[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Hyperuricemia induces common diseases, gout and kidney stones, and accelerates the progression of renal diseases. Hyperuricemia has been clinically classified into the urate overproduction type (the renal urate overload type) including the extra-renal urate underexcretion type, the renal underexcretion type, and the combined type. We have reported that the dysfunction of ATP-binding cassette transporter, sub-family G, member 2 (ABCG2) is the major cause of hyperuricemia, especially extra-renal urate underexcretion type hyperuricemia. But its involvement in renal underexcretion type hyperuricemia, the most prevalent subtype, is not clearly explained so far.
Objectives The aim of present study is to determine the contribution of ABCG2 to the onset of each type of hyperuricemia.
Methods We performed the association analysis with hyperuricemia patients and controls in male Japanese.
Results ABCG2 dysfunction significantly increased the risk of the whole hyperuricemia and renal urate overload type hyperuricemia, according to the severity of impairment. Furthermore, slight and moderate ABCG2 dysfunction significantly increased the risk of renal underexcretion type hyperuricemia. ABCG2 dysfunction caused renal urate underexcretion and induced hyperuricemia even if the renal urate overload was not remarkable.
Conclusions These results show that ABCG2 plays physiologically important roles in both renal and extra-renal urate excretion mechanisms.
Disclosure of Interest None declared
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uric acid (urate) has been suggested to play a protective role in Parkinson's disease onset through its antioxidant activity. Dysfunction of ABCG2, a high-capacity urate exporter, is a major cause for early-onset gout based on hyperuricemia. In this study, the effects of a dysfunctional ABCG2 variant (Q141K, rs2231142) were analyzed on the ages at onset of gout patients (N = 507) and Parkinson's disease patients (N = 1015). The Q141K variant hastened the gout onset (P = 0.0027), but significantly associated with later Parkinson's disease onset (P = 0.025). Our findings will be helpful for development of more effective prevention of Parkinson's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gout, caused by hyperuricaemia, is a multifactorial disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of gout have been reported, they included self-reported gout cases in which clinical information was insufficient. Therefore, the relationship between genetic variation and clinical subtypes of gout remains unclear. Here, we first performed a GWAS of clinically defined gout cases only.
A GWAS was conducted with 945 patients with clinically defined gout and 1213 controls in a Japanese male population, followed by replication study of 1048 clinically defined cases and 1334 controls.
Five gout susceptibility loci were identified at the genome-wide significance level (p<5.0×10(-8)), which contained well-known urate transporter genes (ABCG2 and SLC2A9) and additional genes: rs1260326 (p=1.9×10(-12); OR=1.36) of GCKR (a gene for glucose and lipid metabolism), rs2188380 (p=1.6×10(-23); OR=1.75) of MYL2-CUX2 (genes associated with cholesterol and diabetes mellitus) and rs4073582 (p=6.4×10(-9); OR=1.66) of CNIH-2 (a gene for regulation of glutamate signalling). The latter two are identified as novel gout loci. Furthermore, among the identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we demonstrated that the SNPs of ABCG2 and SLC2A9 were differentially associated with types of gout and clinical parameters underlying specific subtypes (renal underexcretion type and renal overload type). The effect of the risk allele of each SNP on clinical parameters showed significant linear relationships with the ratio of the case-control ORs for two distinct types of gout (r=0.96 [p=4.8×10(-4)] for urate clearance and r=0.96 [p=5.0×10(-4)] for urinary urate excretion).
Our findings provide clues to better understand the pathogenesis of gout and will be useful for development of companion diagnostics.
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Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Serum uric acid (SUA) levels in humans are mainly regulated by urate transporters. Recent genome-wide association studies suggested that common variants of the human sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter type 1 gene (NPT1/SLC17A1) influence SUA. NPT1 has been reported to mediate urate transport, but its physiologic role in regulating SUA in humans remains unclear. Furthermore, the findings of replication studies of the relationship between NPT1 variants and gout have been inconsistent. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of NPT1 on gout and to determine its physiologic role.
Five hundred forty-five male Japanese patients with gout and 1,115 male Japanese control subjects were genotyped for rs1165196 (I269T), a common missense variant in NPT1. Analyses of the association between rs1165196 and gout were then conducted, focusing especially on renal underexcretion (RUE) gout. Immunohistochemical analysis and functional analysis using Xenopus oocytes were also performed.
Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1165196 significantly decreased the risk of RUE gout (odds ratio 0.73, P = 0.031) but did not confer a risk for all gout (P = 0.123). The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that human NPT1 is localized to the apical membrane of the renal proximal tubule. The functional analysis using Xenopus oocyte expression systems showed that rs1165196 increases NPT1-mediated urate export.
This study showed that NPT1 is a urate exporter located in the renal proximal tubule in humans, and that its common gain-of-function variant, rs1165196, causes RUE gout, a major subtype of gout. These findings enable us to deepen our understanding of the physiologic role of NPT1 as a renal urate exporter as well as its pathophysiologic role in gout.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Arthritis and Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gout is one of the most kinds of common inflammatory arthritis as a consequence of hyperuricemia. Alpha-protein kinase 1 (ALPK1) gene locates in a gout-susceptibility locus on chromosome 4q21-31, and encodes ALPK1 protein which plays a pivotal role in the phosphorylation of myosin 1. In the previous genetic study of Taiwanese populations, 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs11726117, rs231247 and rs231253, in ALPK1 gene were reported to have a significant association with gout. However, no replication study has been performed to confirm this association. Therefore, we first conducted a replication study with clinically defined gout patients in a different population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyzes of the 3 SNPs in ALPK1 revealed that these SNPs are in strong LD in a Japanese population. Among the 3 SNPs of ALPK1, rs11726117 (M861T) is the only missense SNP. Therefore, rs11726117 was genotyped in a Japanese population of 903 clinically defined gout cases and 1,302 controls, and was evaluated for a possible association with gout. The minor allele frequencies of rs11726117 were 0.26 and 0.25 in the case and control groups, respectively. The association analysis has not detected a significant association between rs11726117 and gout susceptibility in a Japanese population (p = 0.44). Because ABCG2, a major causative gene for gout, also locates in the gout-susceptibility locus on chromosome 4q, these findings suggest that among genes in a gout-susceptibility locus, not ALPK1 but ABCG2 could be important as a gout-susceptible gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gout/hyperuricemia is a common multifactorial disease having typical environmental risks. Recently, common dysfunctional variants of ABCG2, a urate exporter gene also known as BCRP, are revealed to be a major cause of gout/hyperuricemia. Here, we compared the influence of ABCG2 dysfunction on serum uric acid (SUA) levels with other typical risk factors in a cohort of 5,005 Japanese participants. ABCG2 dysfunction was observed in 53.3% of the population investigated, and its population-attributable risk percent (PAR%) for hyperuricemia was 29.2%, much higher than those of the other typical environmental risks, i.e. overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25.0; PAR% = 18.7%), heavy drinking (>196 g/week (male) or >98 g/week (female) of pure alcohol; PAR% = 15.4%), and aging (≥60 years old; PAR% = 5.74%). SUA significantly increased as the ABCG2 function decreased (P = 5.99 × 10(-19)). A regression analysis revealed that ABCG2 dysfunction had a stronger effect than other factors; a 25% decrease in ABCG2 function was equivalent to "an increase of BMI by 1.97-point" or "552.1 g/week alcohol intake as pure ethanol" in terms of ability to increase SUA. Therefore, ABCG2 dysfunction originating from common genetic variants has a much stronger impact on the progression of hyperuricemia than other familiar risks. Our study provides a better understanding of common genetic factors for common diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Recently, genetic analyses indicated the association between gout and cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 (cGKII/PRKG2) gene in a Fukien-Taiwanese heritage population. However, no replication study has been reported in other ancestries. Therefore, we investigated this association in a Japanese population.
Genotyping of 4 variants (rs11736177, rs10033237, rs7688672, and rs6837293) of cGKII was performed in 741 male gout patients and 1302 male controls.
cGKII variants have no association with gout.
Our replication study suggests that cGKII is not involved in gout susceptibility.
Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · The Journal of Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypouricemia is characterized by low serum uric acid (SUA) levels (≤3.0 mg/dL) with complications such as urolithiasis and exercise-induced acute renal failure. We have previously reported that urate transporter 1 (URAT1/SLC22A12) and glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9/SLC2A9) are causative genes for renal hypouricemia type 1 (RHUC1) and renal hypouricemia type 2 (RHUC2), respectively. In the series of experiments, two families have been revealed to have RHUC2 due to GLUT9 missense mutations R198C or R380W, respectively. Thus far, however, no studies have reported other RHUC2 families or patients with these pathogenic mutations. This study is aimed to find other cases of RHUC2. We performed mutational analyses of GLUT9 exon 6 (for R198C) and exon 10 (for R380W) in 50 Japanese hypouricemia patients. Patients were analyzed out of a collection of more than 2000 samples from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study (J-MICC Study). We identified a novel male patient with heterogeneous RHUC2 mutation R380W. The SUA of this hypouricemia patient was 2.6 mg/dL, which is similar to that of our previous report (SUA: 2.7 mg/dL). This is the second report indicating RHUC2 patient due to GLUT9 mutation R380W. This mutation occurs in highly conserved amino acid motifs and is reported to be an important membrane topology determinant. R380W is a dysfunctional mutation which completely diminishes the urate transport activities of GLUT9. Our study revealed a second hypouricemia patient with GLUT9 R380W, a pathogenic mutation of RHUC2, which may help to expand our understanding of RHUC pathogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ATP-binding cassette transporter, sub-family G, member 2 (ABCG2/BCRP) is identified as a high-capacity urate exporter, and its dysfunction has an association with serum uric acid levels and gout/hyperuricemia risk. Generally, hyperuricemia has been classified into urate "overproduction type," "underexcretion type," and "combined type" based on only renal urate excretion, without considering an extra-renal pathway such as gut excretion. In this study, we investigated the effects of ABCG2 dysfunction on human urate handling and the mechanism of hyperuricemia. Clinical parameters for urate handling including urinary urate excretion (UUE) were examined in 644 Japanese male outpatients with hyperuricemia. The severity of their ABCG2 dysfunction was estimated by genotype combination of two common ABCG2 variants, nonfunctional Q126X (rs72552713) and half-functional Q141K (rs2231142). Contrary to the general understanding that ABCG2 dysfunction leads to decreased renal urate excretion, UUE was significantly increased by ABCG2 dysfunction (P = 3.60 × 10(-10)). Mild, moderate, and severe ABCG2 dysfunctions significantly raised the risk of "overproduction" hyperuricemia including overproduction type and combined type, conferring risk ratios of 1.36, 1.66, and 2.35, respectively. The present results suggest that common dysfunctional variants of ABCG2 decrease extra-renal urate excretion including gut excretion and cause hyperuricemia. Thus, "overproduction type" in the current concept of hyperuricemia should be renamed "renal overload type," which is caused by two different mechanisms, "extra-renal urate underexcretion" and genuine "urate overproduction." Our new concept will lead to a more accurate diagnosis and more effective therapeutic strategy for hyperuricemia and gout.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gout is a common disease which results from hyperuricemia. We have reported that the dysfunction of urate exporter ABCG2 is the major cause of renal overload (ROL) hyperuricemia, but its involvement in renal underexcretion (RUE) hyperuricemia, the most prevalent subtype, is not clearly explained so far. In this study, the association analysis with 644 hyperuricemia patients and 1,623 controls in male Japanese revealed that ABCG2 dysfunction significantly increased the risk of RUE hyperuricemia as well as overall and ROL hyperuricemia, according to the severity of impairment. ABCG2 dysfunction caused renal urate underexcretion and induced hyperuricemia even if the renal urate overload was not remarkable. These results show that ABCG2 plays physiologically important roles in both renal and extra-renal urate excretion mechanisms. Our findings indicate the importance of ABCG2 as a promising therapeutic and screening target of hyperuricemia and gout.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent genome-wide association study revealed that there is an association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and rs2544390, a common variant in low-density lipoprotein-related protein 2 (LRP2/Megalin) gene. Two other variants of LRP2, rs2229268 and rs3755166, are also found to have associations with dyslipidemia and Alzheimer's disease, respectively, which also could have a relationship with SUA in human. Although no studies report that LRP2 transports urate, LRP2 is a multi-ligand receptor and expresses in many tissues including kidney, suggesting a direct and/or indirect relationship with gout. In the present study, we investigated the association between gout and these variants of LRP2 with 741 clinically diagnosed male gout patients and 1,302 controls. As a result, the three common LRP2 variants, rs2544390, rs2229268 and rs3755166, showed no association with gout (P = 0.76, 0.55, and 0.22, respectively). Our study is the first to reveal that an SUA-related gene LRP2 is not involved in gout susceptibility.
Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Rheumatology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gout is a common disease resulting from hyperuricemia which causes acute arthritis. Recently, genome-wide association studies revealed an association between serum uric acid levels and a common variant of leucine-rich repeat-containing 16A (LRRC16A) gene. However, it remains to be clarified whether LRRC16A contributes to the susceptibility to gout. In this study, we investigated the relationship between rs742132 in LRRC16A and gout. A total of 545 Japanese male gout cases and 1,115 male individuals as a control group were genotyped. rs742132 A/A genotype significantly increased the risk of gout, conferring an odds ratio of 1.30 (95 % CI 1.05–1.60; p = 0.015). LRRC16A encodes a protein called capping protein ARP2/3 and myosin-I linker (CARMIL), which serves as an inhibitor of the actin capping protein (CP). CP is an essential element of the actin cytoskeleton, which binds to the barbed end of the actin filament and regulates its polymerization. In the apical membrane of proximal tubular cells in the human kidney, the urate-transporting multimolecular complex (urate transportsome) is proposed to consist of several urate transporters and scaffolding proteins, which interact with the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, if there is a CARMIL dysfunction and regulatory disability in actin polymerization, urate transportsome may be unable to operate appropriately. We have shown for the first time that CARMIL/LRRC16A was associated with gout, which could be due to urate transportsome failure.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13577-013-0081-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gout, a common disease, is a consequence of hyperuricemia, and increases the risks of hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases and renal failure. Gout can be classified into 3 types: the renal underexcretion (RUE) type, renal overload type and combined type. RUE type is a major type of gout, however, its genetic causes are still unclear. Since human organic anion transporter 4 (OAT4/SLC22A11) is expressed in the kidney and mediates urate transport, we investigated the effects of a common variant of OAT4/SLC22A11 on the susceptibility to gout. Five-hundred and forty-five Japanese male gout cases and 1,115 male individuals as a control group were genotyped with rs17300741, a single nucleotide polymorphism in the OAT4/SLC22A11 gene. The association analysis of rs17300741 showed no significant association for whole gout cases; however, there was a slight but significant association for RUE type gout cases (p = 0.049). These results also suggest that OAT4 contributes to urate transport at the apical membrane of renal proximal tubule cells in humans. Our findings make it clear for the first time that a common variant of OAT4/SLC22A11 is associated with RUE type gout, a major gout subtype.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gout is a common disease caused by hyperuricemia, which shows elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels. From a viewpoint of urate handling in humans, gout patients can be divided into those with renal overload (ROL) gout with intestinal urate underexcretion, and those with renal underexcretion (RUE) gout. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed an association between SUA and a variant in human monocarboxylate transporter 9 (MCT9/SLC16A9) gene. Although the function of MCT9 remains unclear, urate is mostly excreted via intestine and kidney where MCT9 expression is observed. In this study, we investigated the relationship between a variant of MCT9 and gout in 545 patients and 1,115 healthy volunteers. A missense variant of MCT9 (K258T), rs2242206, significantly increased the risk of ROL gout (p = 0.012), with odds ratio (OR) of 1.28, although it revealed no significant association with all gout cases (p = 0.10), non-ROL gout cases (p = 0.83), and RUE gout cases (p = 0.34). In any case groups and the control group, minor allele frequencies of rs2242206 were >0.40. Therefore, rs2242206 is a common missense variant and is revealed to have an association with ROL gout, indicating that rs2242206 relates to decreased intestinal urate excretion rather than decreased renal urate excretion. Our study provides clues to better understand the pathophysiology of gout as well as the physiological roles of MCT9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gout is a common disease which mostly occurs after middle age, but more people nowadays develop it before the age of thirty. We investigated whether common dysfunction of ABCG2, a high-capacity urate transporter which regulates serum uric acid levels, causes early-onset gout. 705 Japanese male gout cases with onset age data and 1,887 male controls were genotyped, and the ABCG2 functions which are estimated by its genotype combination were determined. The onset age was 6.5 years earlier with severe ABCG2 dysfunction than with normal ABCG2 function (P = 6.14 × 10(-3)). Patients with mild to severe ABCG2 dysfunction accounted for 88.2% of early-onset cases (twenties or younger). Severe ABCG2 dysfunction particularly increased the risk of early-onset gout (odds ratio 22.2, P = 4.66 × 10(-6)). Our finding that common dysfunction of ABCG2 is a major cause of early-onset gout will serve to improve earlier prevention and therapy for high-risk individuals.