cases showed classical trisomy 21. Molecular cytogenetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis in one case. Cytogenetic analysis of suspected DS is of value to objectively confirm the diagnosis and to provide a basis for genetic counselling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brachmann de Lange syndrome (BDLS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, psychomotor delay, behavioral problems, and malformations of the upper extremities.
Here we present for the first time a case of BDLS from Sudan, a 7-month-old female infant, who was referred as a case of malnutrition. The patient was from a Sudanese western tribe. Clinical investigation showed that the child was a classical case of BDLS, but with some additional clinical findings not previously reported including crowded ribs and tied tongue.
Reporting BDLS cases of different ethnic backgrounds could add nuances to the phenotypic description of the syndrome and be helpful in diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The present study is the first human cytogenetic project in
Sudan which was titled: Cytogenetic and FISH analyses in Sudanese
patients with dysmorphic features, ambiguous genitalia, and infertility. The
aim of the present study was not only to characterize the genetic alterations
in patients with dysmorphic features, ambiguous genitalia and/or infertility
among Sudanese population, but also to attract the medical community
attention to the importance of human cytogenetics in clinical genetics
practice, and also to facilitate the introduction and clinical application of
such valuable service in Sudan.
Materials and Methods: In this study chromosomal G–banding and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH)
analysis were performed on 44 Sudanese patients, 29 females, 14 males, and one patient with unassigned sex.
Patients age ranging between 17 days-39 years (mean 18 years), Of the 44 patients, 20 had ambiguous genitalia, 8
dysmorphic features, 11 have puberty and/or fertility complains, and 5 were healthy individual (parents of 3
patients with dysmorphic features).
Results: Cytogenetic analysis of 20 patients complaining of ambiguous genitalia (13 females and 6 males, and one
case with unassigned sex) showed that 8 has karyotypes different from their assigned sex and the other cases
showed karyotypes consistent with Edward syndrome (47,XX,+18) (case 7), and a case with 45,Xdel(X)(p11) (case
11) respectively, when using FISH the 45,Xdel(X)(p11) case showed translocation of the SRY (sex-determining
region Y), gene to the active X chromosome. For the 8 patients of dysmorphic features; five showed karyotypes
consistent with Down syndrome, of which one showed Robertsonian translocation, with both FISH and ordinary Gbanding,
and the other three showed normal karyotypes. All the parents showed normal karyotypes. Among the
infertility cases all showed normal karyotypes, except for two which showed karyotypes consistent with Turner
syndrome and one which showed a male karyotype although the case was raised as a female; ultrasound showed a
mass in the position of prostate.
Discussion: The study, the ever first one in Sudan, assured the importance, the possibility, and the need for
cytogenetic and FISH analysis in diagnosis, management and genetic counseling of genetic diseases caused by
constitutional chromosomal changes among Sudanese patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a neoplasm composed of myofibroblastic spindle cells and infiltrating inflammatory cells. Cytogenetic analyses have revealed that a subgroup of IMT, in particular among children and young adults, harbors clonal chromosomal rearrangements involving chromosome band 2p23. Further, molecular genetic studies have shown that these rearrangements target the ALK gene, serving as the 3'-partner in fusion genes with various translocation partners. In the present study, we describe the finding of a novel SEC31L1/ALK fusion gene in an intraabdominal IMT of a young man. G-band analysis revealed a translocation t(2;4)(p23;q21) and subsequent fluorescence in situ hybridization with locus-specific probes strongly indicated disruption of the ALK locus on chromosome 2. Immunostaining with monoclonal mouse anti-human CD246 ALK Protein showed diffuse cytoplasmic positivity. Using reverse primers for the ALK-gene, we could, by 5'-RACE methodology, amplify a single 1.2 kb fragment. Sequence analysis showed that the fragment was a hybrid cDNA product in which nt 3012 of SEC31L1 (NM_016211), located in band 4q21, was fused in-frame to nt 4080 of ALK (NM_004304). RT-PCR with two sets of primer pairs specific for SEC31L1 and ALK amplified two transcripts, which at sequencing corresponded to two types of chimeric SEC31L1/ALK transcripts. In the long, type I, transcript nt 3012 of SEC31L1 (NM_016211) was fused in-frame to nt 4080 of ALK. In the short, type II, transcript nt 2670 of SEC31L1 was fused in-frame to nt 4080 of ALK. Genomic PCR and subsequent sequencing showed that the breakpoints were located in intron 23 of SEC31L1 and intron 20 of ALK.