- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a serious problem worldwide. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae isolated from male gonococcal urethritis in Sendai in 2014 and 2015. Furthermore, of all cases, we investigated the clinical efficacy of a single 2-g dose of extended-release azithromycin (AZM-SR) in the treatment of male gonococcal urethritis retrospectively. Sixty N. gonorrhoeae strains in 2014 and 54 strains in 2015 were isolated from male gonococcal urethritis and stored each year. The MIC of AZM was ≥1 mg/L in 4 strains (6.7%) in 2014 and in 13 strains (24.1%) in 2015 and the number of strains having ≥1 mg/L MIC increased significantly (P = 0.016). Microbiological efficacy was evaluated in 32 and 29 of these patients, and the rates of treatment success were 93.8% and 79.3%, respectively. All of the treatment failures were caused by strains having a MIC of AZM of ≥0.5 mg/L. In particular, the increase in the isolates having a MIC of AZM of ≥1 mg/L was remarkable. Therefore, it was thought that the increase in these strains was the reason for the increase in treatment failures in 2015. Because no other drug is effective, it is currently necessary to use AZM-SR to treat gonococcal infections caused by ceftriaxone-resistant strains or patients allergic to ceftriaxone. To prevent a further increase in resistance to AZM, we should not use AZM-SR to treat normal cases of gonococcal infection.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To examine the incidence of postoperative bacteriuria and febrile complications, and to investigate bacterial strains in the urine of patients undergoing holmium laser enucleation of the prostate. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 190 evaluable patients treated with holmium laser enucleation of the prostate at the Gifu University Hospital, Gifu, Japan, between September 2005 and May 2014. All patients presented with lower urinary tract symptoms as a result of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We also evaluated the causative bacteria and compared the findings with the results of preoperative urine cultures. We analyzed the relationship between the emergence of postoperative febrile complications, antibiotic prophylaxis, patient background and surgical procedure. Results: The frequency of bacterial isolation in preoperative and postoperative urine cultures was 41% and 23%, respectively. Preoperatively, Enterococcus faecalis was the most frequently cultured bacteria, second was methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, and third was Escherichia coli. Postoperatively, Enterococcus faecalis was still the most frequently cultured bacteria, whereas the second was Escherichia coli. Risk factors for postoperative bacteriuria were evaluated. Multivariate analysis showed that the rate of postoperative bacteriuria in patients who had taken dutasteride preoperatively was significantly lower than that in the other patients. Risk factors for febrile complications could not be identified. Conclusions: The use of perioperative prophylactic antibacterial agents for holmium laser enucleation of the prostate keeps the rate of postoperative infectious complications low. Dutasteride treatment administered before surgery might reduce the risk of postoperative bacteriuria.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives We treated men with gonococcal urethritis with a single-dose regimen of 1 g of ceftriaxone, which is recommended as the first-line treatment for gonorrhoea in Japan, to determine its microbiological outcomes and tolerability. Methods We enrolled 255 men with gonococcal urethritis and treated them with a single-dose regimen of 1 g of ceftriaxone. We evaluated its microbiological outcomes and tolerability. We also determined ceftriaxone MICs for pretreatment isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae collected from the patients. Results The microbiological efficacy of the ceftriaxone regimen, which was determined between 5 and 9 days after treatment in 111 men based on the Japanese guideline for clinical research on antimicrobial agents in urogenital infections, was 100%. In the 194 men who returned to the clinic between 2 and 41 days after treatment, 191 (98.5%; 95% CI 96.8%–100%) were negative for N. gonorrhoeae after treatment. Ceftriaxone MICs determined for 136 pretreatment isolates obtained from these 194 men ranged from 0.001 to 0.25 mg/L. One isolate persisting after treatment exhibited a ceftriaxone MIC of 0.008 mg/L. For two isolates persisting after treatment, ceftriaxone MICs were not determined. Seven adverse events were observed in 7 (3.2%) of the 220 men treated with the ceftriaxone regimen. Four men had diarrhoea classified as grade 1. Three had urticaria during ceftriaxone administration, with one event classified as grade 1 and two events classified as grade 3. Conclusions A single-dose regimen of 1 g of ceftriaxone was microbiologically effective against gonococcal urethritis and was safe and tolerable.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: We examined four clinical strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GU030113, GU110095, GU110332 and GU110362) isolated between 2000 and 2014 in Japan, exhibiting ceftriaxone MICs of 0.5 mg/L, for mutations of the genes associated with penicillin resistance. Methods: The penA, mtrR, porB1b (penB), ponA and pilQ genes of the strains were sequenced. PBP2s of the strains were aligned to the PBP2s associated with decreased susceptibility to oral cephalosporins, and PBP2s of previously reported strains with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone. Results: GU030113 had PBP2 pattern X with an additional substitution of A502T. GU110095 had PBP2 pattern XXVII. GU110332 had PBP2 pattern XXXIV with an additional substitution of P552S. GU110362 had PBP2 composed of pattern X (amino acid positions 1-291) and pattern V (amino acid positions 292-576). GU030113, GU110095 and GU110332 had deletion of A in the mtrR promoter, G120K and A121D or A121N in PorB1b and L421P in PBP1. GU110362 had A40D in the repressor of MtrR and L421P in PBP1. The strains did not have mutations of pilQ1 and pilQ2. Conclusions: Addition of A502T to PBP2 pattern X in GU030113 and of P552S to PBP2 pattern XXXIV in GU110332 would possibly contribute to decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone. In GU110095 and GU110362, it was suggested that, in addition to their altered PBP2s, the enhanced efflux pump, reduced permeability in the outer membrane, another altered target of β-lactams and/or other mechanisms not identified in the present study might contribute to decreased susceptibility.