[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of the gene for heme oxygenase (HO)-1, which regulates the expression of other cancer-related factors, is up-regulated in malignancies. Although HO-1 expression has been associated with cigarette smoking under various pathological conditions, little is known about their association in patients with bladder cancer. HO-1 expression was assessed in 215 formalin-fixed bladder cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry. Microvessel density (MVD), lymph vessel density (LVD), proliferation index (PI), and expression of the vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF)-A, -C, and -D, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 were investigated by similar methods. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the pathological role and predictive value of HO-1 expression. Our results demonstrated that HO-1 expression was positively associated with T stage, lymph node metastasis, and grade. HO-1 expression was also positively correlated with PI, LVD, and expression levels of VEGF-D, COX-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9 (P < 0.001). In addition, multivariate analyses showed that HO-1 expression positively correlated with smoking intensity. Positive HO-1 expression was a significant predictor of subsequent metastasis (P = 0.008) and poor cause-specific survival (P < 0.001). Similarly, multivariate analyses showed that HO-1 expression was a predictor of cause-specific survival (hazard ratio = 3.13, P = 0.013). In conclusion, pathological changes of HO-1-related factors were dependent on smoking intensity. Smoking upregulated HO-1 expression, and HO-1 was associated with malignant behavior of bladder cancer. Cancer cell proliferation, lymphangiogenesis, and expression levels of VEGF-D, COX-2, and MMP-2 played important roles in these HO-1-related effects. The clinical correlations of HO-1 were regulated by a complex mechanism that depended on smoking intensity.
Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Translational Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
Twist has been reported to play crucial roles for malignant aggressiveness; however, detailed pathological significance of Twist in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not fully understood. The present study was to clarify clinical significance and molecular functions of Twist in patients with RCC.
Twist expression was examined by immunohistochemical techniques in 156 formalin-fixed specimens. Cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis were measured as the percentage of Ki-67-positive cells (proliferation index, PI), CD31-stained vessels (microvessel density, MVD), and TUNEL-positive cells (apoptotic index, AI). In addition, semi-quantification of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 was performed. Macrophages were identified with anti-CD68 antibody, and the tumor associated macrophage (TAM) density was calculated as CD68-positive cells per high-power field.
Twist expression was positively associated with grade, pT stage, and metastasis (p<0.001). We also noticed that its expression was considerably higher in cancer cells of sarcomatoid RCC and in those at the edge of the tumors. Twist expression was positively correlated with PI, MVD, MMP2 expression, and TAM density (P<0.001), but not with AI, and MMP-2 expression and TAM density were independently correlate by multi-variate analyses. Kaplan-Meir survival curves showed high Twist expression was a worse predictor for cause-specific survival (P<0.001).
Twist plays important roles in tumor growth, progression, and survival in patients with RCC patients. Such pathological mechanisms are significantly associated with increased cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, MMP2 expression, and macrophage recruitment. These findings are important information for discussion of treatment and observation strategies in these patients.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Feline sarcoma (Fes)-related protein (Fer) is a ubiquitously expressed non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase associated with proliferation in various cancer cells. However, no reports have described the pathological roles and prognostic value of Fer expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We investigated Fer expression in three RCC cell lines (ACHN, Caki-1, and Caki-2) and in normal tubule cells (HK-2) by immunoblotting. Fer expression was highest in ACHN, with Caki-1 showing intermediate levels and Caki-2 showing low levels, and was undetectable in HK-2. RNAi was therefore used to assess the effects of Fer knockdown in ACHN. Knockdown of Fer expression was found to inhibit RCC cell proliferation and colony formation. Immunohistochemical analysis of 131 human RCC tissues (110 conventional, 11 chromophobe, and 10 papillary) investigated relationships between Fer expression and clinicopathological features, including cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and prognostic value for survival. In human tissues, Fer expression was significantly higher in cancer cells than in normal tubules. In addition, expression levels correlated with cancer cell proliferation, but not with apoptosis. Multivariate analysis indicated associations of Fer expression with pT stage, tumor grade and metastasis (P < 0.001). Fer expression was also prognostic for cause-specific survival according to multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 3.