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2006 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SRY (sex-determining region, Y) is the gene responsible of gonadal differentiation in the male and it is essential for the regular development of male genitalia. Translocations involving the human sex chromosomes are rarely reported, however here we are reporting a very rare translocation of SRY gene to the q -arm of a deleted X chromosome. This finding was confirmed by cytogenetic, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
A 7-month infant was clinically diagnosed as an intersex case, with a phallus, labia majora and minora, a blind vagina and a male urethra. Neither uterus nor testes was detected by Ultrasonography. G-banding of his chromosomes showed 46,X,del(X)(p11) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed a very small piece from the Y chromosome translocated to the q-arm of the del(X). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed the presence of material from the sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene.
It is suggested that the phenotype of the patient was caused by activation of the deleted X chromosome with SRY translocation, which is responsible for gonadal differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is commonly practiced mainly in a belt reaching from East to West Africa north of the equator. The practice is known across socio-economic classes and among different ethnic, religious, and cultural groups. Few studies have been appropriately designed to measure the health effects of FGM. However, the outcome of FGM on intersex individuals has never been discussed before.
The patient first presented as a female with delayed puberty. Hormonal analysis revealed a normal serum prolactin level of 215 Micro/L, a low FSH of 0.5 Micro/L, and a low LH of 1.1 Micro/L. Type IV FGM (Pharaonic circumcision) had been performed during childhood. Chromosomal analysis showed a 46, XY karyotype and ultrasonography verified a soft tissue structure in the position of the prostate.
FGM pose a threat to the diagnosis and management of children with abnormal genital development in the Sudan and similar societies.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · BMC Women's Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are characterized cytogenetically by 14q32 rearrangements, -13/13q-, and various trisomies. Occasionally, karyotypic patterns characteristic of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) occur in MM, often signifying therapy-related (t)-MDS/t-AML. Comparison of cytogenetic features in all published MMs (n = 993) and t-MDS/t-AML post-MM (n = 117) revealed significant differences in complexity and ploidy levels and in most genomic changes. Thus, these features often can be used to distinguish between MM and t-MDS/t-AML. Rarely, myeloid-associated aberrations are detected in MM without any signs of MDS/AML. To characterize such abnormalities in MM/MGUS, we ascertained all 122 MM and 26 MGUS/smoldering MM (SMM) cases analyzed in our department. Sixty-six (54%) MMs and 8 (31%) MGUS/SMMs were karyotypically abnormal, of which 6 (9%) MMs and 3 (38%) MGUS/SMMs displayed myeloid abnormalities, that is, +8 (1 case) and 20q- (8 cases) as the sole anomalies, without any evidence of MDS/AML. One patient developed AML, whereas no MDS/AML occurred in the remaining 8 patients. In one MGUS with del(20q), fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed its presence in CD34+CD38- (hematopoietic stem cells), CD34+CD38+ (progenitors), CD19+ (B cells), and CD15+ (myeloid cells). The present data indicate that 20q- occurs in 10% of karyotypically abnormal MM/MGUS cases and that it might arise at a multipotent progenitor/stem cell level.