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal hypouricemia (MIM 220150) is an inherited disorder characterized by low serum uric acid levels and has severe complications such as exercise-induced acute renal failure and urolithiasis. We have previously reported that URAT1/SLC22A12 encodes a renal urate-anion exchanger and that its mutations cause renal hypouricemia type 1 (RHUC1). With the large health-examination database of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, we found two missense mutations (R198C and R380W) of GLUT9/SLC2A9 in hypouricemia patients. R198C and R380W occur in highly conserved amino acid motifs in the "sugar transport proteins signatures" that are observed in GLUT family transporters. The corresponding mutations in GLUT1 (R153C and R333W) are known to cause GLUT1 deficiency syndrome because arginine residues in this motif are reportedly important as the determinants of the membrane topology of human GLUT1. Therefore, on the basis of membrane topology, the same may be true of GLUT9. GLUT9 mutants showed markedly reduced urate transport in oocyte expression studies, which would be the result of the loss of positive charges in those conserved amino acid motifs. Together with previous reports on GLUT9 localization, our findings suggest that these GLUT9 mutations cause renal hypouricemia type 2 (RHUC2) by their decreased urate reabsorption on both sides of the renal proximal tubule cells. However, a previously reported GLUT9 mutation, P412R, was unlikely to be pathogenic. These findings also enable us to propose a physiological model of the renal urate reabsorption via GLUT9 and URAT1 and can lead to a promising therapeutic target for gout and related cardiovascular diseases.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Nucleosides Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gout based on hyperuricemia is a common disease with a genetic predisposition, which causes acute arthritis. The ABCG2/BCRP gene, located in a gout-susceptibility locus on chromosome 4q, has been identified by recent genome-wide association studies of serum uric acid concentrations and gout. Urate transport assays demonstrated that ABCG2 is a high-capacity urate secretion transporter. Sequencing of the ABCG2 gene in 90 hyperuricemia patients revealed several nonfunctional ABCG2 mutations, including Q126X. Quantitative trait locus analysis of 739 individuals showed that a common dysfunctional variant of ABCG2, Q141K, increases serum uric acid. Q126X is assigned to the different disease haplotype from Q141K and increases gout risk, conferring an odds ratio of 5.97. Furthermore, 10% of gout patients (16 out of 159 cases) had genotype combinations resulting in more than 75% reduction of ABCG2 function (odds ratio, 25.8). Our findings indicate that nonfunctional variants of ABCG2 essentially block gut and renal urate excretion and cause gout.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Science translational medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal hypouricemia is an inherited disorder characterized by impaired renal urate (uric acid) reabsorption and subsequent low serum urate levels, with severe complications such as exercise-induced acute renal failure and nephrolithiasis. We previously identified SLC22A12, also known as URAT1, as a causative gene of renal hypouricemia. However, hypouricemic patients without URAT1 mutations, as well as genome-wide association studies between urate and SLC2A9 (also called GLUT9), imply that GLUT9 could be another causative gene of renal hypouricemia. With a large human database, we identified two loss-of-function heterozygous mutations in GLUT9, which occur in the highly conserved "sugar transport proteins signatures 1/2." Both mutations result in loss of positive charges, one of which is reported to be an important membrane topology determinant. The oocyte expression study revealed that both GLUT9 isoforms showed high urate transport activities, whereas the mutated GLUT9 isoforms markedly reduced them. Our findings, together with previous reports on GLUT9 localization, suggest that these GLUT9 mutations cause renal hypouricemia by their decreased urate reabsorption on both sides of the renal proximal tubules. These findings also enable us to propose a physiological model of the renal urate reabsorption in which GLUT9 regulates serum urate levels in humans and can be a promising therapeutic target for gout and related cardiovascular diseases.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · The American Journal of Human Genetics