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-14.84, P = 0.047). Conclusions: Fer expression correlates with RCC cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, and with tumor progression and survival. This represents useful information for discussing the pathological and clinical significance of Fer in RCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The c-Fes protein-tyrosine kinase modulates cellular signaling pathways governing differentiation, the innate immune response, and vasculogenesis. Here, we report the identification of types I and II kinase inhibitors with potent activity against c-Fes both in vitro and in cell-based assays. One of the most potent inhibitors is the previously described anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor TAE684. The crystal structure of TAE684 in complex with the c-Fes SH2-kinase domain showed excellent shape complementarity with the ATP-binding pocket and a key role for the gatekeeper methionine in the inhibitory mechanism. TAE684 and two pyrazolopyrimidines with nanomolar potency against c-Fes in vitro were used to establish a role for this kinase in osteoclastogenesis, illustrating the value of these inhibitors as tool compounds to probe the diverse biological functions associated with this unique kinase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: c-Fes is a proto-oncogene encoded non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK). However, genetic studies have indicated that it has anti-tumorigenic effects in certain cancers. The pathological and clinical significance of c-Fes in prostate cancer are unknown.
Expression of c-Fes was evaluated in normal glands, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), cancer cells in tissues of knock-in mouse adenocarcinoma prostate (KIMAP) model, and prostate cancer patients free of metastasis. Expression of c-Fes was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and quantified by using the immunoreactivity score (IRS) (staining intensity × percentage of positive cells). Relationships between c-Fes expression and pT stage, Gleason's score (GS), and biochemical recurrence in patients who underwent radical surgery were also investigated.
In KIMAP, the percentage in normal glands, PIN and cancer cells positive for c-Fes expression were 0 (0/7), 25.0 (2/8), and 100% (7/7), respectively. In human tissues, c-Fes expression was also significantly higher in cancer cells than in normal cells and PIN, and it correlated with pT stage (P < 0.001) and GS (P = 0.047). Multivariate analysis showed that c-Fes expression was an independent predictor of poor outcome poor prognosis (hazard ratio = 3.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.11-9.37, P = 0.032).
The results suggested that c-Fes expression is a useful predictor of biochemical recurrence after radical surgery. The results also suggested that c-Fes is a potentially useful therapeutic target in prostate cancer and a predictor of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The FES gene was first discovered as a protein-tyrosine kinase-encoding retroviral oncogene. The ability of v-FES to transform cells in vitro and initiate cancer in vivo has been established by cell culture, engraftment and transgenic mouse studies. The corresponding cellular c-FES proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic FES protein-tyrosine kinase with restrained catalytic activity relative to its retrovirally encoded homologs. These observations have stimulated a search for mutations or inappropriate expression of c-FES in human cancers and research aimed at understanding the functions of the FES kinase and its potential involvement in cancer and other diseases. Paradoxically, although first identified as an oncogene, genetic evidence has also implicated c-fes as a potential tumor suppressor. This review will describe observations from basic and translational research which shapes our current understanding of the physiological, cellular and molecular functions of the FES protein-tyrosine kinase and its potential roles in tumorigenesis. We also propose a model to reconcile the conflicting oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles of c-FES in tumorigenesis.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the clinical and prognostic significance of cortactin and phosphorylated cortactin in patients with sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC).
We retrospectively reviewed the data from 31 patients with SRCC and 33 with conventional renal cell carcinoma matched for clinicopathologic features. The immunoreactive score for cortactin, pY421 cortactin, and pY466 cortactin were measured using immunohistochemistry. The relationships between each immunoreactive score and the clinicopathologic features and survival were investigated.