No preview · Article · Dec 2004 · Genes Chromosomes and Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although many cases of multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are cytogenetically normal, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses reveal aberrations in the majority of the cases. Most likely, non-neoplastic cells are more prone to divide in culture than neoplastic cells. Direct chromosome preparations (DCP) would be one way to circumvent this methodological problem. We have investigated 47 bone marrow samples from 39 patients by DCP. A median of 58 metaphases (range 9-158) was analysed per sample. Interphase FISH analyses using probes to detect IGH rearrangements, -13/13q-, +3, +7, and +11 were also performed. Abnormal karyotypes were detected in 15 (63%) of 24 MM and in 4 (50%) of eight MGUS/smouldering MM (SMM) cases that could be successfully cytogenetically analysed. Age, sex, or degree of bone marrow plasma cell (PC) infiltration did not influence the karyotypic patterns (P > 0.05). However, the frequencies of aberrant karyotypes varied in relation to the Colcemide concentrations used - 7% (30 ng/ml) versus 69% and 67% (100 and 200 ng/ml, respectively) (P = 0.01). Combining the G-banding and FISH results, abnormalities were detected in 29 of 31 (94%) MM and in six of eight (75%) MGUS/SMM patients. Thus, cytogenetic and FISH analyses after DCP using 100-200 ng Colcemide/ml identified aberrations in most MM/MGUS/SMM, irrespective of PC percentages.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2004 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cytogenetic features (ploidy, complexity, breakpoints, imbalances) were ascertained in 783 abnormal multiple myeloma (MM) cases to identify frequently involved chromosomal regions as well as a possible impact of age/sex. The series included MM patients from the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations in Cancer and from our own laboratory. Hyperdiploidy was most common, followed by hypodiploidy, pseudodiploidy and tri-/tetraploidy. Most cases were complex, with a median of eight changes per patient. The distribution of modal numbers differed between younger and older patients, but was not related to sex. No sex- or age-related differences regarding the number of anomalies were found. The most frequent genomic breakpoints were 14q32, 11q13, 1q10, 8q24, 1p11, 1q21, 22q11, 1p13, 1q11, 19q13, 1p22, 6q21 and 17p11. Breaks in 1p13, 6q21 and 11q13 were more common in the younger age group. The most frequent imbalances were + 9, - 13, + 15, + 19, + 11 and - Y. Trisomy 11 and monosomy 16 were more common among men, while -X was more frequent among women. Loss of Y as the sole change and + 5 were more common in elderly patients, and - 14 was more frequent in the younger age group. The present findings strongly suggest that some karyotypic features of MM are influenced by endogenous and/or exogenous factors.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2003 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relatively little is known about the cytogenetic features of multiple myeloma (MM) when compared to other hematologic malignancies. The reasons for this are most likely manifold, and include a low mitotic index of the malignant cells and the presence of cytogenetically cryptic abnormalities as well as of complex karyotypes with poor chromosome morphology. In the present study, we have investigated whether various culture conditions may influence the yield of abnormal metaphases in MM and, in the related plasma cell dyscrasias, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and plasmacytomas (PC). In addition, the possible impact of age, gender, and disease phase on the cytogenetic features has been analyzed. A total of 95 samples from 74 cases (68 MM, three PC, and three MGUS patients) were obtained for cytogenetic analysis. The samples were cultured either in conventional medium or in medium containing IL-6 and GM-CSF, and the culture times varied from 24 to 120 h. In total, 186 cultures were analyzed. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using probes specific for 14q32, i.e. IGH rearrangements, could be performed in 57 of the 74 cases, and revealed 14q32 aberrations in 10 cases not seen by conventional G-banding. Abnormal karyotypes were detected in 77 (41%) of the 186 cultures, 46 (48%) of the 95 samples, and in 41 (55%) of the 74 patients, revealing a total of 20 chromosomal aberrations previously not reported in plasma cell dyscrasias. We found no evidence that gender, age, disease phase, culture time, or cytokine stimulation significantly influences the karyotypic features of MM.
No preview · Article · Jul 2002 · European Journal Of Haematology