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To detect microorganisms responsible for male acute urethritis and to define the microbiology of non-gonococcal urethritis. Methods: The present study comprised 424 men with symptoms and signs compatible with acute urethritis. Their urethral swabs and first-voided urine underwent detection of the microorganisms. Demographic characteristics and clinical features of Mycoplasma genitalium-, Ureaplasma urealyticum-, Haemophilus influenza-, adenovirus- or Herpes simplex virus-positive monomicrobial non-gonococcal urethritis, or all-examined microorganism-negative urethritis in heterosexual men were compared with urethritis positive only for Chlamydia trachomatis. Results: Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected in 127 men (30.0%). In 297 men with non-gonococcal urethritis, C. trachomatis was detected in 143 (48.1%). In 154 men with non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis, M. genitalium (22.7%), M. hominis (5.8%), Ureaplasma parvum (9.1%), U. urealyticum (19.5%), H. influenzae (14.3%), Neisseria meningitidis (3.9%), Trichomonas vaginalis (1.3%), human adenovirus (16.2%), and Herpes simplex virus types 1 (7.1%) and 2 (2.6%) were detected. Although some features of monomicrobial non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis or all-examined microorganism-negative urethritis were significantly different from those of monomicrobial chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis, most features were superimposed. Conclusions: Predicting causative microorganisms in men with non-gonococcal urethritis based on demographic and clinical features is difficult. However, the present study provides useful information to better understand the microbiological diversity in non-gonococcal urethritis, and to manage patients with non-gonococcal urethritis appropriately.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: Advanced renal cell carcinoma is treated with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors or tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The effects of these drugs are, however, limited and novel treatment strategies are required. Clear-cell type renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is chemo-resistant, in part, due to expression of multidrug resistance proteins such as p-glycoprotein. Cabazitaxel, a tubulin-binding taxane drug used for castration-resistant prostate cancer, has less affinity for p-glycoprotein compared to docetaxel. In the current study, the effects of docetaxel and cabazitaxel on ccRCC cells were investigated. Materials and Methods: The expression of p-glycoprotein was evaluated in the ccRCC cell lines, Caki-1, KMRC-1 and OS-RC-2 by western blotting. Cells were treated with cabazitaxel or docetaxel, and growth kinetics and tubulin polymerization were determined by the WST-1 assay and cell-based tubulin polymerization assay, respectively. Intracellular drug concentrations were measured by chromatography. AKT activation after treatment was examined by western blotting. Results: All ccRCC cell lines expressed p-glycoprotein. Cabazitaxel inhibited cell growth and induced tubulin polymerization more potently than docetaxel. The intracellular concentration of cabazitaxel was much higher than docetaxel in all cell lines. Both docetaxel and cabazitaxel inhibit AKT phosphorylation at 5 min among three cells. Conclusion: Cabazitaxel inhibits growth of ccRCC cells expressing p-glycoprotein and could thus be possibly used for advanced ccRCC patients in combination with targeted-therapy enhancing their effects.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorafenib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) used for advanced renal cell carcinoma. Treatment with sorafenib prolongs progression-free survival in patients with advanced clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. However, in spite of its therapeutic efficacy, sorafenib causes a wide range of adverse events. Cardiovascular adverse events have been observed when sorafenib was used with targeted agents. Although these adverse events like hypertension, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac ischemia or infarction were manageable with standard medical therapies in most cases, some had a poor clinical outcome. We report three cases of acute myocardial infarction associated with sorafenib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 26-year-old woman with gross hematuria was seen in a previous hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a tumor at the dome of the urinary bladder with invasion outside of the bladder wall. The patient underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TUR-BT). From the result of the pathological examination, the tumor was suggested to be carcinosarcoma of the bladder. The patient was then referred to our hospital for treatment. We performed radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion. Pathological examination of the excised specimen revealed an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor as the basis for immunostaining of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The UroVysion Bladder Cancer Kit requires morphological