The immunoreactive score of p421 cortactin, but not that of cortactin and pY466 cortactin, was significantly greater in SRCC than in conventional renal cell carcinoma (P < .001). The expression of pY421 cortactin in SRCC correlated with the pT stage and metastasis (P < .001). The expression of pY466 cortactin showed a similar trend with pT stage (P = .043) but not with metastasis. Although both of pY421 cortactin and pY466 cortactin were identified as useful predictors for survival in univariate analyses, only pY421 cortactin expression was considered an independent predictor in patients with SRCC (odds ratio 4.53, 95% confidence interval 1.07-19.12, P = .040) in the multivariate analysis model, including pT stage and metastasis.
Our results have demonstrated that phosphorylation of cortactin is a key process in malignant aggressiveness, and its expression is a useful predictor of cause-specific survival and could be a useful potential therapeutic target in patients with SRCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical significance of prostaglandin E2 receptor (EPR) expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tissues remains unclear. Patients and Μethods: Four subtypes of EPRs were examined in 112 human RCC tissues by immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis. The relationships between EPR immunoreactivity score (IS) and various pathological features and survival were then analyzed.
The IS of EP4R was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in cancer cells (mean = 2.7 and SD = 2.1) than in normal kidney tissues (1.8 and 1.2). EP4R expression correlated with pT stage, metastasis, and grade. EP2R expression was also associated with metastasis. Expressions of both EP2R and EP4R were found to be significant predictors for cause-specific survival on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (p = 0.006 and 0.023, respectively).
EP2R and EP4R may play important roles in malignant behavior. EP4R in particular was closely associated with pathological features, implicating this receptor as a potential therapeutic target in patients with RCC.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer progression. Novel approaches have enabled an understanding of how endothelial cellular processes are regulated in vivo during angiogenesis. Key players in angiogenesis are vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and Notch ligands. However, mechanisms of angiogenic responses by other proangiogenic factors in vivo are largely unknown. Research using cultured endothelial cells has shown that c-Fes is involved in the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) downstream of a variety of cytokine receptors. The PI3-kinase/c-Akt pathway regulates cell survival, migration, and morphological differentiation of endothelial cells during angiogenesis, and c-Fes thus may be a potential target of anti-cancer therapy, especially for patients with anti-VEGF refractory cancer. In addition, a number of experiments have shown that a bone marrow-derived monocytic lineage regulates angiogenesis, and c-Fes is also expressed in these cells. Roles for c-Fes during angiogenesis will be the focus of extensive research in the future.
Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Frontiers in Bioscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are associated with cell invasion under various physiological and pathological conditions. Among MMPs, MMP-10 is reported to correlate with a high pT stage and progression in a variety of cancer types. However, the clinical and pathological significance of MMP-10 in human prostate cancer tissues remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the role of MMP-10 in non-metastatic prostate cancer. Sixty-three specimens were obtained by radical prostatectomy. MMP-10 expression, Ki-67, CD34 and apoptotic cells were examined using an immunohistochemical technique and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end-labeling method. The proliferation index (PI), apoptotic index (AI), microvessel density (MVD) and cell renewal index (CRI=PI/AI) were calculated. The relationship between MMP-10 expression and clinicopathological features, as well as PI, AI, MVD and CRI were investigated. MMP-10 was mainly detected in cancer cell cytoplasm, and the proportion of MMP-10-expressing cancer cells (median 13.8%) was significantly higher (P<0.001) than non-tumoral gland cells (2.4%). Similarly, the proportion of MMP-10-expressing cancer cells was significantly higher (P=0.007) in stage pT3 (median 22.3%) than in pT2 (11.3%) tumors and was correlated with blood vessel invasion (P=0.025). In addition, its expression level correlated significantly with CRI (r=0.34, P=0.001), but not with PI, AI or MVD. Multivariate analysis identified MMP-10 expression to be closely associated with pT stage (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.14-12.34, P=0.029). Our results suggest that the overexpression of MMP-10 produces an imbalance in cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis, thereby contributing to cancer cell progression of non-metastatic prostate cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various therapeutic modalities are available for treatment of bladder cancer, and their effectiveness and patient outcome often depend on cancer cell invasiveness. However, the mechanisms underlying the early steps of bladder cancer cell invasion remain unknown. This study aimed to clarify the relationships between S100A4 expression and bladder cancer invasion of surrounding muscles, prognosis and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 in patients with organ-confined bladder cancer. S100A4 and MMP-14 expression was analyzed in 85 cases of organ-confined (pTa, pT1 and pT2) bladder cancer using immunohistochemical technique. The expression levels were compared among the pTa, pT1 and pT2 tumors. In addition, the predictive values of S100A4 or MMP-14 expression for muscle invasion, metastasis and survival were investigated, as was the possible correlation between the expression of the two proteins. The proportion of S100A4-positive cancer cells in pT2 tumors (53%) was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in pTa (38.7%) or pT1 (40.9%) tumors; there was no difference between pTa and pT1. The results were similar for MMP-14 expression, which was significantly correlated with S100A4 expression (r=0.360, p<0.001). S100A4 expression predicted metastasis-free survival (p=0.009), but not cause-specific survival. The results implicated S100A4 in the early steps of muscle invasion via MMP-14, but not for mucosal invasion. S100A4 is therefore a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer, and its expression is a risk factor for muscle invasion in patients with superficial tumors. In addition, S100A4 expression may be a useful prognostic factor for metastasis in patients with organ-confined bladder cancer.
Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Experimental and therapeutic medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gefitinib inhibits epidermal growth factor-independent angiogenesis, but the molecular mechanism underlying this inhibition has yet to be defined. Here we show that gefitinib dose-dependently inhibited chemotaxis of endothelial cells toward fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), but not toward vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Gefitinib inhibited lamellipodium formation by endothelial cells induced by FGF-2, but not by VEGF-A. Gefitinib at 10 microM did not inhibit autophosphorylation of FGF receptor 1 or VEGF receptor 2. A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, Fes, has two coiled-coil domains (CCDs) in its N-terminal region. Fes is activated by trans-autophosphorylation through CCD functions. An inactivating mutation in the second CCD abolished FGF-2 activation of Fes, indicating involvement of this CCD in FGF-2-induced Fes activation. Gefitinib-treatment decreased both CCD-independent and FGF-2- or VEGF-A-promoted Fes activity with a maximal decrease at 1 microM. The same results were observed in cells stably expressing kinase-inactive Fes; a dominant negative effect was observed in cells treated with FGF-2, but not with VEGF-A. Taken together, these results indicate that FGF-2 activates Fes via the second CCD, leading to lamellipodium formation and chemotaxis by endothelial cells, and gefitinib may act through Fes as an inhibitor of FGF-2-driven angiogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E1AF is associated with malignant aggressiveness via regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which play pivotal roles in invasion through the degradation of extracellular matrix of tissues surrounding tumors. However, the clinical significance of E1AF and MMPs in patients with prostate cancer is not fully understood. We reviewed 50 tissue samples from patients with T2-3N0M0 prostate cancer who had undergone radical operation. Expression levels of E1AF, MMP-1, -3, -7, -9 and -14 were determined semiquantitatively by immunohistochemistry. The mean +/- SD percentage of E1AF-stained cancer cells was 8.56 +/- 5.22, and it was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the E1AF-immunostaining index of normal cells (1.17 +/- 0.61). E1AF immunostaining index in pT3 (12.74 +/- 4.80) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that in pT2 (5.78 +/- 3.31). Although E1AF expression correlated with that of MMP-7 and MMP-9 (r = 0.47, p < 0.001 and r = 0.41, p = 0.004, respectively), multivariate analysis showed that E1AF correlated with only MMP-7 expression (OR = 5.81, 95% CI = 1.27-26.59, p = 0.023). Our results demonstrated that increased expression of E1AF is involved in tumor aggression of prostate cancer. This finding may be influenced by regulation of MMP-7. We speculate that E1AF is a possible target in treatment and prevention of tumor growth in prostate cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) has high affinity and strong inhibitory activity on apoptosis-related caspase-3. The relationships between expression of XIAP and cleaved caspase-3, and response to neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) remain elusive. The aim was to investigate whether NHT influences with XIAP expression in prostate cancer patients. In addition, the relationship between XIAP expression and apoptosis in patients who did or did not receive NHT was also investigated.