analysis of 4', 6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained nuclei to identify target cells for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals. Reproducibility and efficiency of target cell selection and counting was evaluated by combining immunofluorescence staining of cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) with DAPI staining. The reactivities to CK7, PCNA, and DAPI were compared between those for different ratios of T24 human bladder carcinoma cells and of cells from the urine of five healthy subjects. Two technicians independently performed five replicate cell counts of urine samples from four bladder cancer patients and one healthy subject. The positive staining rates for CK7 and PCNA were similar to DAPI, but our method showed enhanced inter-observer repeatability and reduced operating time for signal counting. Our proposed method showed better reproducibility and lesser operational time for signal counting than the DAPI method alone.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The acquisition of drug resistance is one of the most malignant phenotypes of cancer and identification of its therapeutic target is a prerequisite for the development of novel therapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in various types of cancer and proposed as potential therapeutic targets for patients. In the present study, we aimed to identify miRNA that could serve as a therapeutic target for taxane-resistant prostate cancer. In order to identify miRNAs related to taxane-resistance, miRNA profiling was performed using prostate cancer PC-3 cells and paclitaxel-resistant PC-3 cell lines established from PC-3 cells. Microarray analysis of mRNA expression was also conducted to search for potential target genes of miRNA. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to examine miRNA binding to the 3'-UTR of target genes. The effects of ectopic expression of miRNA on cell growth, tubulin polymerization, drug sensitivity, and apoptotic signaling pathway were investigated in a paclitaxel-resistant PC-3 cell line. The expression of miR-130a was down-regulated in all paclitaxel-resistant cell lines compared with parental PC-3 cells. Based on mRNA microarray analysis and luciferase reporter assay, we identified SLAIN1 as a direct target gene for miR-130a. Transfection of a miR-130a precursor into a paclitaxel-resistant cell line suppressed cell growth and increased the sensitivity to paclitaxel. Lastly, ectopic expression of miR-130a did not affect the polymerized tubulin level, but activated apoptotic signaling through activation of caspase-8. Our results suggested that reduced expression of miR-130a may be involved in the paclitaxel-resistance and that miR-130a could be a therapeutic target for taxane-resistant prostate cancer patients. Prostate 9999: 1-11, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of various bacterial pathogens isolated from complicated urinary tract infection (UTI) cases, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, the Japanese Association of Infectious Disease, and the Japanese Society of Clinical Microbiology conducted the second nationwide surveillance from January to September 2011. With the cooperation of 42 medical institutions throughout Japan, 1036 strains belonging to 8 clinically relevant bacterial species were collected. Among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain, the vancomycin (VCM) MIC for 5.5% (3/55) of the strains was 2 μg/mL. Ampicillin, VCM, and linezolid were relatively active against 209 Enterococcus faecalis strains. The proportion of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant strains was >20%. The MIC90 of FQs against the 382 Escherichia coli strains was 2-64 mg/L and the proportion resistant to FQs was approximately 30%. However, susceptibility of E. coli to sitafloxacin was still high (MIC90 = 2 mg/L). Fifty-eight (15.2%) of 382 E. coli, 6 (4.5%) of 132 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1 (2.4%) of 41 Klebsiella oxytoca and 4 (6.8%) of 59 Proteus mirabilis strains were suspected of producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. Of 93 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, the proportions resistant to imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin were 21.5%, 4.3%, and 20.4%, respectively. Four strains (4.3%) were found to be multidrug-resistant. In complicated UTI cases, all of MRSA and E. faecalis were susceptible to all anti-MRSA agents. Sitafloxacin was active against other FQ-resistant E. coli strains. The isolation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing and multidrug-resistant strains increased. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma genitalium was detected in 21 (14.1%) of 149 vaginal swab samples and in 1 (0.7%) of 149 throat washing samples from female sex workers during 2013-2014 in Japan. Prevalences of M. genitalium with macrolide resistance-associated 23S rRNA mutations and fluoroquinolone resistance-associated parC alterations were 47.1% and 36.8%, respectively.