Eighty-three patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy were examined retrospectively and divided into NHT group (n = 40) and non-NHT group (n = 43). Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expressions of XIAP and cleaved caspase-3. The apoptotic cells reconfirmed the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick and labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells.
In the non-NHT group, the proportion of TUNEL-positive cells correlated with expression of cleaved caspase-3 (r = 0.592, P < 0.001), and the expression of XIAP correlated negatively with that of cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL-positive cells (r = -0.464, P < 0.001 and r = 0.431, P = 0.002, respectively). The expression of cleaved caspase-3, but not that of XIAP, was higher in NHT group than non-NHT group (P = 0.017). In the NHT group, there was no significant correlation between XIAP expression and cleaved caspase-3 expression or the proportion of TUNEL-positive cells.
NHT did not influence XIAP expression. We speculate that the inhibition of XIAP expression may reinforce the apoptotic effect of NHT and improve the prognosis in patients with prostate cancer.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The c-Fes protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with growth and differentiation of hematopoietic, neuronal, vascular endothelial and epithelial cell types. In this study, we investigated whether small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of c-Fes expression affected proliferation of the human renal carcinoma cell lines, ACHN and VMRC-RCW. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that c-Fes was expressed in both the cytosol and nuclei of these cells, and siRNA treatment preferentially downregulated c-Fes expression in the cytosol. Knock-down of c-Fes inhibited cellular proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with minimal increase in cell death. c-Fes siRNA treatment also downregulated the phosphorylation of Akt1 on S473 and IKKalpha on T23, and cyclin D1 expression, enhanced the expression of IkappaBalpha, and prevented the nuclear localization of NFkappaB. Treatment with an NFkappaB inhibitory peptide (SN50) also blocked the proliferation and nuclear localization of NFkappaB in these cells. The effect of SN50 treatment was not enhanced by c-Fes siRNA, suggesting that downregulation of c-Fes expression inhibited cell cycle progression through the Akt1/NFkappaB pathway. In contrast to siRNA-mediated knockdown, ectopic expression of either wild-type or kinase-inactive c-Fes in renal carcinoma cells failed to alter their proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Thus, suppression of proliferation resulting from siRNA-mediated knockdown may depend upon an expression of c-Fes protein rather than its kinase activity. Taken together, our results indicate that downregulation of c-Fes expression may be a potential therapeutic strategy for advanced human renal cell carcinoma and inhibition of its kinase activity as an antiangiogenic therapy does not seem to induce the growth of human renal carcinoma cells.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met is associated with malignant aggressiveness and survival in various cancers including bladder cancer. Although phosphorylation of hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met is essential for its function, the pathologic significance of phosphorylated hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met in bladder cancer remains elusive. We investigated the clinical significance of its expression, and its correlation with cancer cell progression-related molecules. The expression levels of 2 tyrosine residues of hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met (pY1234/1235 and pY1349) were examined immunohistochemically in 133 specimens with nonmetastatic bladder cancer. We also investigated their correlation with matrix metalloproteinase-1, -2, -7, and -14; urokinase-type plasminogen activator; E-cadherin; CD44 standard, variant 3, and variant 6; and vascular endothelial growth factor. Expression of phosphorylated hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met was detected in cancer cells, but was rare in normal urothelial cells. Although hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met, pY1234/1235 hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met, and pY1349 hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met were associated with pT stage, multivariate analysis identified pY1349 hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-met expression only as a significant factor for high pT stage. Expression of pY1349 hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met was a marker of metastasis and (P = .001) and cause-specific survival (P = .003). Expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-7, and E-cadherin correlated with pY1349 hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met expression. Our results demonstrated that pY1349 hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met plays an important role in tumor development, and its expression is a significant predictor of metastasis and survival of patients with bladder cancer. The results suggest that these activities are mediated, at least in part, by matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-7, and E-cadherin.