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Docetaxel is used as the first-line chemotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), but docetaxel resistance occurs in part owing to induction of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) gene. A recently developed taxane-cabazitaxel-has poor affinity for P-gp and is thereby effective in docetaxel-resistant CRPC. It has been recently demonstrated that exosomes in the body fluids could serve as a diagnostic marker because they contain proteins and RNAs specific to the cells from which they are derived. In this study, we aimed to investigate if P-gp in blood exosomes could be a marker to diagnose docetaxel resistance and select a taxoid for patients with CRPC. Exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugation from docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer (PC-3) cells (PC-3R) and their parental PC-3 cells and from the serum of patients. Silencing of P-gp was performed by small interfering RNA transfection. Protein expression was examined by Western blot analysis. Viability of cells treated with docetaxel or cabazitaxel was determined by water soluble tetrazolium salt (WST) assay. The level of P-gp was higher in exosomes as well as cell lysates from PC-3R cells than in those from PC-3 cells. Cabazitaxel effectively killed PC-3R cells, and MDR1 knockdown improved the sensitivity of PC-3R cells to docetaxel but not to cabazitaxel. The P-gp level in blood exosomes was relatively higher in clinically docetaxel-resistant patients than in therapy-naïve patients. Our results suggest that detection of P-gp in blood exosomes, which is involved in resistance to docetaxel but not to cabazitaxel, could be useful to diagnose docetaxel resistance and select an appropriate taxoid for patients with CRPC-docetaxel or cabazitaxel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment with taxanes for castration-resistant prostate cancer often leads to the development of resistance. It has been recently demonstrated that exosomes present in the body fluids contain proteins and RNAs in the cells from which they are derived and could serve as a diagnostic marker for various diseases. In the present study, we aimed to identify proteins contained in exosomes that could be markers for progression and taxane-resistance of prostate cancer. Exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugation from the culture medium of taxane-resistant human prostate cancer PC-3 cells (PC-3R) and their parental PC-3 cells. Isolated exosomes were subjected to iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis. Exosomes were also isolated from the culture medium by using anti-CD9 antibody-conjugated magnetic beads. Protein expression was knocked down by siRNA transfection followed by analysis of the silencing effects. Proteomic analysis showed that integrin β4 (ITGB4) and vinculin (VCL) were upregulated in exosomes derived from PC-3R cells compared to PC-3 cells. The elevation of ITGB4 and VCL was confirmed in exosomes captured by anti-CD9 antibody from the culture medium of PC-3R cells. Silencing of ITGB4 and VCL expression did not affect proliferation and taxane-resistance of PC-3R cells, but ITGB4 knockdown attenuated both cell migration and invasion and VCL knockdown reduced invasion. Our results suggest that ITGB4 and VCL in exosomes could be useful markers for progression of prostate cancer associated with taxane-resistance, providing the basis for development of an exosome-based diagnostic system.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carcinoma of the penis is rare, and the prognosis of penile cancer with inguinal metastases is extremely poor. Standard chemotherapy for advanced penile cancer has not been established because of its rarity. A case of penile cancer with inguinal metastases that responded well to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin (TIP) is described. A 55-year-old Japanese male visited our hospital for a penile tumor and fixed, 4 cm, right inguinal lymph nodes. Computed tomography and 18F-FDG-PET imaging showed not only right but also left inguinal lymphadenopathy. Penile cancer (clinical stage T3N3M0, 7th edition TNM classification) was diagnosed, and partial penectomy and right inguinal biopsy were performed. The pathological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the penis with right inguinal lymph node metastasis. The inguinal metastases were judged to be unsuitable for radical resection ; and, paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 (day 1), ifosfamide 1,200 mg/m2 (days 1-3), and cisplatin 60 mg/m2 (days 1-3) were given at 3-week intervals as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. After 4 courses of chemotherapy, the inguinal metastases were markedly reduced. He had neutropenia (grade 3) during each course and peripheral neuropathy after 2 courses, but there were no severe complications. The patient underwent bilateral inguinal and pelvic lymphadenectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Pathological examination revealed no viable cells in the resected specimens. The patient remains alive and well with no evidence of recurrence 8 months after this radical treatment. TIP chemotherapy appears to be effective for advanced penile cancer.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ureaplasma parvum, which has been recognised as a coloniser in the male urethra, is detected in some men with non-gonococcal urethritis. In this study, we quantified the 16 S rRNA genes of U. parvum by a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay in first-voided urine from 15 symptomatic and 38 asymptomatic men who were positive only for U. parvum. We also determined the leukocyte counts by automated quantitative urine particle analysis in their first-voided urine. Positive correlations were observed between copies of the 16 S rRNA genes of U. parvum/ml and the leukocyte counts/µl in first-voided urine (p = 0.0019). The loads of ≥10(4) copies of the 16 S rRNA gene/ml, corresponding to ≥5 × 10(3) cells of U. parvum/ml, were significantly associated with the presence of ≥12.5 leukocytes/µl in first-voided urine that might document the presence of inflammatory responses in the urethra. However, a large portion of the subjects (83.0%) had bacterial loads of <5 × 10(3) cells of U. parvum/ml, and 79.5% of them showed <12.5 leukocytes/µl. The ambiguity of the pathogenic role of U. parvum in non-gonococcal urethritis could, in part, be due to its low bacterial loads, which could not give rise to inflammatory responses in the male urethra. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Gifu University HospitalGihu, Gifu, Japan
Hokkaido Memorial Hospital Of UrologySapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan
Gihu, Gifu, Japan
- Department of Microbiology